Obj. I. Investigate the effect of nano-confinement imposed by nanopores on the performance of immobilized lactase.Obj. II. Understand how the physicochemical properties of polymeric nanolayers affect the performance of immobilized lactase.Obj. III. Optimize the performance of lactase via nanoengineered spatial and chemical microenvironments for efficient and sustainable biotransformation of lactose in acid whey.This project fulfills the AFRI EWD goal of "advancing science" by contributing important fundamental knowledge and technological solutions that advance food waste valorization.