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An Investigation into the Formation of Processing Contaminants in Bread from Bread Making Machines


It is known that low levels of toxic contaminants can be generated during the processing of cereal products, particularly at high temperature e.g. during baking. Of these, acrylamide, 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) and ethyl carbamate have received considerable attention because of toxicological concerns for human health.
Bread produced from bread machines can vary significantly from a quality perspective, i.e. in terms of loaf height, volume, colour, texture and taste/flavour, compared to commercial products. Consequently, the parameters controlling this variability, i.e. proof time, heat transfer processes and recipes, could also have a significant impact on the generation of process contaminants such as 3-MCPD, acrylamide and ethyl carbamate.

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The project will aim to determine whether bread produced from domestic bread machines contains significantly higher levels of process contaminants, i.e. 3-MCPD, acrylamide and ethyl carbamate, compared to commercial products.
Bread machines representing different manufacturers, price ranges, and specifications together with a range of bread mixes, will be investigated.
The study will investigate:
Variability between bread machines: The effects on contaminant levels (acrylamide, ethyl carbamate and 3-MPCD) are to be determined both within and between bread machines, under controlled conditions (fixed recipes).
Recipe contributions: The effects on contaminant levels from different recipes will be assessed using a single bread machine.
The effect of oven baking: Dough prepared in a domestic bread machine will be baked in a fan oven and contaminant levels compared.
Contaminant losses during baking: (bread machine and fan oven).
Comparison with commercial practice
Where possible, the baking performance characteristics of loaf height, volume, temperature and crust colour will also be measured.
<p>Find more about this project and other FSA food safety-related projects at the <a href="; target="_blank">Food Standards Agency Research webpage</a>.

RHM Technology, Ltd
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