An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Levels of Arsenic in Rice: The Effects of Cooking


Total arsenic and arsenic speciation was performed on rice that had undergone various
forms of cooking. Basmati, long-grain, polished (white) and wholegrain (brown), as
well as parboiled rice, were investigated. The effect of rinse washing, low volume
(2.5:1 water:rice) and high volume (6:1 water:rice) cooking, as well as steaming, were
investigated. Rinse washing was effective at removing circa. 10% of the total and
inorganic arsenic from basmati rice, but was less effective for other rice types. While
steaming reduced total and inorganic arsenic rice content, it did not do so consistently
across all rice types investigated. Low volume water cooking did not remove arsenic.
High volume water:rice cooking did effectively remove both total and inorganic
arsenic for the long-grain and basmati rice (parboiled was not investigated in high
volume cooking water experiment), by 35% and 45% for total and inorganic arsenic
content, respectively, compared to uncooked (raw) rice.

To reduce arsenic content of cooked rice, specifically the inorganic component, rinse
washing and high volume of cooking water are effective.

More information

The final report, "<a href="; target="_new">Levels of Arsenic in Rice: The Effects of Cooking</A>" is available at Foodbase, an open access repository of the <acronym title="Food Standards Agency"> FSA</acronym>. <P>

Find more about this project and other FSA food safety-related projects at the <a href="; target="_blank">Food Standards Agency Research webpage</a>.

University of Aberdeen
Start date
End date
Funding Source
Project number