An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

The Molecular Basis, and Biological Cost, of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Salmonella Enterica Serovar Paratyphi A.


Specific control measures for enteric fever; vaccination and antibiotic treatment, are designed to limit the spread of Salmonella Typhi (typhoid fever). An increasing number of cases of enteric fever however are being caused by S. Paratyphi A (paratyphoid fever). There is no evidence that typhoid fever protects against paratyphoid fever and so the currently available S. Typhi specific vaccines are not expected to protect against S. Paratyphi A. <P>
As well as a lack of a vaccine there has been an increase in antibiotic resistance. In particular a decrease in susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has been associated with an increase in cases of paratyphoid across Asia. Full fluoroquinolone resistance in S. Paratyphi A, has now emerged and is spreading. The two sequenced isolates of S. Paratyphi A, are very closely related at the nucleotide level and so a detailed analysis of antibiotic resistant and susceptible strains will allow us to investigate all of the genetic events involved in the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in this important human pathogen. Identification of genetic markers has allowed the early detection of resistant S. Paratyphi A strains and collaborative laboratories in China, Pakistan and India are collecting resistant strains as they are isolated. By phenotypic and genetic analysis of these isolates we will identify genetic factors which will be introduced into isogenic mutants using technology developed in the laboratory of principal applicant. This will allow a detailed study of the contribution of different mutations (or gene acquisition) to fluoroquinolone resistance in the S. Paratyphi A background. <P>
The co-applicants expertise in the biology of efflux mechanisms of resistance, and the quality of the two postdoctoral scientists is key to the success of this project which is of fundamental importance to understanding how resistance to the fluoroquinolones, a very important group of antibacterial agents, evolves in Salmonella enterica, an important human and animal pathogen

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Start date
End date
Project number