Objective 1: Identify and characterize microorganisms and microbial genes that can reduce trichothecene contamination of grain-based food and feed. Sub-objective 1.1: Determine the role of natural microbial populations in reducing Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat. Sub-objective 1.2: Identify trichothecene resistance mechanisms in a diversity of trichothecene-producing fungi. Objective 2: Determine the effects of climate change on susceptibility of wheat and corn to contamination by trichothecenes and other Fusarium mycotoxins. Sub-objective 2.1: Evaluate the effects of environmental conditions associated with climate change on susceptibility of wheat and corn to Fusarium infection and trichothecene contamination. Subobjective 2.2: Identify stress-induced changes in plant metabolism and transcription associated with Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol under projected future climate conditions. Objective 3: Determine the genomic diversity of Fusarium Head Blight pathogens and identify species or population-specific differences in host-pathogen interactions, mycotoxin production, or pathogen fitness under different climatic conditions. Sub-objective 3.1: Determine the genomic diversity and population affinities of NX-2 strains in relation to other FHB pathogens in North America and utilize comparative genomics to identify regions of the genome influenced by adaptive evolution. Sub-objective 3.2: Characterize competitive interactions of Fusarium graminearum populations on spring and winter wheat. Sub-objective 3.3: Characterize changes in the aggressiveness and mycotoxin production of FHB species, chemotype groups, and populations in response to different climatic conditions.