Continue to refine and revise methods for determining forage intake and/or dietary selection. Conduct research and gather information on cattle that fit Western rangelands with respect to grazing behavior, forage intake, biological efficiency, and livestock production. Evaluate methods of nutritional intervention that optimizes ruminant livestock production on rangelands. Provide Extension and outreach education in extensive livestock production systems. Provide professional development and mentoring opportunities for committee participants, young scientists, stakeholders, and graduate students.