<p>Objective 1: Elucidate and quantify mechanisms and factors of pathogen and indicator bacteria fate and transport from animal sources to irrigation waters. Evaluate the effects of soil and vegetation properties on parameters of pathogen fate and transport with surface runoff to irrigation water sources. Assess contribution of bottom sediments as potential pathogen reservoirs in agricultural landscapes. Research the fate and transport of pathogen and indicator bacteria in irrigation water delivery systems.</p>
<p>Objective 2: Develop models and computer-based tools to recommend and implement site-specific diagnostics, monitoring, and prediction of the fate and transport of pathogen and indicator bacteria that affect the microbiological condition of irrigation water. Develop bacteria fate and transport components for USDA-ARS hydrologic models to simulate the effect of bottom sediments, periphyton, and bank soils on microbiological quality of surface waters intended for irrigation. Develop a farm-scale irrigation system model that will use site specific environmental and management data to provide input data for quantitative microbial risk assessment of irrigation waters.</p>
Approach: An integrated approach including laboratory research, field research on irrigation systems, and mathematical modeling will be used. Experiments and monitoring will be carried out to (a) evaluate the effects of soil and vegetation properties on pathogen fate and transport with surface runoff to irrigation water sources, (b) understand and quantify pathogen and indicator bacteria fate in potential pathogen reservoirs associated with irrigation systems, such as bottom sediments in surface waters, and biofilms in irrigation equipment, and (b) microbial exchange between these reservoirs and flowing or stagnant waters. Mechanistic models will be developed to allow for (a) analyzing possible changes in pathogen and indicator bacteria concentrations along hydrologic pathways from animal sources to fields, and (b) improving resource allocation to monitor pathogen and indicator bacteria occurrence along the pathways.