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Photodegradation of Aflatoxins M1 and B1 in Highly Turbid Liquid Foods using Short Wave-length Ultraviolet Light


The US food industry is now facing critical changes in response to consumer needs in terms of safety and quality of foods. The risk of contamination by mycotoxins is an important factor in food safety. Mycotoxins are toxic by-products of mold infestation, affecting one quarter of global food and feed crop output (Krska et al. 2008). Food contaminated with mycotoxins, particularly with aflatoxins, a subcategory, can cause sometimes fatal acute illness and are associated with cancer risk. AFM1 can cause DNA damage, chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, and cell transformation depending on the level of exposure (Michlig et al., 2016; Van Egmond, 1989). AFM1 has been designated a group 1 toxin, indicating that it is possibly carcinogenic to humans, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (Sugiyama, Hiraokai, & Sugita-Konishi, 2008; IARC, 2012). Milk is a nutrient containing proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins, which are necessary for human health. Milk and milk products are consumed in large quantities globally, and the presence of AFM1 in milk and milk products poses a health risk. As a result of this, many experimental, clinical, and epidemiological studies have been conducted showing adverse health effects in humans and animals exposed to AFs contamination, depending on exposure (Binder, Tan, Chin, Handl, & Richard, 2007; Fung & Clark, 2004; Sherif et al., 2009). The toxicity caused by multiple mycotoxins can be classified as acute or, in the case of low dose exposure over a long period of time, chronic, leading to cancers and other irreversible effects. The prevalence of AFM1 in raw milk and milk products has been reported in many countries (WHO, 2010). UHT (ultra-high temperature) treatment of milk and liquid milk products is the application of heat to a continuously flowing product using such high temperatures for such time that renders the product commercially sterile at the time of processing. When the UHT treatment is combined with aseptic packaging, it results in a commercially sterile product. UHT treatment is normally in the range of 135-150 °C in combination with appropriate holding times necessary to achieve commercial sterility" (FAO & WHO, 2007). There have been varying reports on the effect of heat either through pasteurization or sterilization on the AFM1 in milk. For example, Studies have shown that there was no significant changes of AFM1 concentration after heat processing (Pasteurization or boiling) or Ultra-high temperature processing (UHT) technique (Galvano et al. 1996).. The above described issues of mycotoxin contamination is a nation-wide problem within USA and needs to be addressed with novel strategies and intelligent research initiatives.ObjectivesThe strategic objective of this research project is to operationally define and engrain within the consortium through disciplined implementation, a holistic Roadmap for accelerating the innovation process in irradiation research for aflatoxins detoxification. This roadmap will guide technology development for contaminant treatment (AFB1, AFM1) by integrating, in a comprehensive framework, key aspects such as customer needs, techno-economic feasibility, process modeling, technology development and validation.The specific objectives of this project are:Perform effective management of all project work and resources;Develop analytical methods for quantification of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFM1) in liquids food such as milk;Determine and verify dose delivery in liquid foods spiked with aflatoxins;Assessment of Cytokine modulation using murine macrophage cell line;Cytotoxicity and cell viability assessment;Aflatoxin induced DNA damage and DNA-adduct assessment;Develop kinetic models using MATLAB

Patras, Ankit
Tennessee State University
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