The ARS and COOPERATOR are collaborating to reduce the risk of financial losses due to low falling number (LFN) for Washington and U.S. wheat farmers through the following specific objectives: 1. Identify varieties with stable FN by performing enzyme assays, FN tests, and statistical analyses of variety trials in environments with PHS- and/or LMA-inducing weather; 2. Develop breeder-friendly selection methods for tolerance; 3. Identify and develop molecular markers linked to LMA and PHS tolerance in wheat; 4. Raise antibodies to wheat alpha-amylases and develop an ELISA assay as a proxy for falling numbers.