Goal associated with study 1: Quantify the concentrations of copper sulfate that produce lethal and behavioral effects on Culex pipiens and Cx tarsalis mosquito larvae. Milestones are: A. Quantification of LD 10 and LD 50 levels of chronic copper sulfate exposure for Cx. pipiens and Cx tarsalis mosquitoes. B. Determination of what concentrations of copper sulfate cause changes in larval mosquito swimming behavior, and discover whether copper exposure affects mosquito neurology via assays of acetylcholinesterase. D. Discovery of whether copper exposure affects the expression of olfaction genes in mosquitoes. E. Production of a publication on each of these areas of new knowledge. E. Completion of Nermeen Raffat Amer's dissertation. Goal associated with study 2: Determine how decomposition patterns of plant functional groups affects secondary productivity of invertebrates. Milestones: A. Quantify nutrient content and release patterns during decomposition of common dominant plants of seasonal wetlands in the Suisun marsh. B. Measure associated effects on invertebrate productivity and water quality. C. Using survey data, produce a model of how wetland plant community structure affects productivity of invertebrates. D. Production of a publication on each of these areas of new knowledge. E. Completion of Katherine Hostetler's senior research thesis. F. Completion of Kyle Phillip's dissertation. Goal associated with Study 3: Discover which size classes of bullfrogs can consume giant garter snakes, and which sizes of bullfrogs are preferred prey of the giant garter snakes. Milestones: A. Determination of sizes of giant garter snakes that are vulnerable to bullfrog predation, and determination of sizes of bullfrogs on which the snakes can feed effectively. B. Produce a model of reciprocal predation that is parameterized for giant garter snakes and bullfrogs, but adaptable to other systems with intraguild predation. C. Describe giant garter snake behavioral interactions with bullfrog prey, including effects of bullfrog stage and size on its anti-predator behavior. E. Production of a publication on each of these areas of new knowledge. E. Completion of senior theses by Jenny Viera and Sam Yuen. F. Completion of Richard Kim's dissertation.