ROADMAP will foster transitions towards prudent antimicrobial use (AMU) in animal production in a large variety of contexts, by favouring a rethinking of antimicrobial decision-systems all along the food supply chain. Even if it is possible to learn from successful experiences, there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution to reduce AMU but various strategies working according to local conditions, defined by social, economic, technical and institutional variables. ROADMAP will develop innovative conceptual approaches within a transdisciplinary and multi-actor perspective to engage with animal health professionals, stakeholders and policy-makers. It will adapt, combine and produce tailored strategies to reduce AMU in diverse production systems in Europe and low- and middle-income countries (pig, poultry, cattle and fish sectors). Main objectives of ROADMAP are 1) to understand why and how AMU varies according to local contexts, by studying knowledge, practice and behaviours of farmers, veterinarians and upstream and downstream industries of the food supply chain; 2) to develop innovative socioeconomic and technical instruments to foster prudent AMU adapted to various production systems, by co-designing integrative strategies with animal health professionals and stakeholders; 3) to evaluate ROADMAP solutions and ensure their impact. Innovative communication, dissemination and exploitation tools will be implemented to reach a large community of end-users. ROADMAP will identify levers and incentives to encourage AMU change, by providing 1) scenarios and recommendations for efficient transitions towards prudent AMU and 2) solutions socially acceptable but also technically and economically feasible. ROADMAP will therefore contribute to the fight against antimicrobial resistance by allowing cross-learning from diverse successful experiences, encouraging a harmonization of AMU reduction trends across Europe and thus favouring a global decrease of AMU in animal production.