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Review and Evaluate the Available Methods of Extraction for Approved Natural Colours in Food and Drink


<p>The colours covered in the review were:</p>

<li>Carotenoids - Carotenes E160a, Annatto, bixin, norbixin E160b, Paprika extract, Capsanthian Capsorubin E160c, Lycopene E160d, Beta-apo-8'-carotenal (C30) E160e, Ethyl ester of beta-apo-8'- carotenoic acid (C30) E 160f, Lutein E161b, Canthaxanthin E161g</li>
<li>Curcumin E100</li>
<li>Cochineal - including carminic acid E120</li>
<li>Chlorophylls - including chlorophyllins and copper analogues E140-141</li>
<li>Beetroot red, betanin E162</li>
<li>Anthocyanins E163</li>
<li>Caramels - Classes I - IV E150a-d</li>
<li>Other - Riboflavins E101i-ii, Vegetable carbon E153, Calcium carbonate E170, Titanium dioxide E171, Iron oxides and hydroxides E172</li>

<p>The main aims were to:</p>

<li>Collate information on existing published methods (literature review) and contact food industry, research organisations and national and international institutions for information on natural colour analysis.</li>
<li>Critically assess methods available to see if they cover a wide range of foods and drinks, their fitness for purpose and whether they are transferable to PA labs.</li>
<li>Identify any gaps in knowledge and recommend future research.</li>

More information

<p>The Agency has commissioned this project to investigate the availability of methods to detect and quantify the levels of permitted natural colours in foods and drinks. This will enable the Agency to ensure the Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADI) for these colours, where set, are not exceeded. In order to monitor the level of these colours in food and drink we need to ensure that there are methods available for future Agency surveys and for Public Analyst laboratories (PA labs).</p>

<p>Although the project is entitled natural colours, some of the colours listed below may not be considered to be natural under labelling legislation or FSA labelling guidance documents.</p>

FERA - Food and Environment Research Agency
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