1). Identify treatments including stacked storage, and conditions that substantially reduce pathogens in manure. 2). Determine the fate and survival of E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecium/faecalis, and fRNA coliphage on vegetables in growth
chamber experiments. 3). Determine conditions that lead to regrowth of pathogens in "compost tea".
A five-strain mixture of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) modified E. coli 0157:H7, and five-strain mix of GFP salmonella, and GFP L. monocytogenes will be used to track the response of microbes to specific conditions, i.e.
manure storage (short and long term), composting (optimal and suboptimal), and alkaline stabilization. Treated manure will be used to amend soils for growing vegetables and herbs, e.g., lettuce, parsley, onion, carrots, basil, and radishes, that require warm or cool season conditions. Survival on harvestable parts will be examined over time, with and without "compost tea" foliar sprays that have a range of microbe populations.