We will directly integrate multi-disciplinary approaches (both traditional and novel) to characterize AMR, including the presence of ARGs, ARBs, resistant phenotypes, and antibiotics. The outputs of this proposal will include developing cost-effective and adaptable tools, and integrated datasets that can link the indicators of AMR and communications to describe and implement best practices for manure management to minimize AMR.The following objectives will be completed, which are aimed at addressing how to improve best practices in swine animal production, and at identifying and evaluating reliable indicators for AMR.Objective 1. Characterize AMR response to manures under varying antibiotic usage and pressures.Objective 2. Identify and compare the underlying mechanisms of action of emerging AMR in organisms under varying antibiotic and metabolite pressures.Objective 3. Evaluate AMR mitigation effectiveness of manure treatment alternatives.Objective 4. Assess indicators (antibiotics, ARGs, and ARBs) of AMR in diverse manures.