1. To better understand the survival kinetics and hydrologic transport characteristics of manure pathogens and their associated fecal indicator bacteria in agricultural watersheds. 1A. Develop a method detection limit for Salmonella in environmental soil, poultry litter, and water samples with quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). 1B. Determine inactivation or die off rates of Salmonella and the fecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli and fecal Enterococcus spp. In field soils under controlled and field conditions. 1C. Determine the hydrologic transport characteristics of manure pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria at the field plot and small zero-order watershed scales. 2. To improve our understanding of the emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases from manures and manure applications. 2A. To measure ammonia and global-change trace gas emissions from land application of poultry litter under different tillage management. 2B. To measure ammonia and global-change trace gas emissions from wetlands receiving nitrogen inputs from pastures.