Antimicrobial resistance presents a problem for both livestock and human health, and ensuring that antibiotics are used strategically and effectively in agriculture is an important component of combatting the emergence of resistance. The goal of this project is to elucidate the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of dairy farmers and veterinarians in New York (NY) regarding antibiotic use and resistance and the knowledge, willingness and abilities amongst them to amend antibiotic use, particularly antibiotics of medical importance. This will be accomplished through the following objectives:Objective 1. Conduct semi-structured in-person interviews of dairy farmers and veterinarians in NY in order to understand the nature of relationships between their attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about antibiotic use and resistance.Objective 2. Conduct a questionnaire-based postal survey of dairy farmers and veterinarians in NY in order to describe and quantify their: (a) current knowledge and attitudes about antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance; (b) attitudes towards improving antibiotic use; (c) willingness to change antibiotic use; and (d) barriers to changing antibiotic use.Objective 3. Identify major sources of variability (i) among dairy farmers and (ii) among veterinarians regarding their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors about antibiotic use and resistance.