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You are here: Home / Plants and Crops / Milho, makka and ya mai: early journeys of Zea mays in Asia Printer Friendly Page
plants and crops
View:  Introduction | Chapter 1 | Chapter 2 | Chapter 3 | Chapter 4 | Chapter 5 | Chapter 6 | Conclusions | References

Click on footnote number to return to reference in document

a National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research,
Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Peoria, IL 61604,
bNational Agricultural Library
USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705.

Chapter 1:Teosinte and mahiz in Mesoamerica

1 H. Garrison Wilkes (1967) Teosinte: the Closest Relative of Maize. Ph.D. dissertation. Bussey Institute, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA

2 John Doebley (1994) Genetics and morphological evolution of maize. Pg 609-614 in The Maize Handbook (ed. M. Freeling & V. Walbot). Springer-Verlag, New York, USA.

3 H. Vibrans & J. G. Estrada Flores (1998) Annual teosinte is a common weed in the valley of Toluca, Mexico. Maydica 43:45-48

4 A. H. Paterson, Y.-R. Lin, Z. Li, K. F. Schertz, J. F. Doebley, et al. (1995) Convergent domestication of cereal crops by independent mutations at corresponding genetic loci. Science 269: 1714-1718.

5 Wilkes op. cit. pg 11.

6 Charles Darwin (1875) Animals and Plants under Domestication. Appleton and Co., New York, USA, Vol. 1, pg 331-332.

7 K. O. Pope, M. E. D. Pohl, J. G. Jones, D. L. Lentz, C. N, et al. (2001) Origin and environmental setting of ancient agriculture in the lowlands of Mesoamerica. Science 292: 1370-1373.

8 Wilkes op. cit. pg 3.

9 Paul Weatherwax (1954) Indian Corn in Old America. MacMillan, New York, USA, pg 14.

10 Wilkes op. cit. and Weatherwax (1954) op. cit.

11 Wilkes op. cit. pg 3.

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Chapter 2 - Turkische Korn in Europe

12John J. Finan (1950) Maize in the Great Herbals. Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.

13J. M. Cohen (editor and translator) (1969) The four voyages of Christopher Columbus, being his own logbook, letters and dispatches with connecting narrative drawn from the Life of the Admiral by his son Hernando Colon and other contemporary historians. Penguin Books, London, UK.

14J. W. Harshberger (1893) Maize: a Botanical and Economic study. Contribution of Botanical Laboratory University of Pennsylvania, vol 1, pg 75-202.

15Weatherwax (1954) op. cit. pg 32.

16ibid. pg 32.

17Cohen op. cit. pg 213.

18Weatherwax (1954) op. cit. pg 48.

19Jack Harlan (1992) Crops and Man, second edition, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, pg 143.

20Harshberger op. cit. pg 156.

21William Brooks Greenlee (translator) (1938) The voyage of Pedro Alvares Cabral to Brazil and India, from contemporary documents and narratives. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, reprinted in 1967 by Kraus, Liechtenstein, pg 29.

22Antonio Pigafetta (1525) Premier Voyage Autour du Monde. Paris, Vol. 1 pg 44, as reported by Berthould Laufer in unpublished notes (undated) from Box 66 "Maize and Mirrors" from the Laufer archive of the Field Museum, Chicago.

23Charles Boxer (1969) Four Centuries of Portuguese Expansion, 1415-1825. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA, pg 71.

24Clements Markham (1878) The Hawkins' voyages during the reigns of Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth, and James I. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, reprinted in 1970 by Burt Franklin, New York, pg 27.

25John Masefield (editor) (1906) The Voyages of William Dampier. Two Volumes. London, UK, pg 387.

26J. C. Beaglehole (editor) (1962) The Endeavor Journal of Joseph Banks, 1768-1771. Two volumes, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, Australia, pg 183.

27Cohen op. cit. pg 213.

28Finan op. cit. pg 156.

29quoted in ibid. pg 151.

30Weatherwax (1954) op. cit. pg 34. Georg Schweinfurth's comment on the 1532 specimen of maize was also reported by Berthould Laufer in unpublished notes (undated) from Box 66 "Maize and Mirrors" from the Laufer archive of the Field Museum, Chicago.

31Finan op. cit. pg 156-157

32Weatherwax (1954) op. cit. pg 37.

33quoted in Finan op. cit. pg 159.

34ibid. pg 164.

35quoted in Weatherwax (1954) op. cit. pg 39

36Finan op. cit. pg 164.

37Rebourg, M. Chastenet, R. Gouesnard, C. Welcker, P. Dubreuil, A. Charcosset (2003) Maize introduction into Europe: the history reviewed in the light of molecular data. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, volume 106, pg 895-903.

38ibid. pg 170-179.

39quoted in ibid. pg 148.

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Chapter 3. Mahindi and milho in Africa

40Alfred Crosby (1972) The Columbian Exchange, Biological Consequences of 1492. Greenwood, Westport, Connecticut, USA, pg 186.

41Harshberger op. cit. pg 88.

42Marvin Miracle (1996) Maize in Tropical Africa, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, USA, pg 285. James McCann (2001) Maize and grace: history, corn, and Africa's new landscapes, 1500-1999, Comparative Studies in Society and History, volume 43, pg 246-272.

43ibid pg 87.

44Robert Brown (editor) (1896) The History and Description of Africa, Leo Africanus [Giovanni Leone] done into English in the year 1600, by John Pory. Three volumes, Hakluyt Society, London, UK, reprint by Burt Franklin, New York, pg 82.

45ibid. pg 95 and 98.

46Miracle op. cit. pg 88.

47Markham (1878) op. cit. pg 130.

48J. D. La Fleur (editor) (2000) Pieter Van der Broecke's Journal of Voyages to Cape Verde, Guinea and Angola, 1605-1612. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, pg. 90.

49P. E. H. Hair, Adam Jones, and Robin Law (editors) (1992) Barbot on Guinea: the Writings of Jean Barbot on West Africa 1678-1712. Two volumes, Hakluyt Society, London, UK, pg 579, 606, 641, 651.

50ibid pg 606 and 674.

51Miracle op. cit. pg 96

52William Foster (1940) Voyages of Sir James Lancaster to Brazil and the East Indies. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, pg 5.

53Charles Boxer (1930) Commentaries of Ruy Freye de Andrada, in which are related his exploits from the year 1619, in which he left this kingdom of Portugal as general of the sea of Ormuz, and coast of Persia, and Arabia, until his death. McBride & Co., New York, USA, pg 11.

54Captain Pasfield Oliver (editor) (1891) The Voyage of Francois Lequat to Rodriguez, Mauritius, Java, and the Cape of Good Hope. Two volumes, Hakluyt Society, London, UK, pg 41.

55J. H. Arrowsmith-Brown (translator and editor) and Richard Pankhurst (annotator) (1991) Prutky's Travels in Ethiopia and Other Countries, Hakluyt Society, London, UK, pg 423.

Oliver op. cit. pg 205.

56Miracle op. cit. pg 96.

57D. B. Grigg (1974) The Agricultural Systems of the World: an Evolutionary Approach. Cambridge University Press, UK, pg 30. According to unpublished notes (undated) of Berthould Laufer from Box 66 "Maize and Mirrors" from the Laufer archive of the Field Museum, Chicago, Georg Schweinfurth dated the introduction of American plants into Egypt to a time after the start of Turkish rule in 1517.

58Gerald Roe Crone (translator and editor) (1937) The voyages of Cadamosto and other documents on Western Africa in the second half of the fifteenth century. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, reprinted in 1967 by Kraus, Liechtenstein, pg 138

59Brown op. cit. pg 975-976.

60Father Francisco Alvarez (1881) Narrative of the Portuguese Embassy to Abyssinia during the years 1520-1527. Translated from Portuguese and notes by Lord Stanley of Alderley. Hakluyt society, London, UK, reprinted by Burt Franklin, New York, pg 21, 32 and 107.

61Joseph Burtt-Davy (1914) Maize: its history, cultivation, handling, and uses. Longmans Green & Co., London, UK, pg 13.

62Arrowsmith-Brown op. cit. pg 192 and 367

63James Theodore Bent (1893) Early Voyages and Travels in the Levant. The diary of Master Thomas Dallam 1599-1600 and extracts from the diaries of Dr. John Covel, 1670-1679. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, reprinted by Burt Franklin, New York, pg 120.

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Chapter 4. Makka in the Middle East and South Asia

64George Watt (1893) A Dictionary of the Economic Products of India, Delhi, India. pg 327.

65M. S. Randhawa (1982) A History of Agriculture in India, eighth to eighteenth Centuries, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India, Volume 2. Berthould Laufer (1924) Tobacco and its use in Asia, Field Museum of Natural History, leaflet 18, pg 57-95. Berthould Laufer (1924) The introduction of tobacco into Europe, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, leaflet 19, pg 97-162.

66John Fryer (1915) A New account of East India and Persia, being nine years' travels, 1672-1681, edited by William Crooke, Hakluyt Society, London, UK.

Charles Fawcett (editor) (1990) The Travels of the Abbe Carre in India and the Near East from 1673 to 1674, two volumes, Asian Educational Services 1990 reprint, New Delhi, India.

67Walter de Gray Birch (editor and translator) (1875-84), The Commentaries of the Great Afonso Dalboquerque, Second Viceroy of India, translated from Portuguese edition of 1774, Hakluyt Society, London, Volume 1, pg. 83 and 92.

68quoted in Crosby op. cit. pg 189.

69Karl H. Dannenfeldt (1968) Leonhard Rauwolf, Sixteenth Century Physician, Botanist, and Traveler. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, pg 230.

70ibid. pg 253.

71Percy Sykes (1902) Ten Thousand Miles in Persia or Eight Years in Iran, Scribners, New York, USA, pg 46 and 112.

72Watt op. cit. pg 327.

Parashuram Krishna Gode (1961) Studies in Indian Cultural History, Visveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute, Hoshiarpur, India, Pg 284-294.

Brian Houghton Hodgson (1880) Miscellaneous Essays Relating to Indian Subjects. Two volumes, Trubner & Co., London, UK.

73Hodgson (1880) op. cit.

74Charles Boxer (1985) Portuguese Conquest and Commerce in Southern Asia, 1500-1750. Variorum reprints, London, UK, pg 50.

75quoted in Richard Hall (1996) Empires of the Monsoon, a History of the Indian Ocean and its Invaders, Harper Collins, London, UK, pg 195.

76ibid. pg 221.

77Aurthur Coke Burnell and P. A. Tiele (1884) The Voyage of John Huyghen van Linschoten to the East Indies, from the old English translation of 1598, Hakluyt Society, London UK, reprinted by Burt Franklin, New York, pg 178.

78quoted in Ram Chandra Prasad (1965) Early English Travellers in India. Motilal Banarasi Dass, Delhi, India, pg 47.

79Burnell op. cit. pg 95.

80quoted in Sanjay Subrahmanyam (1993) The Portuguese Empire in Asia, 1500-1799: a Political and Economic History, Longman, London and New York, pg 168.

81Randhawa op. cit. pg 337-340.

82H. A. R. Gibb (translator) (1969) Ibn Battuta:Travels in Asia and Africa, Augustus Kelley, New York, USA.

83Tapan Raychaudhuri and Irfan Habib (1983) The Cambridge Economic History of India, volume 1: 1200-1750, Cambridge, UK, pg 427-428.

84ibid. pg 145.

85Henry Yule (1929) The Travels of Marco Polo, the Complete Yule-Cordier Edition, two volumes, reprinted in 1993 by Dover, New York, USA, Volume 2, pg 438.

86Randhawa op. cit. pg 139-146.

87ibid. pg 186.

Irfan Habib (1963) Agrarian System of Mughal India, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, India, pg 50.

88Watt op. cit. pg 334.

89Habib op. cit. pg 38-39.

90Gode op. cit. pg 284-294.

91Daniel Wright (1877) History of Nepal, translated from the Parbatiya by Munshi Shew shunker sing and Pandit Sri Guruanand, with an introductory sketch of the country and people of Nepal by the editor. Ranjan Gupta, Calcutta, India, pg 190.

92Randhawa op. cit. pg 105-112 and 181.

93ibid. pg 186.

94Burnell op. cit.

95Antonio Monserrate (1922) The commentary of father Monserrate, SJ, on his journey to the court of Akbar. Translated from Latin by J.S. Hoyland, notes by S. N. Banerjee, Oxford University Press, London, UK, reprinted in 1992 by Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, India, pg 79-80.

96Philip Baldaeus (1672) A true and exact description of the most celebrated East-India coasts of Malabar and Coromandel and also of the Isle of Ceylon. First printed in Amsterdam 1672, English translation in 1703, facsimile reprint in 2000 Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, India.

Thomas Bowrey (1905) A geographical account of countries around the Bay of Bengal, 1669-1679. Edited by R. C. Temple, Hakluyt Society, London, reprinted in 1967 by Kraus, Liechtenstein.

Archibald Constable (translator and editor) (1891) Francois Bernier, Travels in the Mogul Empire. London, UK, reprinted in 1968, Chand & Co. New Delhi, India.

Fryer op. cit.

Fawcett op. cit.

William Foster (1921) Early Travels in India, 1583-1619. Oxford University Press, London, UK.

William Foster (1930) A New Account of the East Indies by Alexander Hamilton. Two Volumes. Argonaut Press, London, UK.

Edward Grey (editor) (1892) The Travels of Pietro della Valle in India, 1623-1626, from 1664 English translation of G. Havers. Two volumes. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, reprinted by Burt Franklin, New York.

C. Eckford Luard (editor) (1927) The Travels of Fray Sebastian Manrique, 1629-1643, a translation of the Itinerario de las Missiones Orientales. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, reprinted in 1967 by Kraus, Liechstenstein.

W. H. Moreland (editor) (1931) Relations of Golconda in the Early 17th Century. Hakluyt Society, London, UK.

Jean Baptice Tavernier (1889) Travels in India. Two volumes. MacMillan, London, UK, reprinted in 1976 by Al-Biruni, Lahore, Pakistan.

Richard Carnac Temple (editor) (1914) The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608-1667, Volume 2, Travels in Asia, 1628-1634. Hakluyt society, London, UK. .

97Baldeus op. cit. pg 795.

98Dilli Raman Regmi (1965) Medieval Nepal. Four volumes. Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, Calcutta, India, pg 494.

C. Wessels (1924) Early Jesuit Travellers in Central Asia, 1603-1721 A. D. Mattinus Nijhoff, The Hague, Netherlands, pg 317.

99Clements Markham (1879) Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa, second edition. Trubner & Co. London, UK. pg 19.

100Samuel Turner (1800) An account of an embassy to the court of the Teshu Lama, in Tibet, by Captain Samuel Turner; to which are added views taken on the spot by lieutenant Samuel Davis; and some observations botanical, mineralogical, and medical, by Mr. Robert Saunders. London, UK, reprinted in 1971 by Manjusri Publishing house, New Delhi, India, pg 395.

101William Griffiths (1865) Political Missions to Bootan, containing Ashley Eden, Pemberton, and W. D. Griffiths journal of Mission to Bootan (1837-1838), Bengal Secretariat Office, Calcutta.

102Colonel Kirkpatrick (1811) Account of the kingdom of Nepaul, being the substance of observations made during a mission to that country 13 February to 3 April in the year 1793. London, UK, reprinted in 1986 Asian Educational services, New Delhi, India, pg 93

103Francis Buchanan (1807) Journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara, and Malabar. Three volumes. East India company, London, UK, Volume 2, pg 177.

104ibid. Volume 1, pg 355.

105Francis Buchanan (1819) An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal. Reprinted in 1990 by Asian Educational Services, pg 73 and 284

106ibid. pg 312.

107Francis Buchanan (1923) Journal of Francis Buchanan kept during the survey of the districts of Patna and Gaya in 1811-1812. Edited by V. H. Jackson, reprinted in 1989 by Asian Educational Services, pg 67.

108Henry T. Colebrooke (1806) Remarks on the husbandry and internal commerce of Bengal, London, pg 34.

109Brian Houghton Hodgson (1874) Essays on the language, literature, and religion of Nepal and Tibet. Reprinted in 1991, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, India, pg 87

110Hodgson (1880) op. cit. pg 143 and 144.

111Joseph Dalton Hooker (1855) Himalayan Journals, or Notes of a Naturalist in Bengal, the Sikkim and Nepal Mountains, etc. Two volumes. John Murray, London, UK, Volume 1, pg 173.

112ibid. Volume 2 pg 47 and Volume 1, pg 275.

113ibid. Volume 2 pg 96.

114ibid. Volume 2 pg 309.

115from La Loubere (date unknown) Du Royaume de Siam, Paris, quoted by Berthould Laufer in unpublished notes (undated) from Box 66 "Maize and Mirrors" from the Laufer archive of the Field Museum, Chicago.

116Father Sangermano (edited by John Jardine, 1893) The Burmese Empire a Hundred Years Ago, Westminster, London, pg 190, 192, 193, 194 and 213.

117Horace Hayman Wilson (1841) Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir; in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz and Bokhara from 1819-1825, by William Moorcroft and George Trebeck Two volumes. John Murray, London, UK, Volume 2, pg 379.

118Andrew L. Adams (1994) The Western Himalayas and Kashmir, travels in 1849. Jay Kay Book House, New Delhi, India, pg 62 and 153.

119A. D. Frederickson (1889) Ad Orientem, London, UK, pg 75.

120William Roxburgh (1832) Flora Indica, Description of Indian Plants. Serampere, Thacker and Co. Calcutta, India, Volume 3, pg 568.

121B. H. Powell (1868) Handbook of the Economic Products of the Punjab, volume 1, pg 231, quoted by Berthould Laufer in unpublished notes (undated) from Box 6 "Maize and Mirrors" from the Laufer archive of the Field Museum, Chicago.

122Watt op. cit. pg 335.

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Chapter 5: Yu mai in China

123Berthould Laufer (1907) The introduction of maize into eastern Asia. Proceedings of the International Congress of Americanists, fifteenth session, volume 1:223-257.

Ping-ti Ho (1955) The introduction of American food plants into China. American Anthropologist 57:191-201.

124E. Bretschneider (1887) Medieval researches from eastern Asiatic sources, fragments towards the knowledge of the geography and history of central and western Asia from the 13th to the 17th century. Two volumes, reprinted in 1967, Barnes & Noble, New York, USA, pg 224.

125ibid. pg 294.

126Berthold Laufer (1919) Sino-Iranica: Chinese contributions to the history of civilization in ancient Iran. Field Museum of Natural History Anthropological Series 15: 185-630, pg 190.

127ibid. pg 229.

128C. Wessels (1931) An Account of Tibet: the Travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia, 1712-1727. Routledge, London, UK, pg 189.

129R. Huc and G. Gabet (1966) Travels in Tartary, Thibet and China, 1844-1846. Two volumes. Translated by William Hazlitt, reprinted in 1988 by Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, India, Volume 2 pg 377.

130Wilson (1841) op. cit.Volume 1 pg 369.

131Yule (1929) op. cit. Volume 1 pg 189.

Peter Hopkirk (1980) Foreign Devils on the Silk Road, the Search for the Lost Cities and Treasures of Chinese Central Asia. University of Massuchusetts Press, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA, pg 37.

132Yule (1929) op. cit Volume 1 pg 195.

133H. H. P. Deasy (1901) In Thibet and Chinese Turkestan, being the record of three years' exploration. Fisher Unwin, London, England, UK, pg 306.

Sven Hedin (1899) Through Asia. Harper and Brothers, New York, USA,

George Henderson and Allan O. Hume (1873) Lahore to Yarkand. Reeve and Co, London, England, UK, pg 339.

Aurel Stein (1903) Sand-buried ruins of Khotan, personal narrative of a journey of archaeological and geographical exploration in Chinese Turkestan. Fisher Unwin, London, UK.

Aurel Stein (1912) Ruins of Desert Cathay, personal narrative of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China. Two volumes, McMillan, reprinted in 1968 by Greenwood Press, New York, USA.

134Graham Sandberg (1904) The Exploration of Tibet, its History and Particulars from 1623 to 1904. Thacker & Co. London, UK, pg 239.

135Hedin op. cit. Volume 2 pg 731.

Aurel Stein (1907) Ancient Khotan, detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan. Two Volumes, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK. Volume 1 pg 119.

136Ho (1955) op. cit. pg 195.

137ibid. pg 194 and 197.

E. Bretschneider (1882) Notes on Chinese botany from native and western sources. Botanicon Sinicum. Trubner & Co., London, UK.

138Laufer (1907) op. cit. pg 239.

139quoted in Ping-ti Ho (1959) Studies on the Population of China, 1368-1953. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. pg 142-143.

140Laufer (1907) op. cit. pg 233

141Ho (1955) op. cit. pg 197

142Laufer (1907) op. cit. pg 248

143Paul Weatherwax (1923) The History of the Maize Plant. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA, pg 18. Matthieu Bonafous (1836) Histoire Naturelle, Agricole et Economique du mais, Paris, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, USDA.

144H. R. Davies (1909) Yun-nan, the Link between India and the Yangtze. Cambridge University Press, London, UK.

Alexander Hosie (1897) Three Years in Western China. Second edition, George Philip and Son, London, UK.

Ernest Henry Wilson (1913) A Naturalist in Western China. Second edition, two volumes, Metheun & Co., London, UK, reprinted in 1986 by Cadogan Books, London.

145Davies (1909) op. cit. pg 165.

146Wilson (1913) op. cit. pg 150-152.

147Juan Gonzalez de Mendoza (1853-1854) History of the great and mighty kingdom of China and the situation thereof. Reprinted from the translation of R. Parke 1588 and edited by George Staunton, two volumes, Hakluyt Society, London, UK, reprinted by Burt Franklin, New York.

148Laufer (1907) op. cit.

Burtt-Davy (1914) op. cit.

Ho (1955) op. cit.

Gode (1961) op. cit.

E. N. Anderson (1988) The Food of China. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Arturo Warman (2003) Corn and Capitalism. translated by Nancy Westrate, U.N. Carolina Press, Chapel Hill and London.

149Charles R. Boxer (1953) South China in the Sixteenth Century, being the Narratives of Galeote Pereira, Fr. Gaspar da Cruz, Fr. Martin de Rada, 1550-1575. Hakluyt Society, London, UK.

150Mendoza (1853) Volume 1 pg 15.

151Gaspar da Cruz (1570) Tractado em que se contam muito por extenso as cousas da China, com suas particularidades, e assi do reyno de Ormuz. Reprinted from the 1570 edition by Portucalense Editora, Barcelona, Spain. Excerpt translated into modern Portuguese and into English by Mercedes Panizzi.

Boxer (1953) op. cit. pg 120.

152Mendoza (1853) op. cit. Volume 1 pg 82-84.

153Boxer (1953) op. cit. pg 277.

154Mendoza (1853) op. cit. Volume 2 pg 57.

155Boxer (1953) op. cit. pg 289.

156Charles R. Boxer (1968) Fidalgos in the Far East, 1550-1770. Oxford University Press, London, UK, reprint of second revised edition of 1948, pg 3.

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Chapter 6: Maize in the southeast Asian archipelago and Australia

157Boxer (1968) op. cit. pg 7.

158Foster (1930) pg 142.

159Alfred Russel Wallace (1890) The Malay Archipelago. Revised second edition, reprinted in 2000, Periplus Ltd., Singapore, pg 231.

160M. H. Lecomte (1922) Flore generale de L'Indo-Chine. Masson, Paris, France, pg 217.

161Mansel Longworth Dames (1918) The book of Duarte Barbosa, Volumes 1 and 2, an account of the countries bordering the Indian ocean and their inhabitants, 1518. Translation of Portuguese text first published in 1812. Hakluyt Society, London, UK, pg xxxiii.

162Henry Stanley (editor) (1868) The Philippine Islands, Moluccas, Siam, Cambodia, Japan, and China, at the close of the sixteenth century by Antonio de Morga. Hakluyt society, London, UK, pg 271.

Henri Yule (editor) (1886) The Diary of William Hedges, Esq. during his agency in Bengal; as well as on his voyage out and return overland, 1681-1687. Three volumes, Hakluyt Society, London, England, UK, volume 2 pg cccxxxii.

Oliver (1891) op. cit. pg 229.

163William Dampier (1729) A New Voyage Round the World. James Knapton, london, UK, reprinted in 1927 by Argonaut Press, paperback edition, Dover, New York, USA, pg 15.

Foster (1930) op. cit. pg 43.

164Masefield (1906) op. cit. pg 292.

165ibid. pg 498

166Wallace op. cit pg 151.

167Yule (1886) op. cit. pg cccxxxii.

168Beaglehole op. cit.Volume 2 pg 159 and 206.

169John Francis Galaup de la Perouse (1799) A Voyage Around the World. Robinson Press, London, UK, pg 238.

170John Crawfurd (1856) A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands & Adjacent Countries, London, reprint (1971) Oxford University Press, London, pg 237.

171Wallace op. cit.

172Kenneth Gordon McIntyre (1977) The Secret Discovery of Australia, Portuguese Ventures 250 Years before Captain Cook. Pan Books, Sydney, Australia, pg 51.

173Journal of Abel Tasman (1642-1643) English translation of Huydecooper copy of Tasman's journal, unpaginated, handwritten, in the Special Collections of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. The manuscript is described by Cheryl Evans in the Exhibition Guide to the Heritage Collection 2003, published by the State Library.

174M. Aurosseau (editor) (1968) The Letters of F. W. Ludwig Leichhardt. Three volumes, Hakluyt Society, London, UK, Volume 3 pg 843.

Colin Roderick (1988) Leichhardt, the Dauntless Explorer, 1844-1845. Angus and Robertson, Sydney, Australia.

175Exhibition Guide to Dare to Know 1998, published by the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

176Alan Frost (1993) Sir Joseph Banks and the transfer of plants to and from the South Pacific, 1786-1798. The Colony Press, Melbourne, Australia, pg 12.

177ibid. pg 29.

178Jean Edgecomb (1991) Norfolk Island, South Pacific, Island of History and Many Delights. Sydney, Australia, pg 15.

Philip Gidley King (1791) records of maize from The First Fleet Journals, Special Collections of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

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179C. R. Stonor and Edgar Anderson (1949) Maize among the hill peoples of Assam. Annals Missouri Botanical Garden 36:355-404.

E. D. Merrill (1950) Observations on cultivated plants with reference to certain American problems. Ceiba 1:3-36.

Paul C. Mangelsdorf and Douglas L. Oliver (1951) Whence came maize to Asia? Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University 14:263-291.

Weatherwax (1954) op. cit.

Ho (1955) op. cit.

Laufer (1907) op. cit.

180Jared Diamond (1997) Guns, Germs, and Steel. The Fates of Human Societies. W. W. Norton & Co., New York, USA.

181Nepal Agricultural Research Council (1997) Twenty-five Years of Maize Research in Nepal (1972-1997) Silver Jubilee. National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal.

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