Agricultural Conservation Practices and Related Issues: Reviews of the State of the Art and Research Needs

Conservation Effects Assessment Bibliography: Agricultural
Conservation Practices and Related Issues: Reviews of the State of
the Art and Research Needs

The Water
Quality Information Center
at the National Agricultural
Library

Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of
Agriculture


Agricultural Conservation Practices and
Related Issues: Reviews of the State of the Art and Research
Needs




A Conservation Effects
Assessment Bibliography






Special Reference Briefs
Series no. SRB 2004-04






Compiled by

Joseph R. Makuch

Stuart R. Gagnon

Ted J. Sherman



Water Quality Information
Center


National Agricultural
Library


Agricultural Research
Service


U.S. Department of
Agriculture




1815 citations


Water Quality Information Center logo



National Agricultural
Library                    Beltsville,
Maryland  20705-2351               August
2004










National Agricultural Library
Cataloging Record:




Makuch, Joseph
R.


Agricultural
conservation practices and related issues : reviews of the state of
the art and research needs.


(Special reference
briefs ; NAL-SRB. 2004-04)


1. Agricultural
conservation--United States--Bibliography.


2.
Agriculture--Research--United States--Bibliography.


I. Gagnon, Stuart R. II.
Sherman, Ted J. III. Water Quality Information Center (U.S.) IV.
Title.


aZ5071.N3 no.
2004-04




Abstract



Agricultural Conservation
Practices and Related Issues: Reviews of the State of the Art and
Research Needs
, Special
Reference Brief 2004-04. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National
Agricultural Library.




This bibliography is one in a
multi-volume set developed by the Water Quality Information Center
at the National Agricultural Library in support of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture's Conservation Effects Assessment Project
(CEAP). This bibliography is a guide to recent literature covering
agricultural conservation practices and associated issues. This
bibliography provides people working in the area of agriculture and the environment
with information resources to help them design and implement
productive agricultural systems that foster environmental
protection and improvement.




Keywords: conservation practices,
agricultural research, objectives, new methods, conservation
programs, Farm Bill




Mention of trade names or
commercial products in this report is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or
endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.




To ensure timely distribution,
this report has been reproduced essentially as supplied by the
authors.  It has received minimal publication editing and
design.  The authors' views are their own and do not
necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture.

The
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in
all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color,
national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs,
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To file a complaint of
discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W,
Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington D.C.
20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal
opportunity provider and employer.




August 2004




TABLE OF CONTENTS


Preface 1
About This Bibliography 2
Agricultural Conservation Practices and Related Issues: Reviews of the State of the Art and Research Needs 3
Subject Index 325
Author Index 375

 

Preface

This is one in a series of bibliographies
developed by the Water Quality Information Center at the National
Agricultural Library in support of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture's Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP).
 



The purpose of CEAP is to study
the environmental effects of conservation practices implemented
through various U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation
programs. CEAP will evaluate conservation practices and management
systems related to nutrient, manure, and pest management; buffer
systems; tillage; irrigation and drainage practices; wetland
protection and restoration; and wildlife habitat establishment.
More information about CEAP is available at
www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/nri/ceap/.

The
current titles in this series are

  • Environmental Effects of U.S.
    Department of Agriculture Conservation Programs

    Special Reference Brief 2004-01
  • Implementing Agricultural
    Conservation Practices: Barriers and Incentives

    Special Reference Brief 2004-02
  • Data and Modeling for
    Environmental Credit Trading

    Special Reference Brief 2004-03
  • Agricultural Conservation
    Practices and Related Issues: Reviews of the State of the Art and
    Research Needs

    Special Reference Brief 2004-04

Each
of the documents, as well as bibliographies on similar topics, is
accessible online from the Water Quality Information Center
at
www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/.

The
center gratefully acknowledges the following organizations who
granted permission to use their citations and/or abstracts in these
bibliographies.

In
addition, support from the Natural Resources Conservation Service
for the development of these bibliographies is greatly appreciated.
 




Joseph R. Makuch, Ph.D.

Coordinator

Water Quality Information
Center

[Table of Contents]


About This
Bibliography




This bibliography is a guide to
recent literature covering agricultural conservation practices and
associated issues. It is intended to provide people working in the
area of agriculture and the environment with information resources
they can use to help design and implement productive agricultural
systems that foster environmental protection and improvement. A
range of conservation practices and environmental issues associated
with agricultural landscapes is covered.  




Rather than being a listing of the
many individual studies done on conservation practices, this
bibliography focuses on literature reviews, summary articles, white
papers and books -- documents where information has already been combined and
synthesized from many sources. Taken as a whole, the bibliography
is an overview of the current understanding of conservation practices, including the
research needed to improve practices.




There are 1,815 citations with
abstracts (when available) in this bibliography. Citations were
found through literature searches of the AGRICOLA database,
produced by the National Agricultural Library, and several
commercial bibliographic databases. In addition, Water Quality
Information Center staff created citations for documents that were
located by other means.  Documents cited were published from
1993 through 2003 (with a few included from early 2004).  URLs
are provided for online documents that are freely available. The
inclusion or omission of a particular citation does not imply
endorsement or disapproval.




Citations are arranged
alphabetically by title. To locate information on a specific topic,
for example, conservation tillage, use the subject index beginning
on page 325. To ensure that you see all the relevant citations for
a particular topic, be sure to also look up related terms in the
subject index, for example, no till, ridge till, etc., from the
example above. An author index is also available beginning on page
375.




To obtain a specific document,
please contact your local library. Information on how to obtain
documents from the National Agricultural Library can be found
at
www.nal.usda.gov/ddsb/.


[Table of Contents]





Agricultural
Conservation Practices and Related Issues:


Reviews of the State of the
Art and Research Needs

1. 1998 Literature Review.

Water Environment
Research
70 (4): 385-976.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1047-7624

Descriptors:  
environmental monitoring/ waste
treatment/ wastewater treatment/ agricultural wastes/ sediment
transport/ groundwater/ nonpoint source pollution


Abstract: This issue is comprised of 46 different
reviews on environmental topics in six categories: Measurement and
Monitoring of Pollutants; Treatment Systems; Industrial Wastes;
Hazardous Wastes; Fate and Effects of Pollutants; and
Administration.

2. Abatement of volatile organic sulfur
compounds in odorous emissions from the bio-industry.


Smet, E and Van Langenhove,
H


Biodegradation 9 (3-4):  273-284. (1998);
ISSN: 0923-9820

Descriptors:  
volatile organic sulfur compounds:
abatement, pollutants/ biodegradation/ biotechnology/ odorous
emissions: treatment/ wastewater treatment


Abstract: Compounds of interest in this work are
methanethiol (MeSH), dimethyl sulfide (Me2S), dimethyl polysulfides
(Me2Sx) and carbon disulfide (CS2) since these volatiles have been
identified as predominant odorants in the emission of a wide range
of activities in the bio-industry (e.g. aerobic waste water
treatment plants, composting plants, rendering plants). In these
processes, the occurrence of volatile organic sulfur compounds is
mainly related to the presence of anaerobic microsites with
consecutive fermentation of sulfur containing organic material
and/or to the breakdown of the latter due to thermal heating. Due
to the chemical complexity of these low-concentrated waste gas
streams and the high flow rates to be handled, mainly
biotechnological techniques and scrubbers can be used to control
the odour emission. When using biofilters or trickling filters,
inoculation with specific microorganisms and pH-control strategies
should be implemented to optimise the removal of volatile organic
sulfur compounds. In scrubbers, chemical oxidation of the volatile
organic sulfur compounds can be obtained by dosing hypochlorite,
ozone or hydrogen peroxide to the scrubbing liquid. However,
optimal operational conditions for each of these abatement
techniques requires a further research in order to guarantee a
long-term and efficient overall odour abatement.


© Thomson

3. Abiotic Behaviour of Organic
Micropollutants in Soils and the Aquatic Environment: A Review,
Partitioning (Part I).


Stangroom, S. J.; Lester, J. N.;
and Collins, C. D.


Environmental
Technology
21 (8): 845-863.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
TD1.E59;

ISSN: 0959-3330

Descriptors:  
Path of Pollutants/ Organic Matter/
Organic Carbon/ Humic Acids/ Sorption/ Colloids/ Clays/ Soil
Contamination/ Water Pollution/ Herbicides/ Humic matter/ Sorption/
Pollution (Soil)/ Pollution (Water)/ Clay/ Aquatic environment/
Sediments/ Pesticides/ triazine/ isoproturon/ Sources and fate of
pollution/ Water Quality/ Environmental action


Abstract: Recent research has confirmed the
significance of organic carbon (OC) as the key sorbent for
hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOC), as well as for many polar
compounds. However, the triazine herbicides exhibit a variable
affinity for soil organic matter (SOM) which is attributed to the
extent of humification of the organic fraction. Charge transfer
mechanisms are important for triazine sorption to OC and either
proton or electron transfer may account for the reaction mechanism
with humic acids. For many uron herbicides (e.g. chlorotoluron,
metabromuron, chloroxuron, defenoxuron), sorption correlates with
SOM. However, specific interactions between uron herbicides and a
limited quantity of active constituents within SOM have also been
proposed to explain deviations from sorption linearity at low
herbicide relative concentration. Other studies indicate that
isoproturon sorbs to organic colloids in solution and that a
sorption threshold to SOM may be operative. Below the threshold,
isoproturon appears to sorb predominantly to clays, indicating the
presence of a limited number of 'active' sorptive sites within clay
minerals. Research suggests that pesticide interactions with clay
minerals may be influenced by near-surface clay geometry; the
accessibility of the sorbing region of the sorbate to the active
site of the clay; the identity of exchangeable cations on the clay
and solution electrolytes. These recent studies indicate that
interactions between micropollutants and soils and sediments often
need to be evaluated on a compound-specific basis. This is
especially the case for polar compounds which may partition to
these environmental phases by diverse mechanisms.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

4. Abiotic Behaviour of Organic
Micropollutants in Soils and the Aquatic Environment: A Review,
Transformations (Part II).


Stangroom, S. J.; Collins, C. D.;
and Lester, J. N.


Environmental
Technology
21 (8): 865-882.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
TD1.E59;

ISSN: 0959-3330

Descriptors:  
Fate of Pollutants/ Organophosphorus
Pesticides/ Photochemistry/ Degradation/ Water Pollution/ Soil
Contamination/ Organic Matter/ Carbamate Pesticides/ Pesticides
(Organophosphorus) / Decomposition/ Pollution (Water)/ Pollution
(Soil)/ Pesticides (Organonitrogen)/ Pesticides/ Herbicides/
Chemical reactions/ Photodegradation/ Pyrethroids/ Carbamate
compounds/ Organophosphorus compounds/ Hydrolysis/ Aquatic
environment/ triazine/ urea/ Sources and fate of pollution/ Water
Quality/ Environmental action


Abstract: The abiotic processes contributing to the
transformation of pesticides in soils and natural waters are
reviewed for pyrethroid, carbamate and organophosphorus (OP)
insecticides; and the urea, chlorophenoxy and s-triazine
herbicides. The review aims to highlight the known abiotic
thermochemical and photochemical reactions that may contribute to
the overall degradation of pesticides, and to identify the
environmental factors influencing degradation pathways and rates of
transformation. Studies indicate that transformation by hydrolysis
is restricted to alkaline pH for pyrethroids, OPs, carbamates and
benzoylphenylureas, and limited to acid pH for sulphonylureas. OPs
are also susceptible to catalysed hydrolysis by certain cations and
mineral-bound +III and +IV metal ions. Little or no hydrolysis of
triazines occurs in the water column or groundwaters, although
triazines may be subject to hydrolysis in certain soils at acid pH.
Tests indicate that alkaline hydrolysis is the most significant
abiotic process for mono-substituted carbamates, and that
photosensitised degradation is the most important abiotic pathway
many OPs. Certain pyrethroids, triazines and urea pesticides are
susceptible to photodegradation. However, the potential for
photosensitised transformation for the majority of pesticide
classes is uncertain (e.g. ureas, carbamates, triazines and CPHs).
Tests for sensitised photodegradation need to be extended and
undertaken in mixtures of natural sensitisers because of the
variable effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM). There appears
to be insufficient information regarding the significance of
hydrolysis, photochemical degradation, and metal/mineral-catalysed
transformation in the environment for the majority of these
extensively used pesticide classes.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

5. Accounting for seasonal nitrogen
mineralization: An overview.


Vigil, M. F.; Eghball, B.; Cabrera,
M. L.; Jakubowski, B. R.; and Davis, J. G.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
57 (6): 464-469.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
56.8-J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3].

Notes: Special section: Nutrient management in the
United States. Paper presented at a joint symposium of the Soil and
Water Conservation Society and the Soil Science Society of America
held August 4-8, 2001, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina and Charlotte,
North Carolina.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
organic nitrogen compounds/
mineralization/ soil organic matter/ seasonal variation/ soil
flora/ decomposition/ biological activity in soil/ soil biology/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

6. Achievements in management and utilization
of southern grasslands.


Hoveland, C. S.

Journal of Range
Management
53 (1): 17-22.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
60.18 J82;

ISSN: 0022-409X

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

7. Achieving soil carbon sequestration in the
United States: A challenge to the policy makers.


Lal, R.; Follett, R. F.; and
Kimble, J. M.


Soil Science 168 (12): 827-845. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
56.8 So3;

ISSN: 0038-075X.

Notes: Number of References: 143; Publisher: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins


Descriptors:  
Environment/ Ecology/ climate
change/ humus/ secondary carbonates/ soil carbon/ dynamics/
conservation tillage/ land use/ soil restoration/ soil degradation/
organic carbon/ wheat fallow/ chemical properties/ grassland soils/
climate change/ CO2 emissions/ crop rotation/ global change/
central Ohio/ urban trees


Abstract: Carbon (C) sequestration in soil implies
enhancing the concentrations/pools of soil organic matter and
secondary carbonates. It is achieved through adoption of
recommended management practices (RMPs) on soils of agricultural,
grazing, and forestry ecosystems, and conversion of degraded soils
and drastically disturbed lands to restorative land use. Of the 916
million hectares (Mha) comprising the total land area in the
continental United States and Alaska, 157 Mha (17.1%) are under
cropland, 336 Mha (36.7%) under grazing land, 236 Mha (25.8%) under
forest, 14 Mha (1.5%) under Conservation Reserve Programs (CRP),
and 20 Mha (2.2%) are under urban land use. Land areas affected by
different soil degradative processes include 52 Mha affected by
water erosion, 48 Mha by wind erosion, 0.2 Mha by secondary
salinization, and more than 4 Mha affected by mining. Adoption of
RMPs can lead to sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) at an
annual rate of 45 to 98 Tg (teragram = 1 X 10(12) g = 1 million
metric tons or MMT) in cropland, 13 to 70 Tg in grazing land, and
25 to 102 Tg in forestlands. In addition, there is an annual soil C
sequestration potential of 21 to 77 Tg by land conversion, 25 to 60
Tg by land restoration, and 15 to 25 Tg by management of other land
uses. Thus, the total potential of C sequestration in soils of the
United States is 144 to 432 Tg/y or an average of 288 Tg C/y. With
the implementation of suitable policy initiatives, this potential
is realizable for up to 30 years or when the soil C sink capacity
is filled. In comparison, emission by agricultural activities is
estimated at: 43 Tg C/y, and the current rate of SOC sequestration
is reported as 17 Tg C/y. The challenge the policy makers face is
to be able to develop and implement policies that are conducive to
realization of this potential.


© Thomson ISI

8. Additives to reduce ammonia and odor
emissions from livestock wastes: A review.


McCrory, D. F. and Hobbs, P.
J.


Journal of Environmental
Quality
30 (2): 345-355.
(Mar. 2001-Apr. 2001)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.J6;

ISSN: 0047-2425 [JEVQAA]

Descriptors:  
animal wastes/ feed additives/
adsorbents/ pollution control/ ammonia/ odors/ emission/ literature
reviews/ microbial based feed additives/ digestive additives/
acidifying additives


Abstract: This paper reviews the use of additives to
reduce odor and ammonia (NH3) emissions from livestock wastes.
Reduction of NH3 volatilization has been shown to be possible,
particularly with acidifying and adsorbent additives, and potential
exists to develop further practical and cost-effective additives in
this area. Masking, disinfecting, and oxidizing agents can provide
short-term control of malodor, but as the capacity of these
additives is finite, they require frequent reapplication.
Microbial-based digestive additives may offer a solution to this
problem as they are regenerative, but they appear to have been
developed without a thorough understanding of microbiological
processes occurring in livestock wastes. Currently, their use to
reduce odor or NH3 emissions cannot be recommend. If the potential
of these types of additives is to be realized, research needs to
shift from simply evaluating these unknown products to
investigating known strains of bacteria or enzymes with known modes
of action. To protect the farmers' interest, standard independent
test procedures are required to evaluate efficacy. Such tests
should be simple and quantify the capacity of the additive to
perform as claimed. The principle use of additives needs to be
identified and addressed during their development. Producers may
not use effective additives in one area if they further compound
other problems that they perceived to be more important. There is
the potential to use additives to treat other problems associated
with livestock wastes, particularly to improve handling properties,
reduce pollution potential to watercourses, and reduce pathogenic
bacteria. Further work is required in these areas.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

9. Adsorption and degradation: From the
laboratory to the real world.


Walker, A.

In: Pesticide in air, plant, soil
& water system: Proceedings of the XII Symposium Pesticide
Chemistry.
(Held 4 Jun
2003-6 Jun 2003 at Piacenza, Italy.) Del Re, A. A. M.; Capri, E.;
Padovani, L.; and Trevisan, M. (eds.); pp. 1-6; 2003.


ISBN: 88-7830-359-3

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

10. Advances in Actinorhizal Symbiosis: Host
Plant-Frankia Interactions, Biology, and Applications in Arid Land
Reclamation, A Review.


Schwencke, J. and Caru,
M.


Arid Land Research and
Management
15 (4): 285-327.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
S592.17.A73 A74;

ISSN: 1532-4982

Descriptors:  
Nitrogen fixation/ Reclaimed land/
Trees/ Plants/ Reviews/ Symbiosis/ Frankia/ Nitrogen
cycle


Abstract: Symbiotic association of the N
sub(2)-fixing actinomycete Frankia with the roots of more than 200
tree species from 24 genera of 8 families of angiosperms has been
studied since 1829. The first successful isolation of the
microsymbiont and reinfection in the host plant was achieved in
1978. Marked advances in research and understanding of Frankia
biology, its actinorhizal hosts and their interactions have made
since then, although the studies on Frankia have been hampered by
difficulties of isolation and their slow growth rate in vitro.
Exponential growth with high biomass yields within three to four
days has been obtained for a number of strains isolated from
Casuarina spp. Use of BAP medium, supplemented with avian
phospholipid mixtures and certain fatty acids at controled O sub(2)
access, optimizes growth. Monosporal cultures are scarce; recently
a few became available for biochemical and genetic studies.
Research using exponentially growing cultures has yielded
information on a complex proteolytic system, including proteasomes,
endo- and extracellular proteinases and aminopeptidases, and also
on esterases, dehydrogenases, and extracellular DNAses. Molecular
tools have revealed a marked genetic diversity of Frankia soil
populations and have enabled the definition of four clades in the
Frankia phylogenetic tree. Studies on Frankia-host plant
interactions have detected molecular signal exchange preceeding the
establishment of symbiosis. Similarly, there is progress in
research on transgenic actinorhizal plants and on
actinorhizal-specific genes and proteins (actinorhizins) involved
in symbiotic interactions, infectivity, and host specificity.
Actinorhizal plants are rapidly growing species, able to develop in
N-poor soils, and for certain species, in harsh environmental
stress conditions. They increase the fertility of agroforestry
ecosystems, and have an economic potential for timber, fuelwood
production, land reclamation, and amenity planting. The Casuarina
spp. are of especial value in arid environments.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

11. Advances in grassland science.

Mannetje, L. 'T.

Netherlands Journal of
Agricultural Science
50 (2):
195-221. (2002)


NAL Call #:  
12 N3892;

ISSN: 0028-2928

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

12. Advances in plant health management in the
twentieth century.


Cook, R. J.

Annual Review of
Phytopathology
38: 95-116.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
464.8-An72;

ISSN: 0066-4286 [APPYAG]

Descriptors:  
plant diseases/ plant protection/
integrated pest management/ planting stock/ roots/ soil fumigation/
rotations/ tillage/ intensive production/ air microbiology/ plant
pests/ pest control/ epidemiology/ population ecology / decision
making/ prediction/ defense mechanisms/ biological control/
biotechnology/ maximum yield/ crop yield/ literature reviews/ plant
disease control


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

13. Advances in poultry litter disposal
technology: A review.


Kelleher BP; Leahy JJ; Henihan AM;
O'Dwyer TF; Sutton D; and Leahy MJ


Bioresource
Technology
83 (1): 27-36.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
TD930.A32

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

14. Advances in weed management
strategies.


Ghersa, C. M.; Benech Arnold, R.
L.; Satorre, E. H.; and


Martinez Ghersa, M. A.

Field Crops Research
67 (2): 95-104. (2000)

NAL Call #:  
SB183.F5;

ISSN: 0378-4290 [FCREDZ].

Notes: Special issue: Plant phenology and the
management of crop-weed interactions / edited by C.M. Ghersa. Paper
presented at a workshop held October 13-15, 1997, Buenos Aires,
Argentina. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
weeds/ weed control/ integrated pest
management/ annuals/ perennials/ long term experiments/ population
dynamics/ population growth/ developmental stages/ demography/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

15. The advantages of implementation of water
conservation practices in arid, semiarid regions.


Agassi, M.

Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture
18 (2/3): 63-69.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
S494.5.S86S8;

ISSN: 1044-0046 [JSAGEB]

Descriptors:  
arid zones/ semiarid zones/ water
conservation/ water erosion/ water availability/ rain/ runoff/
mulching/ evaporation/ water use efficiency/ aquifers/ soil
conservation/ literature reviews/ erosion control


Abstract: In arid, semiarid regions (ASAR), water is
the limiting factor for economical yields, and the main source of
water for crops is the annual rainfall. Taking into consideration
that there is no considerable soil erosion by rain water without
runoff initiation, it suggested to focus on the control of rainfall
water loss (runoff) instead of on the control of soil loss by rain
water, e.g., to replace terracing practices with mulching and
increasing of the soil surface storage practices. Mulching also
reduces direct evaporation of rain water, therefore increasing rain
water use efficiency by crops and the recharge of
aquifers.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

16. Aeration of livestock manure slurry and
lagoon liquid for odor control: A review.


Westerman PW and Zhang
RH


Applied Engineering in
Agriculture
13 (2): 245-249.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
S671.A66

This citation is provided courtesy of CAB International/CABI
Publishing.

17. Aerial pollutants and the health of poultry
farmers.


Whyte, R. T.

World's Poultry Science
Journal


49 (2): 131-156. (1993)

NAL Call #:  
47.8-W89;

ISSN: 0043-9339

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

18. Aggregate stability and assessment of soil
crustability and erodibility: Theory and methodology.


Le, Bissonnais Y

European Journal of Soil
Science
47 (4): 425-437.
(1996);


ISSN: 1351-0754.

Notes: Subtitle: [Part] I.

Descriptors:  
aggregation stability/ crusting/
erosion/ soil crustability/ soil erodibility/ soil
science


Abstract: Crusting and erosion of cultivated soils
result from aggregate breakdown and the detachment of soil
fragments by rain, and the susceptibility of soil to these
processes is often inferred from measurements of aggregate
stability. Here, theories of aggregate breakdown are reviewed and
four main mechanisms (i.e. slaking, breakdown by differential
swelling, mechanical breakdown by raindrop impact and
physico-chemical dispersion) are defined. Their relative importance
depends on the nature of the rain, as well as on the soil's
physical and chemical properties. The relations between aggregate
breakdown, crusting and water erosion are analysed, and existing
methods for the assessment of aggregate stability are reviewed. A
unified framework for the measurement of aggregate stability is
proposed to assess a soil's susceptibility to crusting and erosion.
It combines three treatments having various wetting conditions and
energies (fast wetting, slow wetting, and stirring after
pre-wetting) and measures the resulting fragment size distribution
after each treatment. It is designed to compare different soils, or
different climatic conditions for a given soil, not to compare
time-dependent changes in that soil.


© Thomson

19. Agricultural chemical discharge in surface
water runoff.


Smith, S. J.; Sharpley, A. N.; and
Ahuja, L. R.


Journal of Environmental
Quality
22 (3): 474-480.
(July 1993-Sept. 1993)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.J6;

ISSN: 0047-2425 [JEVQAA].

Notes: Paper presented at the USDA-ARS Beltsville
Agricultural Research Center Symposium XVII, "Agricultural Water
Quality Priorities, A Team Approach to Conserving Natural
Resources," May 4-8, 1992, Beltsville, MD. Includes
references.


Descriptors:  
agricultural chemicals/ discharge/
surface water/ runoff/ watersheds/ grasslands/ farmland/ watershed
management/ crop management/ research/ equations/ literature
reviews


Abstract: The discharge of agricultural chemicals
(i.e., soil-fertilizer nutrients and pesticides) in runoff waters
is important from both agronomic and environmental standpoints.
Presented here is an overview of our current concepts and
approaches employed for describing this discharge, based on studies
we have conducted over the past decade. Most of our field testing
and validation of concepts regarding chemical discharge has focused
on approximately 24 grassland and cropland watersheds across the
Southern Plains. Chemicals considered include N, P, K, S, atrazine
[2-chloro-4(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine], alachlor
[2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl) acetanilide], and
cyanazine
[2-[[4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazine-2-yl]amino]-2-methy
lpropionitrile]. Soluble chemical discharge has been described by
kinetic desorption and uniform or nonuniform mixing approaches,
incorporating parameters reflecting watershed management and the
nature of the surface soil X precipitation interaction. Particulate
chemical discharge has been described by the relationship between
the discharge enrichment ratio (chemical content of eroded
sediment/source soil) and soil loss. Special situations considered
include type of tillage, computed water and sediment runoff, severe
storms, bioavailability of P, cover crops, and manure applications.
For the most part, predicted chemical discharge values compared
favorably with their measured counterparts, r2 values often being
> 0.9. Further research needs include refinement and development
of the prediction equations, data bases, runoff indices, and
multidisciplinary systems.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

20. Agricultural Contaminants in Quaternary
Aquitards: A Review of Occurrence and Fate in North
America.


Rodvang, S. and Simpkins,
W.


Hydrogeology Journal
9 (1): 44-59. (2001);

ISSN: 1431-2174.

Notes: Publisher: Springer-Verlag

Descriptors:  
North America/ Fate of Pollutants/
Agricultural Chemicals/ Groundwater Pollution/ Groundwater/
Chemical Composition/ Organic Carbon/ Sulfur/ Geologic Time/
Biogeochemistry/ Agriculture/ Aquifers/ Permeability/ Contaminants/
Pesticides/ Hydrology/ North America/ Sources and fate of
pollution/ Freshwater pollution


Abstract: The intensity of agriculture has increased
significantly during the past 30 years, resulting in increased
detection of agricultural contaminants (nutrients, pesticides,
salts, trace elements, and pathogens) in groundwater. Till,
glaciolacustrine, and loess deposits of Quaternary age compose the
most common surficial deposits underlying agricultural areas in
North America. Quaternary aquitards generally contain higher
concentrations of solid organic carbon (SOC, as much as 1.4%),
dissolved organic carbon (DOC, as much as 205 mg/L), and reduced
sulfur (as much as 0.9%) than do aquifers. Their potential to sorb
pesticides increases with the percent of older SOC, because
diagenesis increases Koc. Denitrification consistently reduces
nitrate to non-detectable levels in unweathered Quaternary
aquitards. Organic carbon of Quaternary age is a more labile
electron donor than carbon from shale clasts. Pyrite is a more
labile electron donor than carbon in many instances. Unweathered
Quaternary aquitards provide a high degree of protection for
underlying aquifers, due to their large reserves of SOC and reduced
sulfur for sorption and denitrification, combined with their
typically low hydraulic conductivity. In contrast, agricultural
contaminants are common in weathered Quaternary aquitards. Lower
reserves of reduced sulfur and sorptive/labile organic carbon, and
a higher bulk K due to fractures, limit their ability to attenuate
nitrate and pesticides. Subsurface drainage, which is common in
Quaternary aquitards because of high water tables, bypasses the
attenuation capacity of Quaternary aquitards and facilitates the
transport of agricultural contaminants to surface water.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

21. Agricultural drainage.

Skaggs, R. W.; Van Schilfgaarde,
J.; and American Society of Agronomy.


Madison, Wis., USA: American
Society of Agronomy. (1999)


NAL Call #:  4-Am392-no.38;

ISBN: 0891181415

Descriptors:  
Drainage

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

22. Agricultural drainage water management in
arid and semi-arid areas.


Tanji, Kenneth K.; Kielen, Neeltje
C.; and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations.


Rome: Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations; xiv, 188 p.: ill. 1 CD-ROM (4
3/4 in).; Series: FAO irrigation and drainage paper 0254-5284 (61).
(2002)


NAL Call #:  S612-.I754-no.-61;

ISBN: 9251048398

Descriptors:  
Drainage---Management/
Irrigation---Management/ Water quality/ Arid regions
agriculture


Abstract:  "This publication provides planners,
decision-makers and engineers with guidelines to sustain irrigated
agriculture and at the same time to protect water resources from
the negative impacts of agricultural drainage water disposal. On
the basis of case studies from Central Asia, Egypt, India, Pakistan
and the United States of America, it distinguishes four broad
groups of drainage water management options: water conservation,
drainage water reuse, drainage water disposal and drainage water
treatment."--P. [4] of cover.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

23. Agricultural drainage: Water quality
impacts and subsurface drainage studies in the Midwest.


Zucker, Leslie A.; Brown, Larry C.;
and Ohio State University. Extension.


Columbus, OH: Ohio State University
Extension; Series: Bulletin 871. (1998)


Notes: Title from web page. Description based on
content viewed May 5, 2003.


NAL Call #:  275.29-.Oh32-no.-871

http://ohioline.osu.edu/b871/index.html

Descriptors:  
Drainage---Middle West/ Water
quality---Middle West


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

24. Agricultural influence on landscape
sensitivity in the Upper Mississippi River Valley.


Knox, James C

Catena 42 (2-4): 193-224. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
GB400.C3;

ISSN: 0341-8162

Descriptors:  
agricultural land use/ alluvial
sediments/ climate change/ climate variability/ environmental
conditions/ erosion/ floodplain stratigraphy/ floods/ landscape
sensitivity/ sedimentation/ surface runoff/ tillage/ water
infiltration


Abstract: Agricultural landscapes are more sensitive
to climatic variability than natural landscapes because tillage and
grazing typically reduce water infiltration and increase rates and
magnitudes of surface runoff. This paper evaluates how agricultural
land use influenced the relative responsiveness of floods, erosion,
and sedimentation to extreme and nonextreme hydrologic activity
occurring in watersheds of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Temporally
overlapping stratigraphic and historical instrumental records from
southwestern Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois show how
agricultural modification of a natural prairie and forest land
cover affected the behavior of floods and sedimentation during the
last two centuries. For comparison, pre-agriculture Holocene
alluvial sediments document the sensitivity of floods and alluvial
activity to climate change prior to significant human influences on
the natural land cover. High-resolution floodplain stratigraphy of
the last two centuries shows that accelerated runoff associated
with agricultural land use has increased the magnitudes of floods
across a wide range of recurrence frequencies. The stratigraphic
record also shows that large floods have been particularly
important to the movement and storage of sediment in the
floodplains of the Upper Mississippi Valley. Comparison of
floodplain alluvial sequences in watersheds ranging in scale from
headwater tributaries to the main valley Mississippi River
demonstrates that land use changes triggered hydrologic responses
that were transmitted nearly simultaneously to all watershed
scales. In turn, flood-driven hydraulic adjustments in channel and
floodplain morphologies contributed to feedback effects that caused
scale-dependent long-term lag responses. There has been a general
reduction in magnitudes of flooding, erosion, and sedimentation
since the mid-20th century, largely in response to better land
conservation practices. The reduction trend is most apparent on
tributary watersheds of a few hundred square kilometers and smaller
sizes. However, the main-channel Upper Mississippi River, with
associated drainage areas between about 100,000-200,000 km2, has
experienced increased occurrences of large floods during the second
half of the 20th century. Most of these large floods have been
associated with snowmelt runoff which is occurring more rapidly and
earlier in the season in response to a trend toward warmer winters
and springs in the late 20th century. Modification of the natural
drainage network through establishment of drainage tiles and
channelization has also continued during the late 20th century.
Tiling and channelization have increased drainage efficiency and
probably have contributed in part to the occurrence of large floods
on the Mississippi River, but the magnitudes of their effects are
unknown at present. In spite of reduced sediment loads since about
1950 on all watershed scales, the anomalous high frequency of large
floods on the Upper Mississippi River continues the accelerated
delivery of agriculturally-related sediment to floodplain and
backwater environments. The results of this study indicate that
agricultural land use has escalated landscape sensitivity to such a
degree that modern process rates provide a very distorted
representation of process rates that occurred in the geologic past
prior to human disturbance.


© Thomson

25. Agricultural land fragmentation: The
spatial effects of three land protection strategies in the eastern
United States.


Brabec, E. and Smith, C.

Landscape and Urban
Planning
28 (2-4): 255-268.
(Feb. 2002)


NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1L32;

ISSN: 0169-2046

Descriptors:  
Agricultural land/ Sustainable
development/ Land use/ Landscape/ United States/ Planning/
development


Abstract: Fragmentation of agricultural land by
urban sprawl affects both the agricultural production capacity of
the land and its rural scenic quality. In order to assess the
resulting fragmentation of the three most common types of
agricultural land conservation tools in the United States, this
study analyzes the spatial form of three land protection
strategies: a purchase of development rights (PDR) program, a
clustering program and a transfer of development rights program. By
assessing a series of measures of success such as total acreage
protected, size of parcels, contiguity and farming status, the
study compares the effectiveness of programs that have been in
place for approximately 20 years, analyzing the extent to which
each program prevents or enhances fragmentation. The analysis shows
that although the number of acres protected is an important factor
in program success, the amount of protected land remaining in
active farming is additionally influenced by any development rights
that may remain with the land, the use of a variety of tools to
reduce the likelihood of parcel isolation, and the adjacency and
contiguity of protected parcels.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

26. Agricultural NH3 and NOx emissions in
Canada.


Kurvits, T. and Marta,
T.


Environmental
Pollution
102 (Supp 1):
187-194. (1998)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E52;

ISSN: 0269-7491.

Notes: From: Proceedings of the First International
Nitrogen Conference, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands, 23-27 March
1998.


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

27. Agricultural pesticide emissions associated
with common crops in the United States.


Benjey, William G.

Research Triangle Park, NC: Office
of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency;
16 p.: ill., maps. (1993)


Notes: "EPA/600/A-93/065." "PB93-173136." Includes
bibliographical references (p. 13-14).


NAL Call #:  QH545.P4B49-1993

Descriptors:  
Pesticides---Environmental
aspects---Measurement


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

28. Agricultural pesticides: Management
improvements needed to further promote integrated pest management:
Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Research, Nutrition, and
General Legislation, Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and
Forestry, U.S. Senate.


United States. General Accounting
Office and United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. Subcommittee on Research
Nutrition and General Legislation.


Washington, D.C.: GAO.
(2001)


Notes: Title from web page. "August 2001."
"GAO-01-815." Description based on content viewed July 26, 2002.
Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  SB950.2.A1-A57-2001

http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d01815.pdf

Descriptors:  
Pesticides---United States/
Agricultural pests---Integrated control---United States/
Pests---Integrated control---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

29. Agricultural Phosphorus and Eutrophication:
A Symposium Overview.


Daniel, T. C.; Sharpley, A. N.; and
Lemunyon, J. L.


Journal of Environmental
Quality
27 (2): 251-257.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.J6;

ISSN: 0047-2425

Descriptors:  
USA/ Phosphorus/ Eutrophication/
Agricultural Runoff/ Water Pollution/ Cultivated Lands/ Nonpoint
Pollution Sources/ Soil Management/ Sources and fate of
pollution


Abstract: Phosphorus in runoff from agricultural
land is an important component of nonpoint-source pollution and can
accelerate eutrophication of lakes and streams. Long-term land
application of P as fertilizer and animal wastes has resulted in
elevated levels of soil P in many locations in the USA. Problems
with soils high in P are often aggravated by the proximity of many
of these areas to P-sensitive water bodies, such as the Great
Lakes, Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, Lake Okeechobee, and the
Everglades. This paper provides a brief overview of the issues and
options related to management of agricultural P that were discussed
at a special symposium titled, "Agricultural Phosphorus and
Eutrophication," held at the November 1996 American Society of
Agronomy annual meetings. Topics discussed at the symposium and
reviewed here included the role of P in eutrophication;
identification of P-sensitive water bodies; P transport mechanisms;
chemical forms and fate of P; identification of P source areas;
modeling of P transport; water quality criteria; and management of
soil and manure P, off-farm P inputs, and P transport
processes.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

30. Agricultural phosphorus, water quality, and
poultry production: Are they compatible.


Sharpley, A.

Poultry Science 78 (5): 660-673.  
(May 1999)

NAL Call #:  
47.8-Am33P;

ISSN: 0032-5791 [POSCAL]

Descriptors:  
poultry industry/ battery husbandry/
poultry manure/ application to land/ application rates/ phosphorus/
farming systems/ fertilizer requirement determination/ runoff
water/ water pollution/ eutrophication/ use efficiency/ tillage/
soil testing/ losses from soil/ literature reviews


Abstract: With the concentration of poultry
production and increase in operation size in several regions of the
U.S., more manure is applied to agricultural land. This application
of manure has resulted in more P being added than crops require, an
accumulation in soil P, and increased potential for P loss in
surface runoff. This situation has been exacerbated by manure
management being N-based. Increased outputs of P to fresh waters
can accelerate eutrophication, which impairs water use and can lead
to fish kills and toxic algal blooms. As a result, information is
needed on the effect of poultry production on the fate of P in
agricultural systems so that compatible production and water
quality goals can be met. Overall, these goals will be met by
focusing on ways to increase P use-efficiency by attempting to
balance inputs of P in feed and fertilizer into a watershed with
output in crop and livestock. This will involve refining feed
rations, using feed additives to increase P absorption by the
animal, moving manure from surplus to deficit areas, finding
alternative uses for manure, and targeting conservation practices,
such as reduced tillage, buffer strips, and cover crops, to
critical areas of P export from a watershed. These critical areas
are where high P soils coincide with parts of the landscape where
surface runoff and erosion potential is high. Development of
management systems that address both production and environmental
concerns must consider the socioeconomic and political impacts of
any management changes on both rural and urban communities, and of
the mechanisms by which change can be achieved in a diverse and
dispersed community of land users.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




31. Agricultural sustainability and nematode
integrated pest management.


Duncan, Larry W. and Noling, Joseph
W.


In: Plant and nematode
interactions/ Barker, K. R.; Pederson, G. A.; and Windham, G. L.;
Series: Agronomy 36.


Madison, WI: Soil Science Society
of America, 1998; pp. 251-287.


ISBN: 0891181369; ISSN: 0065-4663

Descriptors:  
nematicides: pesticide/ agricultural
sustainability/ plant nematode interactions/ Agronomy
 (Agriculture)/ Pest Assessment Control and Management/
integrated pest management: crop rotation/ integrated pest
management: pest control method/ sanitation/ tillage/ physical
chemical methods


© Thomson

32. Agricultural waste.

Marr, J. B. and Facey, R.
M.


Water Environment
Research
67 (4): 503-507.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
Characterization/ Reviews/
Agricultural wastes/ Recycling/ Nitrification/ Denitrification/
Anaerobic digestion/ Industrial management/ Composting/ Waste
utilization/ Drainage rates/ Land application/ Industrial Wastes
Treatment/ Industrial Wastes/ Agricultural Wastes/ Chemical
Reactions/ Biology


Abstract: This paper presents a review of literature
published in 1994 on the subject of agricultural wastes. The review
is divided into several sections, which cover: Management and
characterization; Treatment; Reuse and recycle; Composting; and;
Anaerobic treatment.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

33. Agricultural wastes.

Poggi Varaldo, H. M. and Estrada
Vazquez, C.


Water Environment
Research
69 (4): 575-603.
(June 1997)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303 [WAERED]

Descriptors:  
agricultural wastes/ waste
treatment/ composting/ pesticides/ soil pollution/ water pollution/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.



34. Agricultural Wastes.

Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.;
Estrada-Vazquez, C.; and Rinderknecht-Seijas, N.


Water Environment
Research
70 (4): 601-620.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
Literature Review/ Farm Wastes/
Manure/ Slurries/ Phosphorus/ Nitrogen/ Sampling/ Agricultural
wastes/ Animal wastes/ Sampling methods/ Agricultural runoff/
Pollution monitoring/ Eutrophication/ Ultimate disposal of wastes/
Waste management/ Behavior and fate characteristics/ Waste
Management


Abstract: Both currently available and recently
developed new sampling methods for slurry and solid manure were
tested for bias and reproducibility in the determination of total
phosphorous and nitrogen content of the samples. Sampling methods
were based on techniques in which samples were taken either during
loading from the hose or from the transporting vehicle after
loading. It was demonstrated that most methods were
unbiased.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

35. Agricultural wastes.

Poggi Varaldo, H. M.

Water Environment
Research
71 (5): 737-785.
(Aug. 1999)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303 [WAERED]

Descriptors:  
agricultural wastes/ animal wastes/
waste treatment/ waste disposal/ soil pollution/ water pollution/
pesticide residues/ groundwater pollution/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

36. Agricultural water conservation: A global
perspective.


Unger, P. W. and Howell, T.
A.


Journal of Crop
Production
2 (2): 1-36.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
SB1.J683;

ISSN: 1092-678X [JCPRF8].

Notes: Special issue: Water use in crop production /
edited by M.B. Kirkham. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
agriculture/ water conservation/
semiarid climate/ crop production/ irrigation/ temporal variation/
spatial variation/ market competition/ dry farming/ evaporation/
weed control/ irrigation systems/ water management/ irrigation
water/ infiltration/ tillage/ mulches/ no-tillage/ soil water
retention/ fallow/ water use efficiency/ crop yield/ harvesting
date/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

37. Agricultural Wetlands and Waterbirds: A
Review.


Czech, H. A. and Parsons, K.
C.


Waterbirds 25 (2 [supplement]): 56-65.
(2002);


ISSN: 1524-4695.

Notes: Managing Wetlands for Waterbirds: Integrated
Approaches


Descriptors:  
Agricultural ecosystems/ Wetlands/
Habitat changes/ Habitat utilization/ Reviews/ Aquatic birds/
Habitat/ Literature reviews/ Agriculture/ Breeding sites/ Foraging
behaviour/ Rice fields/ Aves/ Birds/ Management/ Ecology/ Community
Studies/ Conservation, wildlife management and
recreation


Abstract: Waterbird use of agricultural wetlands has
increased as natural wetlands continue to decline worldwide. Little
information exists on waterbird use of wetland crops such as taro,
hasu, and wild rice. Several reports exist on waterbird use of
cranberry bog systems. Information exists on waterbird use of rice
fields, especially by herons and egrets. Rice fields encompass over
1.5 million km super(2) of land and are found on all continents
except Antarctica. Rice fields are seasonally flooded for
cultivation and to decoy waterfowl, and drawn down for sowing and
harvest. A wide variety of waterbirds including wading birds,
shorebirds, waterfowl, marshbirds, and seabirds utilize rice fields
for foraging and to a lesser extent as breeding sites. In some
areas, especially Asia, waterbirds have come to rely upon rice
fields as foraging sites. However, few reports exist on waterbird
use of rice ecosystems outside of the Mediterranean Region. Species
that are commonly found utilizing agricultural wetlands during the
breeding season, migration, and as wintering grounds are listed.
General trends and threats to waterbirds utilizing agricultural
wetlands, including habitat destruction and degradation,
contaminant exposure, and prey fluctuations are
presented.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

38. Agriculture and Environment: A Review,
1972-1992.


Biswas, M. R.

Ambio 23 (3): 192-197. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
QH540.A52;

ISSN: 0044-7447

Descriptors:  
reviews/ agricultural practices/
environmental degradation/ resource evaluation/ land use/ pesticide
residues/ nutrition/ agriculture/ public health/ environmental
quality/ Management/ Land pollution/ Ecological impact of water
development


Abstract: The resources necessary for food
production have shown a disquieting deterioration during the last
two decades. Modern intensive agriculture has had an adverse effect
not only on the physical environment but also on human health. Land
has been degraded, water resources have been depleted, and genetic
resources have been lost. In addition, there have been negative
impacts on human health because of agricultural inputs. Extensive
data have been used to indicate the evolution of the problems and
the present status.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

39. Agriculture and phosphorus management: The
Chesapeake Bay.


Sharpley, Andrew N.

Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers;
229 p.: ill., maps. (2000)


NAL Call #:  TD427.P56-A35-2000; ISBN: 1566704944

Descriptors:  
Phosphorus---Environmental
aspects---Chesapeake Bay Watershed---Md  and Va/ Water
quality---Chesapeake Bay Watershed---Md and Va/ Phosphorus in
agriculture---Chesapeake Bay Watershed---Md and Va


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

40. Agriculture and the environment.

Shortle, J. S. and Abler, D.
G.


Handbook of Environmental
and Resource Economics
:
159-176. (2002);
ISBN: 1-84376-236-6

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

41. Agriculture and the environment: The
problem of soil erosion.


Uri, N. D.

Journal of Sustainable
Agriculture
16 (4): 71-94.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
S494.5.S86S8;

ISSN: 1044-0046 [JSAGEB]

Descriptors:  
erosion control/ agriculture/
environmental impact/ soil depth/ sediment/ streams/ lakes/
estuaries/ soil conservation/ farm income/ agricultural policy/
nature conservation/ wind erosion/ sheet erosion/ rill erosion/
social costs/ government policy/ agricultural education/ technology
transfer/ research/ taxes/ literature reviews/ United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

42. Agriculture and water contamination:
Methods of study and research.


Borin, M.

Genio Rurale 61 (12): 39-48. (1998);

ISSN: 0016-6863

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

43. Agriculture and Water Quality.

Barrios, A.; American Farmland
Trust, Center for Agriculture in the Environment.


American Farmland Trust [Also
available as: CAE/WP 00-2], 2000 (application/pdf)


http://www.aftresearch.org/researchresource/wp/wp00-2.pdf

Descriptors:  
agricultural land/ cropland/
rangelands/ water quality/ nonpoint source pollution/ best
management practices/ conservation practices/ environmental
protection/ agricultural policy/ environmental policy/ citizen
participation/ public economics/ United States/ land stewardship/
BMPs

44. Agriculture and wildlife: Ecological
implications of subsurface irrigation drainage.


Lemly, A. D.

Journal of Arid
Environments
28 (2): 85-94.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
QH541.5.D4J6;

ISSN: 0140-1963 [JAENDR]

Descriptors:  
irrigated farming/ irrigation/
subsurface drainage/ drainage water/ contaminants/ selenium/ trace
elements/ salinization/ toxicity/ wetlands/ wildlife/ wild birds/
literature reviews/ arid regions/ western states of USA/
California/ migratory birds


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

45. Agriculture, methyl bromide, and the ozone
hole: Can we fill the gaps?


Ristaino, Jean Beagle and Thomas,
William


Plant Disease 81 (9): 965-977. (1997)

NAL Call #:  
1.9-P69P;

ISSN: 0191-2917

Descriptors:  
methyl bromide/ ozone/ agriculture/
biobusiness/ climatology/ fumigant/ methyl bromide/ ozone depletor/
ozone hole/ pesticide/ pesticides/ phytopathology/ pollutant/
pollution


© Thomson

46. Agrochemical and nutrient impacts on
estuaries and other aquatic systems.


Hapeman, C. J.; Dionigi, C. P.;
Zimba, P. V.; and McConnell, L. L.


Journal of agricultural and
food chemistry
 50 (15):
4382-4384. (July 2002)


NAL Call #:  
381 J8223;

ISSN: 0021-8561 [JAFCAU]

Descriptors:  
water pollution/ runoff/
agricultural land/ nutrients/ pesticide residues/ environmental
impact/ estuaries/ environmental protection/ water
quality


Abstract: This paper summarizes the "Agrochemical
and Nutrient Impacts on Estuaries" symposium held at the 220th
National Meeting of the American Chemical Society. The focus of the
symposium was to highlight ongoing research efforts to understand
estuarine function and pollutant fate in these important
ecosystems. Expanding urbanization and agricultural activity can
result in increased particulate and chemical loads, resulting in
decreased light penetration and degraded aquatic habitats.
Legislative and regulatory protections, such as the Clean Water Act
and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), are considered here.
Measurement of nutrient and pesticide loads and their
ecotoxicological impacts are explored, as well as potential
mitigation practices. The complexity and high visibility of
estuarine ecosystem health will require continued examination to
develop more effective agricultural and land management strategies
and sound science-based regulations.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

47. Agrochemical leaching and water
contamination.


Rose, S. C. and Carter, A.
D.


In: Conservation agriculture:
Environment, farmers experiences, innovations, socio-economy,
policy/ García-Torres, L.; Benites, J.; Martínez-Vilela, A.; and
Holgado-Cabrera, A.


Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer
Academic, 2003; pp. 417-424.


ISBN: 1-4020-1106-7

NAL Call #:   S604.5 .C64 2003

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

48. Agrochemicals and water
management.


Kanwar, R. S.

In: Sustainability of irrigated
agriculture: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research
Workshop.
(Held 21 Mar
1994-26 Mar 1994 at Vimeiro, Portugal.) Pereira, L. S.; Feddes, R.
A.; Gilley, J. R.; and Lesaffre, B. (eds.)


Dordrecht: Kluwer; pp. 373-393;
1996.  
ISBN: 0-7923-3936-3

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

49. Agroecosystem responses to combinations of
elevated CO2, ozone, and global climate change.


Fuhrer, J.

Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
97 (1/3): 1-20.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
S601 .A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

50. Agroforestry and wildlife: Opportunities
and alternatives.


Allen, A. W.

In: Agroforestry and sustainable
systems symposium proceedings.


Fort Collins, Colo.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range
Experiment Station; pp. 67-73; 1995.


Notes: Meeting held August 7-10, 1994, Fort Collins,
Colorado.


Includes references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42-no.261

Descriptors:  
wildlife / agroforestry/ ecosystems/
farm management/ land use/ land use planning/ habitats/
fragmentation/ fauna/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

51. Agroforestry in North America and its role
in farming systems.


Williams, P. A.; Gordon, A. M.;
Garrett, H. E.; and Buck, L.


In: Temperate agroforestry systems/
Gordon, A. M. and Newman, S. M.


Wallingford, UK: CAB International,
1997; pp. 9-84.


ISBN: 0-85199-147-5

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

52. Agroforestry opportunities for the United
States of America.


Schultz, R. C.; Colletti, J. P.;
and Faltonson, R. R.


Agroforestry Systems
31 (2): 117-132. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
SD387.M8A3;

ISSN: 0167-4366

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

53. Agroforestry policy issues and research
directions in the US and less developed countries: Insights and
challenges from recent experience.


Buck, L E

Agroforestry Systems
30 (1-2): 57-73. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
SD387.M8A3;

ISSN: 0167-4366

Descriptors:  
Spermatophyta (Spermatophyta)/
plants/ spermatophytes/ vascular plants/ agriculture integrative
approach/ natural resource management/ policy assessment/
sustainable development


Abstract: Efforts to improve the performance of
agroforestry systems, and to expand the land area and number of
people able to benefit from this integrative approach to
agriculture and natural resource management, are constrained
throughout the world by non-supportive land use policies. A growing
sense of urgency that policy change is needed to enable
agroforestry to flourish has contributed during the past two years
to an unprecedented level of agroforestry policy assessment and
planning activity. In the US, agroforestry has emerged from
academia, where it has incubated since the mid-1980s, into the
professional resource management arena. A multi-organizational
agroforestry evaluation process has driven national policy and
program formation to the forefront of the agenda of the
agroforestry community, as it seeks to influence the 1995 Farm
Bill. Internationally, the Consultative Group on International
Agricultural Research and collaborators fostered a sequence of
policy issue identification activities as a basis for setting
strategic research priorities for forestry and agroforestry.
Following a brief review of forces driving agroforestry development
in industrialized and less developed countries, the paper
highlights recent policy assessment initiatives in each sphere.
Observations on the issues driving and the priorities emerging from
these processes are offered, to lend perspective to the critical
challenges facing the agroforestry policy research community. An
explanation for pervasive constraints and inconsistencies in policy
effectiveness is then explored, from which a promising approach to
research intervention is forwarded. It is argued that social
scientists might influence agroforestry policy most favorably at
this critical juncture, as perceptions of inter-dependence increase
among different stakeholders in the policy system, by employing
interventionist, actor-oriented perspectives and participatory
methods to facilitate policy innovation and evaluation. The
approach is consistent with participatory technology design
processes that earlier helped to establish agroforestry as a
prototype for sustainable development.


© Thomson

54. Agroforestry practice and policy in the
United States of America.


Garrett, H. E. G. and Buck,
L.


Forest Ecology and
Management
91 (1): 5-15.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
SD1.F73;

ISSN: 0378-1127

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

55. Agronomic measures for better utilization
of soil and fertilizer phosphates.


Mengel, Konrad

European Journal of
Agronomy
7 (1-3): 221-233.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
SB13.E97;

ISSN: 1161-0301

Descriptors:  
lime: soil amendment/ phosphate:
fertilizer, fixation, nutrient/ higher plants (Tracheophyta)/
livestock (Mammalia)/ mycorrhizal fungi (Fungi): symbiont/ Animals/
Chordates/ Fungi/ Mammals/ Microorganisms/ Nonhuman Mammals/
Nonhuman Vertebrates/ Nonvascular Plants/ Plants/ Vascular Plants/
Vertebrates/ cropping systems/ farmyard manure/ soil pH/
Oxisol


Abstract: Global known phosphate deposits are a
finite resource which will run out in about four centuries at the
present consumption rate. Since about 90% of the phosphate mined is
used for fertilizer, soil and fertilizer phosphate should be
efficiently used. Various agronomic measures are discussed relevant
for saving phosphate and avoiding losses. Phosphate fertilizer
rates should be adjusted to measured requirements for phosphate
using soil tests. Particularly in areas with high livestock
intensities soils frequently are much enriched in available
phosphate and do not need further phosphate application whether in
organic or in inorganic form. Excessively high levels of available
soil phosphate, much higher than required for optimum crop
production increase the hazard of phosphate loss by wind and water
erosion and even leaching. Loss of plant available phosphate in
soils occurs by phosphate fixation which is especially strong in
acid mineral soils. Such losses can be dramatically reduced by
liming soils to a pH of 6-7. In tropical areas where lime
frequently is not available row placement of phosphate fertilizer
is recommended. Oxisols with a very low pH liming, however, may
promote phosphate fixation due to the formation of phosphate
adsorbing Al complexes. Biological assimilation of phosphate may
prevent inorganic phosphate from fixation by soil particles.
Organic anions produced during the decomposition of organic matter
in soils as well as the excretion of anions by plant roots depress
phosphate adsorption by competing with phosphate for binding sites
at the adsorbing surface. Hence farming systems and rotations which
bring much organic matter into soils contribute to a better use of
soil and fertilizer phosphate. Mycorrhization of plant roots with
appropriate fungi ecotypes may essentially improve the exploitation
of soil phosphates. The choice of the appropriate phosphate
fertilizer type is crucial for its efficient use. This applies
particularly for apatitic fertilizers of which the availability is
poor in weakly acid to neutral and calcareous soils.


© Thomson

56. Air emissions from animal feeding
operations: Current knowledge, future needs.


Committee on Air Emissions from
Animal Feeding Operations; Committee on Animal Nutrition; and
National Research Council


Washington DC: National Academies
Press; 286 p. (2003)


NAL Call #:  TD886-.N38-2002;

ISBN: 0-309-08705-8

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309087058/html/

Descriptors:  
animal feeding/ emissions/ pollution
control/ ammonia/ nitrous oxide/ methane/ odors

57. Air quality and emissions from livestock
and poultry production/ waste management systems.


Bicudo, J. R.; Schmidt, D. R.; Gay,
S. W.; Gates, R. S.; Jacobson, L. D.; and Hoff, S. J.


In: White papers on animal
agriculture and the environment/ National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management; Midwest Plan Service; and U.S. Department
of Agriculture; Raleigh, NC: National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management, 2001.


NAL Call #:  TD930.2-.W45-2002

Descriptors:  
Agricultural wastes---Environmental
aspects---United States




58. Air quality research: Perspective from
climate change modelling research.


Semazzi, F.

Environment
International
29 (2/3):
253-261. (2003)


NAL Call #:  
TD169.E54;

ISSN: 0160-4120

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

59. Algae and element cycling in
wetlands.


Vymazal, Jan.

Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers; xiv,
689 p.: ill. (1994)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 477-666)
and index.


NAL Call #:  QK565.V86--1994;

ISBN: 0873718992

Descriptors:  
Algae Ecophysiology/ Algae/ Wetland
plants/ Wetlands/ Biogeochemical cycles


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

60. Allelopathy in agroecosystems: An
overview.


Singh, H. P.; Batish, D. R.; and
Kohli, R. K.


Journal of Crop
Production
4 (2): 1-41.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
SB1.J683;

ISSN: 1092-678X [JCPRF8].

Notes: Special issue: Allelopathy in Agroecosystems /
edited by R.K. Kohli, H.P. Singh, and D.R. Batish. Includes
references.


Descriptors:  
agriculture/ ecosystems/
allelopathy/ crops/ interactions/ weeds/ trees/ soil biology/
microbial flora/ soil sickness/ crop residues/ weed control/ pest
control/ allelochemicals/ pest management/ sustainability/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

61. Alley cropping: Ecological pie in the
sky?


Ong, C.

Agroforestry Today
6 (3): 8-10. (1994);

ISSN: 1013-9591

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

62. Alterations of riparian ecosystems caused
by river regulation.


Nilsson, C. and Berggren,
K.


Bioscience 50 (9): 783-792. (2000)

NAL Call #:  
500 Am322A;

ISSN: 0006-3568.

Notes: Publisher: American Institute of Biological
Sciences


Descriptors:  
Riparian environments/ Dams/
Freshwater environments/ Reviews/ Environmental changes/ River
basin management/ Environmental impact/ Man induced effects/
Ecosystem disturbance/ Rivers/ Literature reviews/ Management/
Habitat community studies/ Conservation/ Mechanical and natural
changes


Abstract: An estimated two-thirds of the fresh water
flowing to the oceans is obstructed by approximately 40,000 large
dams (defined as more than 15 m in height) and more than 800,000
smaller ones (Petts 1984, McCulluy 1996). Many additional rivers
are constrained by artificial levees or dikes. These hydrological
alterations--to ensure water for agricultural, industrial, and
domestic purposes; for hydroelectricity; or for flood
protection--have changed ecosystem structures and processes in
running waters and associated environments the world over. In this
article, we discuss the global-scale ecological changes in riparian
ecosystems resulting from dam operations.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)




63. Amelioration strategies for saline soils: A
review.


Qadir, M.; Ghafoor, A.;
and


Murtaza, G.

Land Degradation and
Development
11 (6): 501-521.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
S622.L26;

ISSN: 1085-3278

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

64. Amelioration strategies for sodic soils: A
review.


Qadir, M.; Schubert, S.; Ghafoor,
A.; and Murtaza, G.


Land Degradation and
Development
12 (4): 357-386.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
S622.L26;

ISSN: 1085-3278

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

65. America's Private Land: A Geography of
Hope.


U. S. Department of Agriculture,
Natural Resources Conservation Service.


U. S. Department of Agriculture,
1997 (text/html)


NAL Call #: 1 Ag84Pro no.1548

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/news/pub/GHopeHit.html

Descriptors:  
private lands/ conservation
practices/ environmental protection/ natural resource management/
rural areas/ land tenure/ landowners/ land stewardship


Abstract:  This book tells the story of
America's private, nonurban land. Private land is America's working
land. It produces food and fiber, and much, much more: It also
produces clean water, clean air, wildlife habitat, healthy and
productive soil, and scenic landscapes. But this story is more than
a national report card on the state of our Nation's natural
resources; it will help the reader learn to think about land (soil,
water, air, plants, and animals) in a different way. A Geography of
Hope is a call to action, a call to renew our national commitment
to America's private land and private landowners. The Nation will
never achieve its goals for conservation and environmental quality
if farmers and ranchers and all other private landowners are not
engaged in a cooperative effort to use the land according to its
capabilities. You'll get the facts and figures on natural resources
from A Geography of Hope, all woven into a framework of land
stewardship and a vision for natural resource management in the
21st century.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

66. Ammonia emission from field applied manure
and its reduction.


Sommer, S. G. and Hutchings, N.
J.


European Journal of
Agronomy
15 (1): 1-15. (Sept.
2001)


NAL Call #:  
SB13.E97;

ISSN: 1161-0301

Descriptors:  
manures/ ammonia/ emission/
livestock farming/ slurries/ soil/ climatic factors/ simulation
models/ geographical variation/ cultivation/ viscosity/ application
rates/ soil injection/ application date/ literature
reviews


Abstract: Emissions of ammonia to the atmosphere are
considered a threat to the environment and both United Nation
treaty and European Union legislation increasingly limit emissions.
Livestock farming is the major source of atmospheric NH3 in Europe
and field applied manure contributes significantly to the emission
of NH3 from agriculture. This paper presents a review of studies of
NH3 emission from field-applied animal manure and of the methods
available for its reduction. It is shown that there is a complex
relationship between the NH3 emission rate from slurry and the
slurry composition, soil conditions and climate. It is concluded
that simple empirical models cannot be used to predict ammonia
emission from the wide range of circumstances found in European
agriculture and that a more mechanistic approach is required. NH3
emission from applied solid manure and poultry manure has been
studied less intensively than slurry but appear to be controlled by
similar mechanisms. The use of trail hoses, pre- or
post-application cultivation, reduction in slurry viscosity, choice
of application rate and timing and slurry injection were considered
as reduction techniques. The most effective methods of reducing
ammonia emissions were concluded to be incorporation of the animal
slurry and farmyard manure or slurry injection. Incorporation
should be as close to the application as possible, especially after
slurry application, as loss rates are high in the 1st hours after
application. Injection is a very efficient reduction technique,
provided the slurry is applied at rates that can be contained in
the furrows made by the injector tine.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

67. Ammonia emissions from animal feeding
operations.


Westerman, P. W.; Arogo, J.; Heber,
A. J.; Robarge, W. P.; and Classen, J. J.


In: White papers on animal
agriculture and the environment/ National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management; Midwest Plan Service; and U.S. Department
of Agriculture; Raleigh, NC: National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management, 2001.


NAL Call #:  TD930.2-.W45-2002

Descriptors:  
Agricultural wastes---Environmental
aspects---United States




68. Ammonia emissions from pig houses in The
Netherlands, Denmark and France: A review.


Peet Schwering CMC van der; Aarnink
AJA; Rom HB; and Dourmad JY


Livestock Production
Science
58 (3): 265-269.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
SF1.L5

Notes: Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of the pig
(EAAP Publication No. 1-99); Number of References: 22


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

69. Ammonia in Animal Production: A
Review.


Arogo, J.; Westerman, P. W.; Heber,
A. J; Robarge, W. P.; and Classen, J. J.


In: Proceedings of the 2001 ASAE
Annual Meeting.
(Held 30 Jul
2001-1 Aug 2001 at Sacramento, California.): American Society of
Agricultural Engineers; 2001.


Notes: Paper number 014089; Written for presentation at
the
2001 ASAE Annual
International Meeting; Available through fee-based ASAE Technical
Library


Descriptors:  
Ammonia emissions/ Emission factors/
Livestock buildings/ Animal waste storage and treatment facilities/
land application of animal manure

70. Ammonia sources in agriculture and their
measurement.


McGinn, S M and Janzen, H
H


Canadian Journal of Soil
Science
78 (1): 139-148.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 C162;

ISSN: 0008-4271

Descriptors:  
ammonia/ manure/
micrometeorology


Abstract: There are several reasons why the
measurement of ammonia emissions is important in agriculture. The
emission of ammonia from stored and land-applied manure to the
atmosphere can result in a significant loss of nitrogen for crop
production. It is necessary to quantify this loss to evaluate
manure handling practices for maintaining the nutritive value of
the manure. Minimizing the emissions of ammonia from manure also
reduces agriculture's impact on the environment. A high atmospheric
concentration of ammonia can result in acidification of land and
water surfaces, cause plant damage and reduce plant biodiversity in
natural systems. Ammonia emissions from manure coincide with odors,
which are a nuisance in areas of intensive livestock operations.
Reducing ammonia emissions by altering manure management will also
reduce odor problems. The purpose of this paper is to review
agricultural sources of ammonia and describe techniques used in
determining the loss of ammonia from manure-amended soils.
Micrometeorological techniques are used to estimate field scale
emissions whereas, for small plots where treatment (effects) is
used, chambers and mass balance techniques are more suitable
methods. A simple method is described, which, when combined with a
denuder sampler mounted on a wind vane, permits flexibility in
experimental design and requires fewer ammonia samples than the
traditional mass balance approach. A chamber method making use of
diffusion samplers that can measure the ammonia concentration in
the air at the soil surface is also described.


© Thomson



71. Ammonia volatilization from cow and pig
manure: Results of laboratory studies with a new climate chamber
technique.


Andersson, Mats.

Lund, Sweden: Sveriges
lantbruksuniversitet, Institutionen for jordbrukets biosystem och
teknologi (JBT); 66 p.: ill.; Series: Rapport (Sveriges
lantbruksuniversitet. Institutionen for lantbrukets byggnadsteknik)
98. (1995)


Notes: "ISRN SLU-JBT-R--98--SE." Includes
bibliographical references (p. 59-62).


NAL Call #:  TH4911.A1S9--no.98

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

72. Ammonia volatilization from dairy farming
systems in temperate areas: A review.


Bussink DW and Oenema O

Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems
51 (1): 19-33.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
S631 .F422.

Notes: From: Ammonia emissions from agriculture:
Proceedings of a seminar / Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 May
1996


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

73. Anaerobic processes of treatment of manures
and dung in ecology and resource economy.


Puzankov AG; Borodin VI; Grevtsov
Yu I; Krivonosov AA; Emelin GV; and Leonova EV


Khimiya v Sel'skom
Khozyaistve 7: 27-28
(1993)

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

74. Anaerobic processing of piggery wastes: A
review.


Chynoweth DP; Wilkie AC; and Owens
JM.


In: ASAE Annual International
Meeting.
(Held 12 Jul
1998-16 Jul 1998 at Orlando, Florida.)


St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society
of Agricultural Engineers; 38 p.; 1998.


Notes: ASAE Paper no. 984101

NAL Call #:  S671.3 .A54

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




75. Analysis of Carbamate Pesticides and Their
Metabolites in Water by Solid Phase Extraction and Liquid
Chromatography: A Review.


Soriano, J. M.; Jimenez, B.; Font,
G.; and Molto, J. C.


Critical Reviews in
Analytical Chemistry
31 (1):
19-52. (2001);


ISSN: 1040-8347

Descriptors:  
Pesticides (Organonitrogen)/ Water
analysis/ Pesticides/ Chromatography (Liquid)/ Chemical analysis/
Pesticides/ Chemical Analysis/ Liquid Chromatography/ Agricultural
Chemicals/ Analytical techniques/ Pollution detection/ Agricultural
pollution/ Chromatographic techniques/ Chemical extraction/
Separation processes/ Degradation/ solid phase extraction/
Monitoring and Analysis of Water and Wastes/ Identification of
pollutants/ Methods and instruments/ Freshwater
pollution


Abstract: Carbamates are an important, broad class
of pesticides that are used extensively as insecticides,
fungicides, and herbicides. Sensitive, economical, fast, and
environmental friendly procedures are constantly developed to
investigate their residues in water samples. The state of the art
in methods based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid
chromatographic determination are examined here. SPE is presently
the most extended method for preconcentration of carbamate
pesticide residues and their transformation products from water
samples. Advantages and limitations of alkyl bonded-silica, and
polymeric sorbents, carbon, and mixed-phases in off-line and
on-line procedures are discussed. Because some carbamates and
transformation products are thermolabile, multiresidue
determination is usually carried out by liquid chromatographic
techniques. The most interesting reported analytical conditions are
presented in a tabular form. Finally, an overview to the levels
found in different environmental waters is done; concentrations
were usually detected in the sub mu g l super(-1) order.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)




76. Analysis of livestock use of riparian
areas: Literature review and research needs assessment for British
Columbia.


Powell GW; Cameron KJ; and Newman
RF


British Columbia, Canada: Ministry
of Forests, Forest Science Program; Working Paper 52, 2000. 37
p.


NAL Call #:  QH541.5.R52-P69-2000

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

77. Analysis of pesticides in food and
environmental samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assays.


Nunes, Gilvanda Silva; Toscano,
Ilda Antonieta; and Barcelo, D


Trends in Analytical
Chemistry
17 (2): 79-87.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
QD71.T7;

ISSN: 0165-9936

Descriptors:  
pesticide residues/ environmental
samples/ food crops


Abstract: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays
(ELISAs) are the most extensively studied types of immunoassay and
their application in pesticide residue monitoring is an area with
enormous potential for growth. In comparison with classical
analytical methods, ELISA methods offer the possibility of highly
sensitive, relatively rapid, and cost-effective measurements. This
review introduces the general ELISA formats used, focusing on their
use in pesticide analysis. Identifying and studying the effects of
interferences in immunoassays is an active area of research and we
discuss the matrix effects observed in several studies involving
e.g. food, crop and environmental samples. The procedures to
eliminate the matrix interferences are briefly
discussed.


© Thomson

78. Analytical chemistry of chlorpyrifos and
diuron in aquatic ecosystems.


Simon, David; Helliwell, Stuart;
and Robards, Kevin


Analytica Chimica
Acta
360 (1-3): 1-16.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
381 An1;

ISSN: 0003-2670

Descriptors:  
chlorpyrifos: insecticide,
quantitative analysis/ diuron: insecticide, quantitative analysis/
analytical chemistry/ aquatic ecosystems / bioaccumulation/ sample
recovery


Abstract: The chemistry and toxicology of
chlorpyrifos and diuron are presented. These compounds represent
the extremes of pesticide use both in terms of toxicity and
chemistry. Methods used for their determination are reviewed with
an emphasis on recent developments in sample preparation and
quantification.


© Thomson

79. Analyzing correlations between stream and
watershed attributes.


Sickle, J. van

Journal of the American
Water Resources Association
39 (3): 717-726. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
GB651.W315;

ISSN: 1093-474X

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

80. Animal Agriculture: Information on Waste
Management and Water Quality Issues: Briefing Report to the
Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S.
Senate.


Atkins, L. L.; Jones, James R.; Van
Sickle, L. D.; Vermillion, S. B.; Brown, G. T.; Klaudt, S. A.; and
Goldfarb, L. L.; U. S. General Accounting Office.


U. S. General Accounting Office
[Also available as: GAO/RCED-95-200BR], 1995.


Notes: Series: Briefing Report to the Committee on
Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate
(text/html)


NAL Call #: TD930 A75 1995

http://www.gao.gov/archive/1995/rc95200b.pdf

Descriptors:  
program evaluation/ governmental
programs and projects/ conservation programs/ USDA/ animal manure
management/ animal production/ concentrated animal feeding
operations/ waste management/ water pollution/ nonpoint source
pollution/ agricultural runoff/ water quality/ geographical
distribution/ industry trends/ best management practices/ public
finance/ decision support systems/ United States/ CAFOs/
BMPs


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




81. Animal Agriculture: Waste Management
Practices: Report to the Honorable Tom Harkin, Ranking Minority
Member, Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S.
Senate.


U. S. General Accounting
Office.


U. S. General Accounting Office
[Also available as: GAO/RCED-99-205], 1999 (text/html)


NAL Call #: TD930.2 U55 1999

http://www.gao.gov/archive/1999/rc99205.pdf

Descriptors:  
program evaluation/ governmental
programs and projects/ USDA/ Agricultural Research Service/
Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service/
Environmental Protection Agency/ animal manure management/ waste
management/ best management practices/ nonpoint source pollution/
agricultural runoff/ water quality/ bioenergy/ public finance/
research support/ agricultural policy / decision support systems/
United States/ CSREES/ BMPs/ EPA


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

82. Animal diet modification to decrease the
potential for nitrogen and phosphorus pollution.


Klopfenstein, T.

Ames, Iowa: Council for
Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST); Issue Paper No. 21,
2002. 16 p.


Descriptors:  
livestock feeding/ animal nutrition/
animal manures/ nutrients/ nitrogen/ phosphorus/ water
pollution

83. Animal production, manure management and
pathogens: A review.


Bicudo JR; Goyal SM; Zhu J; and
Moore JA.


In: Animal, agricultural and food
processing wastes: Proceedings of the Eighth International
Symposium.
(Held 9 Oct
2000-11 Oct 2000 at Des Moines, Iowa.); pp. 507-521;
2000.


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

84. Animal waste and the land-water
interface.


Steele, Kenneth F.

Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers; 589
p.: ill., maps. (1995)


Notes: Based on a conference held in Fayetteville,
Arkansas,July 16-19, 1995. Includes bibliographical references and
index.


NAL Call #:  TD930.A55--1995;

ISBN: 1566701899 (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Animal waste---Management/ Animal
waste---Environmental aspects/ Watershed management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

85. Animal waste management and
microorganisms.


Nakai Y

Animal Science
Journal
72 (1): 1-13; 48 ref.
(2001)


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

86. Animal Waste Management and the
Environment: Background for Current Issues.


Copeland, C. and Zinn,
J.


Congressional Research Service
(CRS) [Also available as: CRS Report for Congress 98-451], 1999
(text/html)


NAL Call #: TD930.2.C66 1998

http://cnie.org/NLE/CRSreports/Agriculture/ag-48.cfm

Descriptors:  
animal manures/ agricultural wastes/
animal manure management/ waste management/ environmental quality/
water pollution/ livestock production/ concentrated animal feeding
operations/ public health/ cost benefit analysis/ environmental
policy/ agricultural policy/ laws and regulations/ United States/
CAFOs


Abstract:  Waste from animal agriculture is an
increasingly prominent environmental quality issue. This background
report describes the livestock production industry' today along
with public health and environmental concerns related to the
industry. It summarizes policies and programs of the Department of
Agriculture and the Environmental Protection Agency and recent
Clinton Administration initiatives; state laws and programs
concerning animal waste management; and dialogues on problems and
solutions initiated by some segments of this industry. The report
reviews congressional responses to the issues (including two bills
5. 1323 and H.R. 3232) and outlines policy questions likely to
shape congressional action. It will be updated if there is major
congressional action.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




87. Animal waste utilization: Effective use of
manure as a soil resource.


Hatfield, Jerry L. and Stewart, B.
A.


Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press; 320
p.: ill. (1998)


NAL Call #:  S655.A57--1998;

ISBN: 1575040689

Descriptors:  
Farm manure---Congresses

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

88. Anthropogenic effects on the biodiversity
of riparian wetlands of a northern temperate landscape.


Mensing, D. M.; Galatowitsch, S.
M.; and Tester, J. R.


Journal of environmental
management
53 (4): 349-377.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
HC75.E5J6;

ISSN: 0301-4797

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

89. Anti-quality effects of insects feeding on
rangeland plants: A review.


Campbell, J. B.

Journal of Range
Management
54 (4): 462-465.
(July 2001)


NAL Call #:  
60.18-J82;

ISSN: 0022-409X [JRMGAQ]

Descriptors:  
rangelands/ pasture plants/ insect
pests/ defoliation/ quality/ nutritive value/ geographical
distribution/ ecology/ biology/ pest management/ pest control/
pogonomyrmex/ orthoptera/ lepidoptera/ miridae/ literature reviews/
grasshoppers/ hemilenca oliviae


Abstract: The anti-quality effects of the major
groups of insects that utilize rangeland plants for food is
discussed. The biology, ecology, geographical distribution and
economic thresholds of grasshoppers, crickets, Western harvester
ants, ranch caterpillars, big-eyed or black grass bugs, and white
grubs are reviewed. Also discussed are practical pest management
strategies if they exist. Most of these rely on the integration of
good range management practices and the control
strategy.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

90. Antibiotic use in plant
agriculture.


McManus, Patricia S; Stockwell,
Virginia O; Sundin, George W; and Jones, Alan L


Annual Review of
Phytopathology
40: 443-465.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
464.8 An72;

ISSN: 0066-4286

Descriptors:  
Pest Assessment Control and
Management/ Tn5393: antibacterial drug/ Tn5393: antiinfective drug/
streptomycin: antibacterial drug/ streptomycin: antiinfective drug/
tetracycline: antibacterial drug/ tetracycline: antiinfective drug/
Erwinia amylovora (Enterobacteriaceae)/ Pseudomonas spp.
(Pseudomonadaceae)/ Xanthomonas campestris (Pseudomonadaceae)/
pathogens/ antibiotic resistance: plant pathogens/
Enterobacteriaceae/ Facultatively Anaerobic Gram Negative Rods/
Eubacteria/ Bacteria/ Microorganisms/ Pseudomonadaceae/ Gram
Negative Aerobic Rods and Cocci/ antibiotic use/ applied and field
techniques/ therapeutic and prophylactic techniques


© Thomson

91. APEX: A new tool for predicting the effects
of climate and CO2 changes on erosion and water quality.


Williams, J. R.; Arnold, J. G.;
Srinivasan, R.; and


Ramanarayanan, T. S.

In: Modelling soil erosion by
water/ Boardman, J. and Favis-Mortlock, D.; Series: NATO ASI /
Global Environmental Change (Series I) 55.


Berlin: Springer, 1998; pp.
441-449.


ISBN: 3-540-64034-7

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

92. The application of climatic data for
planning and management of sustainable rainfed and irrigated crop
production.


Smith, M.

Agricultural and Forest
Meteorology
103 (1/2):
99-108. (June 2000)


NAL Call #:  
340.8-AG8;

ISSN: 0168-1923.

Notes: Special issue: Agrometeorology in the 21st
century: Needs and perspectives / edited by M.V.K. Sivakumar, C.J.
Stigter, and D. Rijks. Paper presented at an international workshop
held February 15-17, 1999, Accra, Ghana.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
agriculture/ dry farming/ rain/
irrigation/ climatic factors/ weather data/ planning/ irrigation
systems/ sustainability/ water resources/ water use/ water use
efficiency/ evapotranspiration/ relative humidity/ solar radiation/
wind speed/ estimation/ mathematical models/ estimates/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

93. The application of gas chromatography to
environmental analysis.


Santos, F J and Galceran, M
T


Trends in Analytical
Chemistry
21 (9-10): 672-685.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
QD71.T7;

ISSN: 0165-9936

Descriptors:  
alkane: pollutant/ brominated flame
retardant: pollutant/ dibenzofuran: pollutant/ halogenated
compound: pollutant/ naphthalene: pollutant/ organochlorine
pesticide: pollutant/ pesticide: pollutant/ polybrominated
biphenyl: pollutant/ polybrominated diphenylether: pollutant/
polychlorinated biphenyls: pollutant/ polychlorinated dibenzo p
dioxin: pollutant/ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: pollutant/
terphenyl: pollutant/ volatile organic compound: pollutant/ air
pollution/ environment/ sediment pollution/ soil pollution/ water
pollution


Abstract: Nowadays, gas chromatography (GC)
continues to play an important role in the identification and
quantification of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment. The
present article describes current state-of-the-art capillary GC in
the analysis of various classes of persistent organic contaminants
in air, water, soils, sediments and biota. Special attention is
given to sample-preparation techniques. The organic pollutant
groups covered in this review are: volatile organic compounds
(VOCs); polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); pesticides; and,
halogenated compounds. These last include polychlorinated
dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyl,
terphenyls, naphthalenes and alkanes, organochlorine pesticides,
and the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated biphenyls and
polybrominated diphenylethers. The use of capillary-GC columns, the
type of column, the need for multi-dimensional GC techniques, and
the advantages and limitations of the available detection systems
for the analysis of these compounds are discussed. Trends and
future perspectives of capillary GC in the field of environmental
analysis are also commented on and discussed.


© Thomson

94. Application of soil quality to monitoring
and management: Paradigms from rangeland ecology.


Herrick, J. E.; Brown, J. R.;
Tugel, A. J.; Shaver, P. L.; and Havstad, K. M.


Agronomy Journal
94 (1): 3-11. (Jan. 2002-Feb.
2002)


NAL Call #:  
4-AM34P;

ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT].

Notes: Paper presented at the symposium, "Soil quality
as an indicator of sustainable land management: Demonstrated
successes and continued needs," held November 3, 1999, Salt Lake
City, Utah. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
rangelands/ ecology/ soil/ quality/
monitoring/ land management/ nature conservation/ agricultural
land/ indicators/ soil physical properties/ stability/
infiltration/ soil water content/ site factors/ weeds/ invasion/
erosion/ spatial variation/ literature reviews


Abstract: Recent interest in soil quality and
rangeland health, and the large areas set aside under the USDA
Conservation Reserve Program, have contributed to a gradual
convergence of assessment, monitoring, and management approaches in
croplands and rangelands. The objective of this paper is to
describe a basis for integrating soils and soil quality into
rangeland monitoring, and through monitoring, into management.
Previous attempts to integrate soil indicators into rangeland
monitoring programs have often failed due to a lack of
understanding of how to apply those indicators to ecosystem
function and management. We discuss four guidelines that we have
used to select and interpret soil and soil quality indicators in
rangelands and illustrate them using a recently developed rangeland
monitoring system. The guidelines include (i) identifying a suite
of indicators that are consistently correlated with the functional
status of one or more critical ecosystem processes, including those
related to soil stability, soil water infiltration, and the
capacity of the ecosystem to recover following disturbance; (ii)
basing indicator selection on inherent soil and site
characteristics and on site- or project-specific resource concerns,
such as erosion or species invasion; (iii) using spatial
variability in developing and interpreting indicators to make them
more representative of ecological processes; and (iv) interpreting
indicators in the context of an understanding of dynamic, nonlinear
ecological processes defined by thresholds. The approach defined by
these guidelines may serve as a paradigm for applying the soil
quality concept in other ecosystems, including forests and
ecosystems managed. for annual and perennial crop
production.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

95. Applications of fractals in soil and
tillage research: A review.


Perfect, E. and Kay, B.
D.


Soil and Tillage
Research
36 (1-2): 1-20.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S48;

ISSN: 0167-1987

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

96. Applied disequilibriums: Riparian habitat
management for wildlife.


Boyce, M. S. and Payne, N.
F.


In: Ecosystem management:
Applications for sustainable forest and wildlife resources/ Boyce,
M. S. and Haney, A.


New Haven, Conn.: Yale University
Press, 1997; pp. 133-146.


ISBN: 0-300-06902-2; Conference: Based on a symposium
on ecosystem management held at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens
Point, 3-5 March, 1994


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

97. Applied wetlands science and
technology.


Kent, Donald M.

Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers;
454 p.: ill. (2001)


Notes: 2nd ed.; Includes bibliographical references and
index.


NAL Call #:  QH75-.A44-2000;

ISBN: 156670359X (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Wetland conservation/ Ecosystem
management/ Wetlands/ Water quality management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

98. Applying landscape ecology in biological
conservation.


Gutzwiller, K. J.

New York: Springer; xxvii, 518 p.,
[2] p. of plates: ill., maps (some col.); 24 cm. (2002)


NAL Call #:  QH541.15.L35 A66 2002; ISBN: 0387986537

Descriptors:  
Landscape ecology/ Nature
conservation


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

99. An appraisal of biological diversity
'standards' for forest plantation.


Spellerberg, I. F. and

Sawyer, J. W. D.

In: Assessment of biodiversity for
improved forest planning: Proceedings of the Conference on
Assessment of Biodiversity for Improved Planning.
(Held 7 Oct 1996-11 Oct 1996 at Monte
Verita, Switzerland.) Bachmann, P.; Kohl, M.; and Paivinen, R.
(eds.)


Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic
Publishers; pp. 361-365; 1998.


NAL Call #:  SD1.F627-v.51;

ISBN: 0792348729

Descriptors:  
forest plantations/ biodiversity/
evaluation/ literature reviews/ forest management/ standards/
nature conservation/ land use/ wildlife/ forest ecology/
objectives


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

100. An appraisal of methods for measurement of
pesticide transformation in the groundwater zone.


Leistra, Minze and Smelt, Johan
H


Pest Management
Science
57 (4): 333-340.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
SB951-.P47;

ISSN: 1526-498X

Descriptors:  
pesticides: pollutant, toxin/
biogeochemical conditions/ catalysis/ drinking water/
ecotoxicology/ groundwater zones/ hydrolysis/ measurement methods/
microbial transformation: aerobic, anaerobic/ pH/ pesticide
registration/ redox potential/ subsoils


Abstract: Laboratory and field studies show that
pesticides may be transformed in the groundwater zone. Possible
reaction mechanisms are chemical hydrolysis, catalytic reduction
and aerobic or anaerobic microbial transformation. Transformation
in the groundwater zone can be an important element in the advanced
evaluation of the potential risk arising from a pesticide in the
public drinking water supply. However, rate and pathway of
transformation can show large differences, depending on the
bio-geochemical conditions in the groundwater zone. Knowledge of
the reaction mechanisms and the effect of aquifer conditions would
allow vulnerable and low-vulnerable application areas for a
pesticide to be delimited. An outline is given of possible
approaches to quantifying these transformation processes and using
the results in registration procedures, especially in the EU and
its member states. Furthermore, areas where there is need for
continued research and better understanding are
highlighted.


© Thomson

101. An approach for assessing wetland functions
using hydrogeomorphic classification, reference wetlands, and
functional indices.


Smith, R. Daniel. and United
States. Army. Corps of Engineers. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways
Experiment Station. Wetlands Research Program (U.S.).


Vicksburg, Miss.: U.S. Army
Engineer Waterways Experiment Station; Series: Wetlands Research
Program technical report WRP-DE-9. (1995)


Notes: Title from title page. "Final report." "October
1995." Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  GB624-.A76-1995

http://www.wes.army.mil/el/wetlands/pdfs/wrpde9.pdf

Descriptors:  
Wetlands---United States/ Ecosystem
management---United States/ wetlands


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

102. An approach to describing ecosystem
performance "through the eyes of salmon".


Mobrand, Lars E; Lichatowich, James
A; Lestelle, Lawrence C; and Vogel, Thomas S


Canadian Journal of
Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
54 (12): 2964-2973. (1997);

ISSN: 0706-652X

Descriptors:  
Oncorhynchus spp. (Osteichthyes)/
Animals/ Chordates/ Fish/ Nonhuman Vertebrates/ Vertebrates/
capacity/ ecosystem performance/ habitats/ productivity/ watershed
health


Abstract: The intent of this paper is to show that
discussion of watershed health and salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.)
performance can incorporate a much greater degree of complexity
without loss of clarity. We can and should include more
temporal-spatial detail, more life history complexity, and more
watershed-specific information. The framework and performance
measures used in watershed management generally, and salmon
management specifically, are inadequate. The bottleneck metaphor is
cited all too frequently as a basis for discussion. The bottleneck
analogy is useful in understanding capacity, but capacity alone
cannot explain observed responses of salmon populations to
environmental change. An argument can be made that where protection
and enhancement of weak stocks is the priority, productivity is a
more critical variable. However, a framework built only around
productivity and capacity is also not sufficient. It neglects the
need for connectivity of habitats that salmon must pass through to
complete their life histories. Adding life history diversity as the
third component of performance provides the time and spare
structure needed to deal with connectivity while also allowing for
integration of populations where they mingle.


© Thomson

103. An Approach to improving decision making in
wetland restoration and creation.


Kentula, Mary E. and Hairston, Ann
J.


Boca Raton: C.K. Smoley; xxix, 151
p.: ill. (1993)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 135-146)
and index.


NAL Call #:  QH76.A67-1993;

ISBN: 0873719379

Descriptors:  
Wetland conservation---United States
Decision making/ Restoration ecology---United States Evaluation/
Wetlands---United States---Management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

104. An approach to nutrient management on dairy
farms.


Kuipers, Abele; Mandersloot, Frits;
and Zom, Ronald LG


Journal of Animal
Science
77 (2 [supplement]):
84-89. (1999)


NAL Call #:  
49 J82;

ISSN: 0021-8812

Descriptors:  
ammonia/ nitrate/ nitrogen/
phosphorus/ urea/ cattle (Bovidae): dairy animal, female/ Animals /
Artiodactyls/ Chordates/ Mammals/ Nonhuman Mammals/ Nonhuman
Vertebrates/ Vertebrates/ farm model/ grazing/ management
practices/ manure/ milk production/ nutrient management


Abstract: In the European Union, groundwater should
contain less than 50 mg of nitrate/L. Individual countries have
developed alternative strategies for phosphorus (P). In The
Netherlands, regulations based on P limited the amount of manure
applied per hectare. A more balanced P supply to the land has been
achieved by transport of manure from surplus to deficit regions.
Costs of processing of manure to pellets appeared to be (too) high.
In animal production experiments, lowering the P content of
concentrates and mineral supplements reduced P losses without an
adverse effect on production. In addition to the European guideline
for nitrate, ammonia volatilization should be reduced by 50 to 70%.
Management practices for reducing nitrogen (N) losses were studied
with a farm model, developed at PR. A combination of a more
efficient use of fertilizer N, restricted grazing, and a more
balanced diet, and, to a lesser extent, higher milk production per
cow resulted in considerable reductions in nitrate leaching. The
application of slurry by injection diminishes the ammonia
volatilization at farm level by almost 50%. This technique has
become obligatory, and is only allowed during the growing season.
Other techniques, like low emission housing and covering of slurry
storage have relatively high costs. Starting in 1998, farmers have
to keep a record of nutrients on a balance sheet. A tax will be
imposed on surpluses on N and P. This new instrument replaces the
regulations based on P. To further improve efficiency of use of N
and P, farmers have the nutrient balance sheet available as an
integrated management tool. Urea content in bulk milk has been
introduced as a new indicator for the utilization of N in the diet.
Also, fertilizer applications are improved. Furthermore, an
experimental farm was set up to integrate all available expertise
and analyze the resulting nutrient flows and farm
performance.


© Thomson

105. Approaches to assess the environmental
impact of organic farming with particular regard to
Denmark.


Hansen, B.; Alroe, H. F.; and
Kristensen, E. S.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
83 (1/2): 11-26.
(Jan. 2001)


NAL Call #:  
S601.A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO].

Notes: Special issue: A tribute to Hamish Sturrock.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
organic farming/ environmental
impact/ intensive farming/ sustainability/ indicators/ nitrate/
phosphorus/ leaching/ soil organic matter/ soil structure/ soil
biology/ ecosystems/ arable land/ landscape/ biotopes/ nitrogen/
soil bacteria/ soil fungi/ soil arthropods/ earthworms/ rotations/
fertilizers/ pesticides/ crop management/ feeds/ literature
reviews/ Denmark


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

106. Approaches to the economic analysis of
erosion and soil conservation: A review.


Calatrava-Leyva, J. and
Gonzalez-Roa, M. C.


In: Soil erosion research for the
21st century: Proceedings of the International Symposium.

(Held 3 Jan 2001-5 Jan 2001 at
Honolulu, Hawaii.) Ascough II, J. C. and Flanagan, D. C.
(eds.)


St Joseph, Mo.: American Society of
Agricultural Engineers; pp. 203-206; 2001.


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

107. Aquatic ecosystems in agricultural
landscapes: A review of ecological indicators and achievable
ecological outcomes.


Watzin, M. C. and McIntosh, A.
W.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
54 (4): 636-644.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
56.8-J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  
agricultural land/ landscape
ecology/ biological indicators/ aquatic communities/ environmental
impact/ land use/ pollution/ point sources/ streams/ watersheds/
nonpoint source pollution


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

108. Aquatic Sediments.

Garton, L. S.; Sylvester, B. A.;
Autenrieth, R. L.; and Bonner, J. S.


Water Environment
Research
65 (6): 534-547.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47

Descriptors:  
Aquatic soils/ Bottom sediments/
Literature review/ Path of pollutants/ Reviews/ Sediment analysis/
Sediment chemistry/ Sediment contamination/ Dredging/ Environmental
impact/ Fate of pollutants/ Metals/ Model studies/ Nutrients/
Organic carbon/ Organic compounds/ Oxygen demand/ Paleolimnology/
Radioisotopes/ Sediment transport/ Suspended sediments/ Toxicity/
Sources and fate of pollution/ Identification of pollutants/
Preparation of reviews


Abstract: Many conference proceedings, texts, and
summary documents address the topic of aquatic sediments. The
development of new methods and improvement or modification of
existing methods have been reported for the broad categories of
screening methods for organisms, sampling techniques and devices,
characterization, biological techniques and analyses, and inorganic
and organic compounds. Articles on biological activity are broken
into several broad categories: species distribution, indicator
organisms, metabolic effects, toxicity, productivity, organic and
inorganic compounds, and physical and chemical processes. Several
studies have investigated nutrient distribution and transformation
in streams and sediments. Other topics include extraction
procedures used to determine phosphorus and organic phosphorus
concentrations in suspended sediments, anthropogenic activities
that influence heavy metals concentrations and trace metals in
marine and freshwater sediments, and factors affecting metal
transport. Many organic compounds including pesticides, polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons, surfactants, phenols and polychlorinated
biphenyls, have been studied in sediments. A comprehensive handbook
of dredging has been published with chapters addressing sediment,
transport of solids, and environmental effects of dredging
activities, including such specific topics as sediment properties
and classification, resuspension of sediment, and environmental
impacts of dredging. Radionuclides in sediments have been studied
in relation to mobility, complexation, and removal. Sediment
organic carbon accumulation, cycling, and relation to aquatic
organisms have also been examined. It has been shown that oxygen
concentrations have great effects on sediment systems and
processes. Most of the sediment modeling papers focus on particle
transport processes (water column transport and bedload movement).
Other research has addressed sediment mobility, sediment
suspensions, sediment transport


models, and use of sediments in
paleolimnology. (Geiger-PTT) 35 004736037


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

109. Aquatic Sediments.

Sylvester, B. A.; Garton, L. S.;
and Autenrieth, R. L.


Water Environment
Research
66 (4): 496-516.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
literature review/ aquatic
environment/ sedimentation/ pollutants/ sediment load/ sediment
concentration/ sediment sampler/ sedimentary basins/ sediments/
sampling/ sediment pollution/ lacustrine sedimentation/ sediment
analysis/ literature reviews/ Sources and fate of pollution/
Behavior and fate characteristics


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

110. Aquatic Sediments.

Fuller, C. B.; Quinney, M. J.;
Malupillai, N.; Sundaresan, A.; Swaroop, S.; and Ernest, A.
N.


Water Environment
Research
67 (4): 614-629.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
literature review/ aquatic soils/
sediments/ sediment concentration/ substrates/ toxicity/ benthic
fauna/ benthic flora/ sediment pollution/ pollution effects/
benthos/ pollutant persistence/ sediment transport/ detritus/
Erosion and sedimentation/ Effects on organisms


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

111. Aquatic Sediments.

Cheng, Chen-Yu; Sumner, P. L.;
Fuller, C. B.; and Ernest, A. N.


Water Environment
Research
70 (4): 780-807.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
Sediments/ Erosion/ Deposition/
Literature Review/ Sedimentation/ Spillways/ Sedimentary Basins/
Erosion and sedimentation


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

112. Aquatic Sediments.

Hernandez, E. A. and Ernest, A.
N.


Water Environment
Research
5:

948-973. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
Sediments/ Water Depth/
Stratification/ Lakes/ Reviews/ Pollutants/ Polychlorinated
Biphenyls / Organic Compounds/ Sampling/ PCB/ Sediment pollution/
Industrial wastes/ Sediment sampling/ Sediment analysis/ Literature
reviews/ PCB compounds/ Sources and fate of pollution/ Behavior and
fate characteristics/ Freshwater pollution


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

113. Aquatic toxicology: Past, present, and
prospects.


Pritchard, John B

Environmental Health
Perspectives
100 (0):
249-257. (1993)


NAL Call #:  
RA565.A1E54;

ISSN: 0091-6765

Descriptors:  
Xenobiotics/ Pollution/ Pesticides/
Metals/ Carcinogens/ fish (Pisces Unspecified)/ mollusks (Mollusca
Unspecified)/ Mollusca (Mollusca Unspecified)/ Osteichthyes
(Osteichthyes)/ animals/ chordates/ invertebrates/ mollusks/
nonhuman vertebrates/ vertebrates


© Thomson

114. Arbuscular mycorrhiza in soil quality
assessment.


Kling, Monica and Jakobsen,
Iver


Ambio 27 (1): 29-34. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
QH540.A52;

ISSN: 0044-7447

Descriptors:  
nutrient: uptake/ arbuscular
mycorrhiza (Phycomycetes)/ Fungi/ Microorganisms/ Nonvascular
Plants/ Plants/ drought/ root pathogens/ soil aggregates/ soil
quality


Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi
constitute a living bridge for the transport of nutrients from soil
to plant roots, and are considered as the group of soil
microorganisms that is of most direct importance to nutrient uptake
by herbaceous plants. AM fungi also contribute to the formation of
soil aggregates and to the protection of plants against drought and
root pathogens. Assessment of soil quality, defined as the capacity
of a soil to function within ecosystem boundaries to sustain
biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and
promote plant health, should therefore include both quantitative
and qualitative measurements of this important biological resource.
Various methods for the assessment of the potential for mycorrhiza
formation and function are presented. Examples are given of the
application of these methods to assess the impact of pesticides on
the mycorrhiza.


© Thomson

115. Arbuscular mycorrhizae and the phosphorus
nutrition of maize: A review of Guelph studies.


Miller, Murray H

Canadian Journal of Plant
Science
80 (1): 47-52.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
450-C16;

ISSN: 0008-4220

Descriptors:  
phosphorus: nutrient/ Brassica napus
[canola] (Cruciferae): oil crop/ Zea mays [maize] (Gramineae):
grain crop, host/ arbuscular mycorrhizae (Phycomycetes): symbiont/
Angiosperms/ Dicots/ Fungi/ Microorganisms/ Monocots/ Nonvascular
Plants/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants/ fertilizer
efficiency


Abstract: The role of mycorrhizae in phosphorus
nutrition of maize (Zea mays L.) is related to the fact that the P
concentration in maize shoots at the four- to five-leaf stage
affects final grain yield. In the early 1980s we observed greater
early-season shoot-P concentration (mg g-1) and P absorption (mg
plant-1) from a notill compared to a conventional tillage system.
Further studies established that the greater P absorption is due to
a more effective arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis when the
soil is not disturbed. The greater P absorption is largely a result
of the undisrupted mycelium present in an undisturbed soil, rather
than to increased colonization. This mycelium retains viability
through extended periods in frozen soil. In the spring this mycelia
network is able to acquire P from the soil and deliver it to the
plant immediately upon becoming connected to a newly developing
root system. Increased P absorption has not resulted in increased
grain yield in field trials. Some additional factor limits yield
with no-till maize preventing the advantage of early P absorption
from being realized as yield. When maize follows a non-mycorrhizal
crop such as canola (Brassica napus L.), mycorrhizal colonization
is delayed, reducing early-season P absorption. Yield reductions
may occur. In summary, AM mycorrhizae are involved in P nutrition
of maize and an understanding of their functioning will assist us
in modifying management practices to maximize economic returns
through increased fertilizer efficiency.


© Thomson

116. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as components
of sustainable soil-plant systems.


Hooker, John E and Black, Kyrsten
E


Critical Reviews in
Biotechnology
15 (3-4):
201-212. (1995)


NAL Call #:  
TP248.13.C74;

ISSN: 0738-8551

Descriptors:  
Angiospermae (Angiospermae)/
Phycomycetes (Phycomycetes)/ angiosperms/ fungi/ microorganisms/
nonvascular plants/ plants/ spermatophytes/ vascular plants/
agriculture/ crop rotation/ fertilizer use/ pesticide use/
selection/ tillage


© Thomson

117. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi: Potential
roles in weed management.


Jordan, N. R.; Zhang, J.; and
Huerd, S.


Weed Research 40 (5): 397-410. (Oct. 2000)

NAL Call #:  
79.8-W412;

ISSN: 0043-1737 [WEREAT]

Descriptors:  
weeds/ vesicular arbuscular
mycorrhizas/ mycorrhizal fungi/ weed control/ plant ecology/ plant
communities/ host plants/ botanical composition/ crop yield/ yield
losses/ interactions/ soil biology/ beneficial organisms/
conservation tillage/ ground cover/ cover crops/ green manures/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

118. Architectural features of agricultural
habitats and their impact on the spider inhabitants.


Rypstra, A. L.; Carter, P. E.;
Balfour, R. A.; and Marshall, S. D.


Journal of
Arachnology
27 (1): 371-377.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
QL451.J6;

ISSN: 0161-8202

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

119. Assessing and mitigating N2O emissions from
agricultural soils.


Mosier, A R; Duxbury, J M; Freney,
J R; Heinemeyer, O; and Minami, K


Climatic Change 40 (1):  7-38. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
QC980 .C55;

ISSN: 0165-0009

Descriptors:  
nitrogen: fertilizer/ nitrous oxide:
pollutant/ agricultural cropping/ emissions mitigation/
fertilization/ pollution control


Abstract: Agricultural cropping and animal
production systems are important sources of atmospheric nitrous
oxide (N2O). The assessment of the importance of N fertilization
from synthetic fertilizer, animal wastes used as fertilizers and
from N incorporated into the soil through biological N fixation, to
global N2O emissions presented in this paper suggests that this
source has been underestimated. We estimate that agricultural
systems produce about one fourth of global N2O emissions. Methods
of mitigating these emissions are presented which, if adopted
globally could decrease annual N2O emissions from cropped soils by
about 20%.


© Thomson

120. Assessing and monitoring forest
biodiversity: A suggested framework and indicators.


Noss, R. F.

Forest Ecology and
Management
115 (2/3):
135-146. (1999)


NAL Call #:  
SD1.F73;

ISSN: 0378-1127

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

121. Assessing effects of timber harvest on
riparian zone features and functions for aquatic and wildlife
habitat.


Taratoot, Mark.

Research Triangle Park, N.C.:
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
Improvement; 1 v. (various pagings): ill.; Series: Technical
bulletin (National Council for Air and Stream Improvement) no. 775.
(1999)


Notes: "January 1999." Includes bibliographical
references (p. 36-37).


NAL Call #:  TD899.P3N34-no.775

Descriptors:  
Logging/ Riparian forests, Effect of
water pollution on


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

122. Assessing sediment contamination in
estuaries.


Chapman, Peter M and Wang,
Feiyue


Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry
20 (1): 3-22.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E58;

ISSN: 0730-7268

Descriptors:  
benthic infauna (Organisms)/
estuarine biota (Organisms)/ chemical assessment techniques:
background enrichment, bioavailability, grain size effects,
interstitial water chemistry, sediment quality values/ estuaries:
dissolved oxygen gradients, pH gradients, productive marine
ecosystems, redox potential gradients, temperature gradients,
variable salinity/ estuarine processes/ estuarine sediment:
chemical assessment techniques, community level assessment
techniques, toxicological assessment techniques/ large scale
seasonal species shifts/ paradox of brackish water/ particle
composition/ salinity: contaminant partitioning controlling factor,
interstitial, lateral variation, overlying, temporal variation,
vertical variation/ salt wedge estuaries/ seasonal estuarine
variability/ sediment contamination: estuarine, historic, ongoing/
sediments/ spatial estuarine variability


Abstract: Historic and ongoing sediment
contamination adversely affects estuaries, among the most
productive marine ecosystems in the world. However, all estuaries
are not the same, and estuarine sediments cannot be treated as
either fresh or marine sediments or properly assessed without
understanding both seasonal and spatial estuarine variability and
processes, which are reviewed. Estuaries are physicochemically
unique, primarily because of their variable salinity but also
because of their strong gradients in other parameters, such as
temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, redox potential, and amount and
composition of particles. Salinity (overlying and interstitial)
varies spatially (laterally, vertically) and temporally and is the
controlling factor for partitioning of contaminants between
sediments and overlying or interstitial water. Salinity also
controls the distribution and types of estuarine biota. Benthic
infauna are affected by interstitial salinities that can be very
different than overlying salinities, resulting in large-scale
seasonal species shifts in salt wedge estuaries. There are fewer
estuarine species than fresh or marine species (the paradox of
brackish water). Chemical, toxicological, and community-level
assessment techniques for estuarine sediment are reviewed and
assessed, including chemistry (grain size effects, background
enrichment, bioavailability, sediment quality values, interstitial
water chemistry), biological surveys, and whole sediment toxicity
testing (single-species tests, potential confounding factors,
community level tests, laboratory-to-field comparisons). Based on
this review, there is a clear need to tailor such assessment
techniques specifically for estuarine environments. For instance,
bioavailability models including equilibrium partitioning may have
little applicability to estuarine sediments, appropriate reference
comparisons are difficult in biological surveys, and there are too
few full-gradient estuarine sediment toxicity tests available.
Specific recommendations are made to address these and other
issues.


© Thomson

123. Assessing the impact of pesticides on the
environment.


Werf, H. M. G. van der

Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
60 (2/3): 81-96.
(Dec. 1996)


NAL Call #:  
S601.A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO]

Descriptors:  
agricultural land/ pesticides/
utilization/ environmental impact/ assessment/ methodology/
movement in soil/ dispersion/ sorption/ binding/ biodegradation/
volatilization/ uptake/ dilution/ leaching/ runoff/ toxicity/
simulation models/ health hazards/ exposure/ literature reviews/
human toxicity/ ecotoxicity


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

124. Assessing the relative environmental
impacts of agricultural pesticides: The quest for a holistic
method.


Levitan, L.; Merwin, I.; and
Kovach, J.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
55 (3): 153-168.
(Oct. 1995)


NAL Call #:  
S601.A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO]

Descriptors:  
pest management/ pesticides/
utilization/ environmental impact/ assessment/ systems/ simulation
models/ indexes/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

125. Assessing upland and

riparian areas.

British Columbia Ministry of
Forests


British Columbia, Canada: Ministry
of Forests


Rangeland Health Brochure 1 (68),
2002. 12 p.


http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/pubs/Docs/Bro/Bro68.pdf

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




126. Assessing wetland functional condition in
agricultural landscapes.


Eckles, S. Diane. and United
States. Natural Resources Conservation Service.


Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service; Series:
Wetland technical note 1. (2002)


Notes: Title from web page. "March 2002." Description
based on content viewed May 13, 2003. Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  aQH87.3-.A77-2002


http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/land/pubs/directiv%5F%20files/TN%5FECS%5F190%5F2%5Fa.pdf

Descriptors:  
Wetlands---United States/
Environmental impact analysis---United States/ Wetland
restoration---United States/ Wetland ecology---Environmental
aspects---United States/ Wetland agriculture---United States/
Ecological assessment---Biology---United States/ Agricultural
landscape management---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

127. An assessment of agroforestry systems in
the southern USA.


Zinkhan, F. C. and Mercer, D.
E.


Agroforestry Systems
35 (3): 303-321. (1997)

NAL Call #:  
SD387.M8A3;

ISSN: 0167-4366

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

128. Assessment of aquatic and terrestrial reed
(Phragmites australis) stands.


Gusewell, Sabine and Klotzli,
Frank


Wetlands Ecology and
Management
8 (6): 367-373.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
QH541.5.M3 W472;

ISSN: 0923-4861

Descriptors:  
Phragmites australis (Gramineae)/
Angiosperms/ Monocots/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants/
agriculture/ conference proceedings/ die back/ ecological
significance/ economic significance/ environmental protection/ food
production/ international collaboration/ lakeshore restoration/
literature databases/ nature conservation/ reed progression/ reed
stands: aquatic, terrestrial/ water treatment/ weed control/
wetlands management


Abstract: A survey of recent publications shows that
research on Phragmites australis has often applied character
because of the considerable ecological and economic significance of
the species. The main applications are water treatment, agriculture
(food production or weed control) and nature conservation. In
Europe, most research on natural reed stands has been motivated by
reed die-back and efforts towards protection or restoration. Reed
progression and reed control have been the main concerns in other
parts of the world, and reed progression has also received
increasing attention in Europe. While reed die-back generally
affects aquatic stands, progression can occur at both terrestrial
and aquatic sites, and it can be desired (e.g. lake shore
restoration) or unwanted (e.g. in species-rich fens or marshes).
Therefore, reed stands need to be assessed individually to decide
on management aims and appropriate methods. The varying status of
Phragmites australis formed the background of the 'European Reed
Conference' held in Zurich/Switzerland in October 1998. The seven
contributions published in this special issue are introduced with
particular reference to differences between aquatic and terrestrial
reed stands and to approaches used in their assessment.


© Thomson

129. Assessment of methods to estimate pesticide
concentrations in drinking water sources.


ILSI Risk Science Institute and
United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Pesticide
Programs.


Washington, D.C.  ILSI Risk
Science Institute; x, 29 p.: ill. (1998)


Notes: "April 2, 1998." "Under a cooperative agreement
with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide
Programs"--Cover. Includes bibliographical references (p.
23).


NAL Call #:  TD427.P35A87-1998

Descriptors:  
Water---Pollution---United States/
Pesticides---Environmental aspects---


United States

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

130. Assimilation Efficiencies of Chemical
Contaminants in Aquatic Invertebrates: A Synthesis.


Wang, Wen-Xiong and Fisher, N.
S.


Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry
9: 2034-2045.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E58;

ISSN: 0730-7268

Descriptors:  
Chemical pollutants/
Bioaccumulation/ Water pollution/ Sediment pollution/ Food chains/
Aquatic animals/ Aquatic organisms/ Trophic levels/ Chemical
pollution/ Metals/ Sediments/ Pollution/ Reviews/ Invertebrata/
Contaminants/ Chemicals/ Diets/ Ingestion/ Toxicology/ Toxicity/
Invertebrates/ Aquatic Environment/ Foods/ Sediment Contamination/
bioavailability/ Physiology, biochemistry, biophysics/ Pollution
Organisms/ Ecology/ Toxicology/ Effects on organisms/ Reviews/
Toxicology and health/ Effects of pollution


Abstract: Assimilation efficiencies of contaminants
from ingested food are critical for understanding chemical
accumulation and trophic transfer in aquatic invertebrates.
Assimilation efficiency is a first-order physiological parameter
that can be used to systematically compare the bioavailability of
different contaminants from different foods. The various techniques
used to measure contaminant assimilation efficiencies are reviewed.
Pulse-chase feeding techniques and the application of
gamma-emitting radiotracers have been invaluable in measuring metal
assimilation efficiencies in aquatic animals. Uniform radiolabeling
of food is required to measure assimilation, but this can be
difficult when sediments are the food source. Biological factors
that influence contaminant assimilation include food quantity and
quality, partitioning of contaminants in the food particles, and
digestive physiology of the animals. Other factors influencing
assimilation include the behavior of the chemical within the
animal's gut and its associations with different geochemical
fractions in food particles. Assimilation efficiency is a critical
parameter to determine (and to make predictions of) bioaccumulation
of chemicals from dietary exposure. Robust estimates of
assimilation efficiency coupled with estimates of aqueous uptake
can be used to determine the relative importance of aqueous and
dietary exposures. For bioaccumulation of metals from sediments,
additional studies are required to test whether metals bound to the
acid-volatile sulfide fraction of sediments can be available to
benthic deposit-feeding invertebrates. Most assimilation efficiency
studies have focused on chemical transfer in organisms at the
bottom of the food chain; additional studies are required to
examine chemical transfer at higher trophic levels.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

131. Atmospheric ammonia and ammonium transport
in Europe and critical loads: A review.


Ferm, Martin

Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems
51 (1): 5-17.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
S631 .F422;

ISSN: 1385-1314

Descriptors:  
ammonia: pollutant/ ammonia
deposition/ ammonia emissions/ atmospheric transport/ critical
loads


Abstract: The atmosphere in Europe is polluted by
easily available nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) mainly from
livestock (NH3), traffic (NOx) and stationary combustion sources
(NOx). The nitrogen emission from various European sources
decreases in the order: agriculture, road traffic, stationary
sources and other mobile sources (including vehicular emissions
from agriculture), with annual emissions of approximately 4.9, 2.7,
2.7 and 0.8 Mt N respectively. The emissions have increased
dramatically during the latest decades. In the atmosphere the
pollutants are oxidised to more water soluble compounds that are
washed out by clouds and eventually brought back to the earth's
surface again. Since ammonia is emitted in a highly water soluble
form it will also to a substantial degree be dry deposited near the
source. Ammonia is, however, the dominant basic compound in the
atmosphere and will form salts with acidic gases. These salt
particles can be transported long distances especially in the
absence of clouds. The deposition close to the source is
substantial, but hard to estimate due to interaction with other
pollutants. Far from the source the deposition of ammonium is on an
annual average halved approximately every 400 km. This short
transport distance and the substantial deposition near the source
makes it possible for countries to control their ammonium
deposition by decreasing their emissions, provided that there is no
country with much higher emission in the direction of the
prevailing wind trajectory. When the easily available nitrogen is
deposited on natural ecosystems (lakes, forests), negative effect
can occur. The effect is determined by the magnitude of the
deposition and the type of ecosystems (its critical load for
nitrogen). In order to reduce the negative effects by controlling
the emissions in a cost-efficient way it is necessary to use
atmospheric transport models and critical loads.


© Thomson

132. The atmospheric budget of oxidized nitrogen
and its role in ozone formation and deposition.


Fowler, David; Flechard, Chris;
Skiba, Ute; Coyle, Mhairi; and Cape, J Neil


New Phytologist 139 (1): 11-23. (1998);

ISSN: 0028-646X

Descriptors:  
nitric oxide/ nitrogen dioxide/
oxidized nitrogen: atmospheric budget/ ozone: deposition,
formation/ plants (Plantae)/ Plants/ soil emissions/ stomatal
uptake


Abstract: Emissions of reactive oxidized nitrogen
(NO and NO2), collectively known as NOx, from human activities are
c. 21 Tg N annually, or 70% of global total emissions. They occur
predominantly in industrialized regions, largely from fossil fuel
combustion, but also from increased use of N fertilizers. Soil
emissions of NO not only make an important contribution to global
totals, but also play a part in regulating the dry deposition of NO
and NO2 (NOx) to plant canopies. Soil microbial production of NO
leads to a soil 'compensation point' for NO deposition or emission,
which depends on soil temperature, N and water status. In warm
conditions, the net emission of NOx from plant canopies contributes
to the photochemical formation of ozone. Moreover, the effect of
NOx emissions from soil is to reduce net rates of NOx deposition to
terrestrial surfaces over large areas. Increasing anthropogenic
emissions of NOx have led to an approximate doubling in surface O3
concentrations since the last century. NOx acts as a catalyst for
the production of O3 from volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Paradoxically, emission controls on motor vehicles might lead to
increases in O3 concentrations in urban areas. Removal of NO and
NO2 by dry deposition is regulated to some extent by soil
production of NO; the major sink for NO2 is stomatal uptake.
Long-term flux measurements over moorland in Scotland show very
small deposition rates for NO2 at night and before mid-day of 1-4
ng NO2-N m-2 s-1, and similar emission rates during afternoon. The
bidirectional flux gives 24-h average deposition velocities of only
1-2 mm s-1, and implies a long life-time for NOx due to removal by
dry deposition. Rates of removal of O3 at the ground are also
influenced by stomatal uptake, but significant non-stomatal uptake
occurs at night and in winter. Measurements above moorland showed
40% of total annual flux was stomatal, with 60% non-stomatal,
giving nocturnal and winter deposition velocities of 2-3 mm s-1 and
daytime summer values of 10 mm s-1. The stomatal uptake is
responsible for adverse effects on vegetation. The critical level
for O3 exposure (AOT40) is used to derive a threshold O3 stomatal
flux for wheat of 0-5 mug m-2 s-1. Use of modelled stomatal fluxes
rather than exposure might give more reliable estimates of yield
loss; preliminary calculations suggest that the relative grain
yield reduction (%) can be estimated as 38 times the stomatal ozone
flux (g m-2) above the threshold, summed over the growing
season.


© Thomson

133. Atmospheric dispersion of current-use
pesticides: A review of the evidence from monitoring
studies.


Van Dijk, Harrie FG and
 


Guicherit, Robert

Water, Air and Soil
Pollution
115 (1-4): 21-70.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
TD172.W36;

ISSN: 0049-6979

Descriptors:  
atrazine: herbicide, pollutant,
toxin/ current use pesticides: pesticide, pollutant, toxin,
transformation products/ lindane: insecticide, pollutant, toxin/
organophosphate insecticides: insecticide, pollutant, toxin/
application season/ atmospheric dispersion/ coastal waters/ dry
particle deposition/ ecotoxicology/ gas exchange/ mountainous
areas/ pesticide contamination/ remote lakes/ riverine inputs/
seas


Abstract: Recently, evidence has accumulated that
the extensive use of modern pesticides results in their presence in
the atmosphere at many places throughout the world. In Europe over
80 current-use pesticides have been detected in rain and 30 in air.
Similar observations have been made in North America. The compounds
most often looked for and detected are the organochlorine
insecticide lindane and triazine herbicides, especially atrazine.
However, acetanilide and phenoxyacid herbicides, as well as
organophosphorus insecticides have also frequently been found in
rain and air. Concentrations in air normally range from a few pg/m3
to many ng/m3. Concentrations in rain generally range from a few
ng/L to several mug/L. In fog even higher concentrations are
observed. Deposition varies between a few mg/ha/y and more than 1
g/ha/y per compound. However, these estimates are usually based on
the collection and analysis of (bulk) precipitation and do not
include dry particle deposition and gas exchange. Nevertheless,
model calculations, analysis of plant tissue, and first attempts to
measure dry deposition in a more representative way, all indicate
that total atmospheric deposition probably does not normally exceed
a few g/ha/y. So far, little attention has been paid to the
presence of transformation products of modern pesticides in the
atmosphere, with the exception of those of triazine herbicides,
which have been looked for and found frequently. Generally,
current-use pesticides are only detected at elevated concentrations
in air and rain during the application season. The less volatile
and more persistent ones, such as lindane, but to some extent also
triazines, are present in the atmosphere in low concentrations
throughout the year. In agricultural areas, the presence of modern
pesticides in the atmosphere can be explained by the crops grown
and pesticides used on them. They are also found in the air and
rain in areas where they are not used, sometimes even in remote
places, just like their organochlorine predecessors. Concentrations
and levels are generally much lower there. These data suggest that
current-use pesticides can be transported through the atmosphere
over distances of tens to hundreds, and sometimes even more than a
thousand kilometres. The relative importance of these atmospheric
inputs varies greatly. For mountainous areas and remote lakes and
seas, the atmosphere may constitute the sole route of contamination
by pesticides. In coastal waters, on the other hand, riverine
inputs may prevail. To date, little is known about the ecological
significance of these aerial inputs.


© Thomson

134. Atmospheric transport and air-surface
exchange of pesticides.


Bidleman, Terry F

Water, Air and Soil
Pollution
115 (1-4): 115-166.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
TD172.W36;

ISSN: 0049-6979

Descriptors:  
alpha hexachlorochyclohexane:
pollutant, toxin/ atrazine: herbicide, toxin, pollutant/ chiral OC
pesticides: enantiomers, pesticide, toxin, volatilization,
pollutant/ chlorothalonil: fungicide, pollutant, toxin/
chlorpyrifos: insecticide, pollutant, toxin/ endosulfan:
insecticide, toxin, pollutant/ metolachlor: herbicide, toxin,
pollutant/ persistent organic pollutants [POPs]: pollutant, toxin/
terbufos: insecticide, toxin, pollutant/ trifluralin: herbicide,
toxin, pollutant/ PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls]: pollutant,
toxin/ aerosol sorption/ air surface exchange/ atmospheric
transport/ chemical transport distance/ cold regions/
ecotoxicology/ environmental persistence/ environmental
temperatures/ fog/ octanol air partition coefficient/ particle
partitioning/ particle phase/ physiochemical properties/ regional
scale/ sediment/ soil residue data/ soil air exchange/ surface
seawater/ temperate climate/ temperature/ water/ air fugacity
ratio


Abstract: Atmospheric transport and exchange of
pesticides with soil, vegetation, water and atmospheric particles
are discussed, with an emphasis on applying physicochemical
properties of the compound to describe environmental partitioning.
The octanol-air partition coefficient is promoted as a unifying
property for describing volatilization of pesticides from soil and
sorption to aerosols. Present-day sources of organochlorine (OC)
pesticides to the atmosphere are continued usage in certain
countries and volatilization from contaminated soils where they
were used in the past. Models are available to predict
volatilization from soil; however, their implementation is hampered
by lack of soil residue data on a regional scale. The need to
differentiate "new" and "old" sources is increasing, as countries
negotiate international controls on persistent organic pollutants
(POPs). A new technique, based on the analysis of individual
pesticide enantiomers, is proposed to follow emission of chiral OC
pesticides from soil and water. Air monitoring programs in the
Arctic show the ubiquitous presence of OC pesticides, PCBs and
other POPs, and recently a few "modern" pesticides have been
identified in fog and surface seawater. Atmospheric loadings of
POPs to oceans and large lakes take place mainly by air-water gas
exchange. In the case of OC pesticides and PCBs, aquatic systems
are often near air-water equilibrium or even oversaturated.
Measurement of water/air fugacity ratios suggests revolatilization
of PCBs and several OC pesticides in the Great Lakes and, for
alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH), in the Arctic Ocean.
Outgassing of alpha-HCH in large lakes and arctic waters has been
confirmed by enantiomeric tracer studies. The potential for
pesticides to be atmospherically transported depends on their
ability to be mobilized into air and the removal processes that
take place enroute: wet and dry deposition of gases and particles
and chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Measurement of reaction
rate constants for pesticides in the gas and particle phase at a
range of environmental temperatures is a critical research need.
The transport distance of a chemical is related to its overall
environmental persistence, determined by the partitioning among
different compartments (water, sediment, soil, air), degradation
rates in each compartment and mode of emission (into water, soil,
air). Several pesticides found in the arctic environment have
predicted lifetimes in the gas phase of only a few days in
temperate climates, pointing out the need for monitoring and
evaluation of persistence in cold regions.


© Thomson

135. Atmospheric transport and deposition of
pesticides: An assessment of current knowledge.


Van Pul, W Addo J; Bidleman, Terry
F; Brorstrom, Lunden Eva; Builtjes, Peter JH; Dutchak, Sergey;
Duyzer, Jan H; Gryning, Sven Erik; Jones, Kevin C; Van Dijk, Harrie
FG; and Van Jaarsveld, JA


Water, Air and Soil
Pollution
115 (1-4): 245-256.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
TD172.W36;

ISSN: 0049-6979

Descriptors:  
pesticides: atmospheric fate,
deposition, toxin, pesticide, pollutant/ air soil interface/ air
vegetation interface/ air water interface/ atmospheric transport/
ecotoxicology/ pesticide deposition/ physicochemical properties/
risk assessment implications/ surface exchange/ temperature
dependency/ vapor pressure/ Henry's law constant


Abstract: The current knowledge on atmospheric
transport and deposition of pesticides is reviewed and discussed by
a working group of experts during the Workshop on Fate of
pesticides in the atmosphere; implications for risk assessment,
held in Driebergen, the Netherlands, 22-24 April, 1998. In general
there is a shortage of measurement data to evaluate the deposition
and reemission processes. It was concluded that the mechanisms of
transport and dispersion of pesticides can be described similarly
to those for other air pollution components and these mechanisms
are rather well-known. Large uncertainties are present in the
exchange processes at the interface between air and
soil/water/vegetation. In all process descriptions the uncertainty
in the physicochemical properties play an important role.
Particularly those in the vapour pressure, Henry's law constant and
its temperature dependency. More accurate data on physicochemical
properties and particularly the temperature dependencies is
needed.


© Thomson

136. Automated storm water sampling on small
watersheds.


Harmel, R. D.; King, K. W.;
and


Slade, R. M.

Applied Engineering in
Agriculture
19 (6): 667-674.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
S671.A66;

ISSN: 0883-8542.

Notes: Number of References: 18

Descriptors:  
Agriculture/ Agronomy/ storm water
sampling/ automated sampling/ nonpoint source pollution/ water
quality/ strategies/ accuracy


Abstract: Few guidelines are currently available to
assist in designing appropriate automated storm water sampling
strategies for small watersheds. Therefore, guidance is needed to
develop strategies that achieve an appropriate balance between
accurate characterization of storm water quality and loads and
limitations of budget, equipment, and personnel. In this article,
we explore the important sampling strategy components (minimum flow
threshold, sampling interval, and discrete versus composite
sampling) and project-specific considerations (sampling goal,
sampling and analysis resources, and watershed characteristics)
based on personal experiences and pertinent field and analytical
studies. These components and considerations are important in
achieving the balance between sampling goals and limitations
because they determine how and when samples are taken and the
potential sampling error Several general recommendations are made,
including: setting low minimum flow thresholds, using flow-interval
or variable time-interval sampling, and using composite sampling to
limit the number of samples collected. Guidelines are presented to
aid in selection of an appropriate sampling strategy based on
user's project-specific considerations. Our experiences suggest
these recommendations should allow implementation of a successful
sampling strategy for most small watershed sampling projects with
common sampling goals.


© Thomson ISI

137. Background and Overview of Current Sediment
Toxicity Identification Evaluation Procedures.


Ankley, G. T. and
Schubauer-Berigan, M. K.


Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem
Health
4 (3): 133-149.
(1995);


ISSN: 0925-1014

Descriptors:  
toxicity tests/ sediment pollution/
bioassays/ synergism/ pollutant identification/ bioassay/
sediments/ pollutants/ toxicity/ toxicity testing/ water pollution/
Methods and instruments/ Identification of pollutants/ Toxicity
testing


Abstract: Laboratory bioassays can provide an
integrated assessment of the potential toxicity of contaminated
sediments to aquatic organisms; however, toxicity as a sole
endpoint is not particularly useful in terms of identifying
remedial options. To focus possible remediation (e.g., source
control), it is essential to know which contaminants are
responsible for toxicity. Unfortunately, contaminated sediments can
contain literally thousands of potentially toxic compounds. Methods
which rely solely on correlation to identify contaminants
responsible for toxicity are limited in several aspects: (a) actual
compounds causing toxicity might not be measured, (b)
concentrations of potentially toxic compounds may covary, (c) it
may be difficult to assess the bioavailability of contaminants
measured in a sediment, and (d) interactions may not be accounted
for among potential toxicants (e.g., additivity). Toxicity
identification evaluation (TIE) procedures attempt to circumvent
these problems by using toxicity-based fractionation procedures to
implicate specific contaminants as causative toxicants. Phase I of
a TIE characterizes the general physio-chemical nature of sample
toxicants. Phase II employs methods to measure toxicants via
different analytical methods, and Phase III consists of techniques
to confirm that the suspect toxicants identified in Phases I and II
of the TIE actually are responsible for toxicity. These TIE
procedures have been used to investigate the toxicity of a variety
of samples, including sediments. Herein we present a brief
conceptual overview of the TIE process, and discuss specific
considerations associated with sediment TIE research. Points
addressed include: (a) selection and preparation of appropriate
test fractions, (b) use of benthic organisms for sediment TIE work,
and (c) methods for the identification of common sediment
contaminants.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

138. Background of the MSEA-RZWQM modeling
project.


Watts, D. G.; Fausey, N. R.; and
Bucks, D. A.


Agronomy Journal
91 (2): 169-170. (Mar. 1999-Apr.
1999)


NAL Call #:  
4-AM34P;

ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT]

Descriptors:  
roots/ soil water/ water quality/
mathematical models/ water pollution/ fertilizers/ economic
analysis/ simulation models/ calibration/ validity/ databases/
groundwater/ groundwater pollution/ pesticide residues/ Iowa/
Minnesota/ Missouri/ Nebraska/ Ohio/ Colorado


Abstract: The Management System Evaluation Areas
(MSEA) project was established in 1990 as a part of the Midwest
Water Quality Initiative to evaluate the effect of agricultural
management practices and systems on the quality of water resources,
to increase understanding of processes affecting water
contamination, and to develop cost effective strategies to reduce
water contamination from pesticides and plant nutrients. The
midwest was chosen because it produces so much of the country's
corn (>80%) and soybean (approximately equal to 70%) crops, and
consumes >50% of the N fertilier and almost 60% of the
herbicides applied. The MSEA project collected a large volume of
data across a wide region. Properly calibrated and validated,
simulation models could use this database to estimate water quality
impact over much longer periods than the expected life of the MSEA
field program and to simulate responses for other combinations of
soil, management systems, and weather conditions. The Root Zone
Water Quality Model (RZWQM) was chosen for model improvement,
calibration, and validation, to be followed by multilocation
simulation of several specific management systems used in Midwest
corn and corn-soybean production. Model improvement was an
iterative process across multiple location. The next seven papers
in this issue provide an overview of RZWQM Version 3.2, an
explanation of the calibration-validation process, and
documentation of that process and the modeling at MSEA locations in
Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Colorado.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

139. Bacteriophages as Indicators of
Pollution.


Armon, R. and Kott, Y.

Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology
26 (4): 299-335. (1996)

NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1C7;

ISSN: 1064-3389

Descriptors:  
water pollution/ pathogens/
indicators/ viruses/ public health/ bacteriophage/ pollution
control/ indicator species/ bacteriophages/ phages/ pollution
indicators/ reviews/ bioindicators/ viruses/ Sources and fate of
pollution/ Prevention and control/ Other water systems/ Freshwater
pollution


Abstract: Water pollution is an undesired reality
encountered in many countries. To prevent major outbreaks of
infectious disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as
viruses, bacteria, and protozoa that contaminate the water, the
scientific community has searched for various indicators that could
be used to alert their presence. Among the possible indicators,
bacteriophages are receiving increasing attention because of the
concern with waterborne viral diseases. This review summarizes the
advantages and disadvantages of utilizing bacteriophages as
pollution indicators as seen from the somewhat confusing
information accumulated from almost 50 years of research and
proposes some new directions in the application of bacteriophages
as indicators. Bacteriophages have been studied worldwide as
pollution indicators because of the ease of their detection and
their morphological similarity to human viruses. In addition,
detection of human viruses is still a highly skilled and costly
process. Generally speaking, bacteriophages have shown good
potential application as indicators in certain situations, but some
additional effort is needed in order to determine their real
merit.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA)

140. Barrens of the midwest: A review of the
literature.


Heikens, A. L. and Robertson, P.
A.


Castanea 59 (3): 184-194. (Sept. 1994)

NAL Call #:  
450-So82;

ISSN: 0008-7475 [CSTNAC].

Notes: Paper presented at "Barrens Symposium," April
15, 1993, Virginia. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
plant communities/ habitats/
climatic factors/ edaphic factors/ fire effects/ habitat
destruction/ literature reviews/ north central states of
USA


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

141. Bayesian methods for analysing climate
change and water resource uncertainties.


Hobbs, Benjamin F

Journal of Environmental
Management
49 (1): 53-72.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
HC75.E5J6;

ISSN: 0301-4797

Descriptors:  
Bayesian Methods/ Climate Change/
Climatology/ Dempster Shafer Reasoning/ Fuzzy Sets/ Global Warming/
Models And Simulations/ Water Resource Uncertainties/ Wetlands
Management


Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to outline
the advantages of the Bayesian approach for analysing uncertainties
involving climate change, emphasizing the study of the risks such
changes pose to water resources systems. Bayesian analysis has the
advantage of basing inference and decisions on a coherent and
normatively appealing theoretical framework. Furthermore, it can
incorporate diverse sources of information, including subjective
opinions, historical observations and model outputs. The paper
summarizes the basic assumptions and procedures of Bayesian
analysis. Summaries of applications to detection of climate change,
estimation of climate model parameters, and wetlands management
under climatic uncertainty illustrate the potential of the Bayesian
methodology. Criticisms of the approach are summarized. It is
concluded that in comparison with alternative paradigms for
analysing uncertainty, such as fuzzy sets and Dempster-Shafer
reasoning, Bayesian analysis is practical, theoretically sound, and
relatively easy to understand.


© Thomson

142. Beneficial use of effluents, wastes, and
biosolids.


Sumner, M. E.

Communications in Soil
Science and Plant Analysis
31
(11/14): 1701-1715. (2000)


NAL Call #:  
S590.C63;

ISSN: 0010-3624 [CSOSA2].

Notes: Paper presented at the 1999 International
Symposium on Soil and Plant Analysis held March 22-29, 1999,
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
application to land/ sewage
effluent/ sewage sludge/ animal manures/ composts/ gypsum/ food
industry/ wastes/ paper mill sludge/ literature reviews/


nutrient content

Abstract: Anthropogenic wastes are accumulating at
ever increasing rates. As an alternative to stockpiling and
landfilling, land application of wastes is considered in terms of
benefits to agriculture while protecting the environment.
Beneficial reuse of wastes such as municipal wastewater, sewage
sludge, animal manures, composts, byproduct gypsum, food processing
and paper and pulp wastes are discussed both in terms of their
benefits to agriculture and requirements from the standpoint of
analyses required for monitoring. Clearly, many of these wastes are
highly beneficial to crop production as fertilizer substitutes and
soil ameliorants.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

143. Benefits and drawbacks to composting
organic by-products.


Sikora, Lawrence J.

In: Beneficial co-utilization of
agricultural, municipal and industrial by-products/ Brown, S.;
Angle, J. S.; and Jacobs, L.


Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic, 1998;
pp. 69-77.


ISBN: 0792351894; Proceedings of the Beltsville
Symposium XXII, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, May 4-8, 1997;
Conference Sponsors: Beltsville Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Service, US Dept. of Agriculture with the
cooperation of Friends of Agriculture Research - Beltsville
(FAR-B)


NAL Call #:  TD796.5.B45 1998

Descriptors:  
Waste Management (Sanitation)/
organic by product composting/ waste treatment methods/ benefit
drawback analysis/ costs/ marketing/ pathogen reduction


© Thomson

144. Benefits of reducing domestic well nitrate
contamination from concentrated animal feeding operations: A
national model of groundwater contamination.


Lazo, J. K; Waldman, D. M.; Ottem,
T. D.; and Wheeler, W. J., 2003 (application/pdf)


NAL Call #: HD1405 .A44

http://agecon.lib.umn.edu/cgi-bin/pdf_view.pl?paperid=8954

Abstract:  This paper presents an analysis of
benefits to private drinking water well users from regulatory
changes for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).
Combining a statistical model of groundwater quality with benefit
estimates based on values available from the literature, we develop
aggregate national benefit estimates for reduced well water
contamination from changes in CAFO regulations. The statistical
model is developed to explore truncation and selection issues. We
conduct a sensitivity analysis of aggregate benefit estimates to
model estimation and benefits transfer values.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

145. Benefits of Reducing Nitrate Contamination
in Private Domestic Wells Under CAFO Regulatory Options.


U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, Office of Science and Technology.


U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency, 2002 (application/pdf)


NAL Call #: EPA821R03008

http://www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/cafo_benefit_nitrate.pdf

146. Benthic-pelagic interactions in shallow
water columns: An experimentalist's perspective.


Threlkeld, Stephen T

Hydrobiologia 275-276: 293-300. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
410 H992;

ISSN: 0018-8158

Descriptors:  
Aquatic food web/ Nutrients/
Sedimentation/ algae (Algae Unspecified)/ fish (Pisces
Unspecified)/ plankton (Organisms Unspecified)/ Animalia (Animalia
Unspecified)/ Osteichthyes (Osteichthyes)/ chordates/
microorganisms/ nonhuman vertebrates/ nonvascular plants/ plants/
vertebrates


Abstract: Shallow water column benthic and pelagic
communities are thought to be linked by trophic relationships,
through life history or ontogenetic links, and by biologically or
physically-mediated resuspension or sedimentation processes. It is
often confusing and sometimes misleading to focus only on benthic
or only on pelagic components of aquatic food webs, even though the
literature on shallow water column experiments contains few
experiments that give a balanced view of these components, or
interactions between components in different habitats. The rarity
of balanced experiments is especially troublesome because the most
common types of manipulations in shallow water column experiments
(fish and nutrients) often have rapid, direct effects on both kinds
of habitats, or easily recognized indirect links between the two
habitats that go unevaluated. Despite a large experimental
literature on pelagic and benthic foodwebs (with less on both in
the same systems), there appears to be continuing uncertainty about
the importance to pelagic productivity of nutrients released from
resuspended sediments, the role of macrobenthos in controlling
plankton, and the efficacy and interaction of trophic cascades
between pelagic and benthic communities.


© Thomson

147. Best management practices for poultry
manure utilization that enhance agricultural productivity and
reduce pollution.


Moore, P. A.

In: Animal waste utilization:
Effective use of manure as a soil resource/ Hatfield, J. L. and
Stewart, B. A., 1998; pp. 89-123


NAL Call #:  S655.A57 1998

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

148. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals by Aquatic
Macro-Invertebrates of Different Feeding Guilds: A
Review.


Goodyear, K. L. and Mcneill,
S.


Science of the Total
Environment
1-2: 1-19.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
RA565.S365;

ISSN: 0048-9697.

Notes: DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00051-0

Descriptors:  
Bioaccumulation/ Heavy metals/ Zinc/
Copper/ Cadmium/ Lead/ Reviews/ Aquatic organisms/ Macrofauna/
Freshwater environments/ Feeding/ Guilds/ Freshwater organisms/
Sediment pollution/ Water pollution/ Feeds/ Pollution monitoring/
Food webs/ Trophic relationships/ Water Pollution Effects/ Foods/
Predation/ Macroinvertebrates/ Diptera/ Ephemeroptera/ Mayflies/
Insecta/ Metabolism/ Aquatic entomology/ Freshwater pollution/
Effects on organisms/ Effects of pollution


Abstract: The available literature on heavy metal
bioaccumulation by freshwater macro-invertebrates has been
analysed. A very uneven data distribution was found. Ephemeroptera
and Diptera are the most commonly investigated orders of insect
larvae, whilst many orders are not represented at all. The
collector-gatherer and predator feeding guilds are more frequently
investigated than other guilds. Furthermore, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd are
the most intensively researched heavy metals, and only infrequent
investigations of other metals are documented. Relationships
between metal concentrations in the animals and levels in sediments
and waters were determined from the pooled data for three feeding
guilds. No one relationship represents how each metal interacts
within the feeding guilds. Each of the four metals (Zn, Cu, Pb and
Cd) displays a unique relationship between metal concentrations in
sediments or waters with those in individual feeding guilds of
macro-invertebrates, indicating the relative importance of
different sources of metals to the different feeding types.
Biomagnification of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd has been demonstrated not to
occur between these guilds.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

149. Bioaerosols from municipal and animal
wastes: Background and contemporary issues.


Pillai, S. D. and Ricke, S.
C.


Canadian Journal of
Microbiology
48 (8): 681-696.
(Aug. 2002)


NAL Call #:  
448.8-C162;

ISSN: 0008-4166 [CJMIAZ]

Descriptors:  
animal wastes/ feedlot wastes/
feedlots/ sewage sludge/ pathogens/ air microbiology/ aerosols/
risk assessment/ infectious diseases/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

150. Bioassessment and management of North
American freshwater wetlands.


Rader, Russell Ben.; Batzer, Darold
P.; and Wissinger, Scott A.


New York: Wiley; x, 469 p.: ill.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  QH77.N56-B56-2001; ISBN: 0471352349 (cloth: alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Wetland management---North America/
Environmental monitoring---North America


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

151. Biochemical and molecular basis of
pesticide degradation by microorganisms.


Singh, B. K.; Kuhad, R. C.; Singh,
A.; Lal, R.; and Tripathi, K. K.


Critical Reviews in
Biotechnology
19 (3):
197-225. (1999)


NAL Call #:  
TP248.13.C74;

ISSN: 0738-8551 [CRBTE5]

Descriptors:  
pesticides/ microbial degradation/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

152. Biodegradation of the acetanilide
herbicides alachlor, metolachlor, and propachlor.


Stamper, David M and

Tuovinen, Olli H

Critical Reviews in
Microbiology
24 (1): 1-22.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
QR1.C7;

ISSN: 1040-841X

Descriptors:  
alachlor: biodegradation, herbicide/
chloroacetanilides/ glutathione/ metolachlor: biodegradation,
herbicide/ propachlor: biodegradation, herbicide/ Chaetomium
globosum (Ascomycetes)/ Fungi/ Microorganisms/ Nonvascular Plants/
Plants


© Thomson

153. The biodiversity benefits of organic
farming.


Bartram, H. and Perkins,
A.


In: Organic agriculture:
Sustainability, markets and policies: OECD workshop on organic
agriculture.
(Held 23 Sep
2002-26 Sep 2002 at Washington, D.C., USA.) OECD (eds.)


Wallingford, UK: CAB International;
pp. 77-93; 2003.  


ISBN: 0-85199-740-6

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

154. Biodiversity, conservation and inventory:
Why insects matter.


Kim, K. C.

Biodiversity and
Conservation
2 (3): 191-214.
(June 1993)


NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1B562;

ISSN: 0960-3115 [BONSEU].

Notes: Special Issue: Global Biodiversity and
Conservation of Insects. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
arthropods/ species diversity/
nature conservation/ ecosystems/ inventories/ monitoring/ surveys/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

155. Biodiversity of agricultural land:
Habitats, species and hotspots.


Usher, M. B.

In: Biodiversity and conservation
in agriculture proceedings of an international symposium.

(Held 17 Nov 1997 at Stakis Brighton
Metropole Hotel, UK.)


Farnham, UK: British Crop
Protection Council; pp. 1-14; 1997.


NAL Call #:  SB599.B73-no.69;

ISBN: 190139669X

Descriptors:  
agricultural land/ biodiversity/
species diversity/ genetic diversity/ community ecology/ landscape
ecology/ habitats/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

156. Biofertilizers for enhancement of crop
productivity: A review.


Pathak DV; Khurana AL; and Satpal
Singh


Agricultural Reviews
Karnal
18 (3-4): 155-166; 52
ref. (1997)


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

157. Biofertilizers in agriculture.

Gupta RP and Pandher MS

Journal of Research
33 (1-4): 209-224.
(1996).


Notes: Publisher: Punjab, India:
Punjab-Agricultural-University; 52 ref.


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

158. Biofiltration: The treatment of fluids by
microorganisms immobilized into the filter bedding material, A
review.


Cohen, Y.

Bioresource
Technology
77 (3): 257-274.
(May 2001)


NAL Call #:  
TD930.A32;

ISSN: 0960-8524 [BIRTEB].

Notes: Reviews issue. Includes references.

Descriptors:  
waste treatment/ biological
treatment


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

159. Biogenic trace gases: Measuring emissions
from soil and water.


Matson, P. A. and Harriss, Robert
C.


Oxford England; Cambridge, Mass.,
USA: Blackwell Science; xi, 394 p.: ill.; Series: Methods in
ecology. (1995)


NAL Call #:  QC879.6.B566--1995; ISBN: 0632036419

Descriptors:  
Atmospheric chemistry---Technique/
Bioclimatology---Technique/ Biogeochemistry---Technique/
Agricultural ecology---Technique


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

160. Biogeochemical Models Relating Soil
Nitrogen Losses to Plant-Available N.


Tabachow, R. M.; Peirce, J. J.; and
Richter, D. D.


Environmental Engineering
Science
18 (2): 81-90.
(2001);


ISSN: 1092-8758

Descriptors:  
Biogeochemistry/ Nitrogen cycle/
Plants/ Soil/ Fertilizers/ Simulation/ Agriculture/ Mathematical
models/ Leaching/ Water Pollution Control/ Cycling Nutrients/
Nitrogen/ Soil water plant Relationships/ Model Studies/ Reviews/
DAISY model/ APS model/ RISK N model/ NLEAP model/ Land pollution/
Water quality control


Abstract: Four biogeochemical models that simulate N
cycling in the plant-soil-water-atmosphere environment are
evaluated. Each model considers N inputs and outputs to an
agricultural system with emphasis on the relationships between
mineral fertilizers and biofertilizers to plant-available N.
Efficient use of N fertilizers by minimizing losses of N by NO
super(-) sub(3) leaching, NO sub(x) off-gas, and erosion decreases
any negative impact on the environment and reduces the drain of
natural resources and economic loss. A review of four existing
models is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these models
in simulating major biogeochemical relationships of added N to
agricultural systems. The APS simulation model focuses on the
influence of N fertilization on CO sub(2) emissions with varying
soil temperature. The deterministic DAISY model simulated nitrate
leaching in an effort to develop sustainable crop rotations. The
NLEAP model simulates nitrate leaching and allows users to evaluate
various agricultural management strategies. The physically based
analytical model RISK-N simulates N fluxes for major processes
involving N in soil, and seems best suited for modeling the full
complex of biogeochemical N cycles in fertilized
systems.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

161. Bioindicators for assessing ecological
integrity of prairie wetlands.


Adamus, Paul R.; Hairston, Ann J.;
National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory
(U.S.), Western Ecology Division; and ManTech Environmental
Research Services Corp.


Corvallis, OR: U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National
Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Western
Ecology Division; ix, 209 p.: ill. 1 computer disk (3.5 in.).
(1996)


Notes: "Prepared ... through Contract 68-C4-0019 to
ManTech Environmental Research Services Corp. and Contract number
5B6075NATA to Ann Hairston"--T.p. verso. Shipping list no.:
97-0045-P. "July 1996." "EPA/600/R-96/082." Includes
bibliographical references


(p. 131-171). SUDOCS: EP 1.2:B
52/21.


NAL Call #:  Fiche-S-133-EP-1.2:B-52/21-

Descriptors:  
Prairie ecology---United States/
Wetland ecology---United States/ Indicators---Biology---United
States/ Biological diversity conservation---United States This
citation is from AGRICOLA.

162. Bioindicators for Water Quality Evaluation:
A Review.


Hao, O. J.

Journal of the Chinese
Institute of Environmental Engineering
6 (1): 1-19. (1996);

ISSN: 1022-7636

Descriptors:  
water quality/ bioindicators/
industrial wastes/ runoff/ pesticides/ environmental effects/
monitoring/ reviews/ aquatic organisms/ physiology/ species
composition/ indicator species/ pollution monitoring/
Identification of pollutants/ Freshwater pollution/ Effects on
organisms


Abstract: In general, assessment of water quality
has been traditionally relied on the conventional pollutant
parameters of biological oxygen demand and suspended solids. Often,
these parameters are unable to detect those pollutants associated
with industrial activities (e.g., heavy metals, solvents, toxic
organics, and waste oils) and runoff (e.g., pesticides). It is not
possible to chemically monitor each and every one of the possible
pollutants to assess the environmental impact on water quality. It,
thus, would appear logical that biological methods be used to
monitor contamination levels of aquatic environments, since water
pollution is essentially a biological phenomenon. Water quality
affects the abundance, species composition, productivity, and
physiological conditions of indigenous populations of a variety of
aquatic species. Thus, the nature and health of the aquatic
communities represent the quality of the water. Consequently,
qualitative and/or quantitative description of the status of
bioindicators may provide a viable alternative to assess water
quality. The primary purpose of this study is to provide a
comprehensive review of the developments in the past 10 years in
the area of bioindicators of water quality. Fish,
macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, algae, bacteria and viruses as
bioindicators are covered and discussed.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

163. Biological control of weeds in European
crops: Recent achievements and future work.


Muller Scharer, H.; Scheepens, P.
C.; and Greaves, M. P.


Weed Research 40 (1): 83-98. (Feb. 2000)

NAL Call #:  
79.8-W412;

ISSN: 0043-1737 [WEREAT]

Descriptors:  
weeds/ biological control/ weed
control/ integrated pest management/ plant pathogens/ evaluation/
agricultural research/ field experimentation/ competitive ability/
epidemics/ provenance/ storage/ formulations/ efficacy/ literature
reviews/ mycoherbicides/ plant pathogenic fungi/ Europe/ integrated
weed management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

164. Biological effects of agriculturally
derived surface water pollutants on aquatic systems: A
review.


Cooper, C. M.

Journal of Environmental
Quality
22 (3): 402-408.
(July 1993-Sept. 1993)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.J6;

ISSN: 0047-2425 [JEVQAA].

Notes: Paper presented at the USDA-ARS Beltsville
Agricultural Research Center Symposium XVII, "Agricultural Water
Quality Priorities, A Team Approach to Conserving Natural
Resources," May 4-8, 1992, Beltsville, MD. Includes
references.


Descriptors:  
aquatic environment/ surface water/
water quality/ sediment/ nutrients/ organic wastes/ pesticides/
heavy metals/ pollution/ agriculture


Abstract: Environmental manipulations and other
human activities are major causes of stress on natural ecosystems.
Of the many sources of surface water pollutants, agricultural
activities have been identified as major contributors to
environmental stress, which affects all ecosystem components. In
water, agricultural contaminants are most noticeable when they
produce immediate, dramatic toxic effects on aquatic life although
more subtle, sublethal chronic effects may be just as damaging over
long periods. Aquatic systems have the ability to recover from
contaminant damage if not seriously overloaded with irreversible
pollutants. Thus, contaminant loading level is as important as type
of pollutant. Although suspended sediment represents the largest
volume of aquatic contaminant, pesticides, nutrients, and organic
enrichment are also major stressors of aquatic life. Stream
corridor habitat traps and processes contaminants. Loss of
buffering habitat, including riparian zones, accelerates effects of
pollutants and should be considered when assessing damage to
aquatic life. Protection of habitat is the single most effective
means of conserving biological diversity. Current available
management practices and promising new technology are providing
solutions to many contaminant-related problems in aquatic
systems.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

165. Biological effects of fine sediment in the
lotic environment.


Wood, Paul J and Armitage, Patrick
D


Environmental
Management
21 (2): 203-217.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
HC79.E5E5;

ISSN: 0364-152X

Descriptors:  
biological effects/ conservation/
deposition/ fine sediment/ habitat quality/ lotic environment/
river sedimentation/ soil science/ transport/ fish (Pisces
Unspecified)/ invertebrate (Invertebrata Unspecified)/ Invertebrata
(Invertebrata Unspecified)/ Pisces (Pisces Unspecified)/ animals/
chordates/ nonhuman vertebrates/ vertebrates


Abstract: Although sedimentation is a naturally
occurring phenomenon in rivers, land-use changes have resulted in
an increase in anthropogenically induced fine sediment deposition.
Poorly managed agricultural practices, mineral extraction, and
construction can result in an increase in suspended solids and
sedimentation in rivers and streams, leading to a decline in
habitat quality. The nature and origins of fine sediments in the
lotic environment are reviewed in relation to channel and
nonchannel sources and the impact of human activity. Fine sediment
transport and deposition are outlined in relation to variations in
streamflow and particle size characteristics. A holistic approach
to the problems associated with fine sediment is outlined to aid in
the identification of sediment sources, transport, and deposition
processes in the river catchment. The multiple causes and
deleterious impacts associated with fine sediments on riverine
habitats, primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fisheries are
identified and reviewed to provide river managers with a guide to
source material. The restoration of rivers with fine sediment
problems are discussed in relation to a holistic management
framework to aid in the planning and undertaking of mitigation
measures within both the river channel and surrounding catchment
area.


© Thomson

166. Biological effects of suspended sediments:
A review of suspended sediment impacts on fish and shellfish with
relation to dredging activities in estuaries.


Wilber, Dara H and Clarke, Douglas
G


North American Journal of
Fisheries Management
21 (4):
855-875. (2001)


NAL Call #:  
SH219.N66;

ISSN: 0275-5947

Descriptors:  
fish (Pisces)/ salmonid
(Osteichthyes): anadromous / shellfish (Invertebrata)/ Animals/
Chordates/ Fish/ Invertebrates/ Nonhuman Vertebrates/ Vertebrates/
aquatic biology/ behavioral responses/ bioassays/ biological
effects/ ecotoxicology/ environmental impacts/ estuaries/ exposure
durations/ human activities/ life history stages/ mortality/
navigation dredging/ resource management/ suspended sediments/
taxonomy/ tidal flushing


Abstract: Objective assessment of the effects of
increased concentrations of suspended sediment caused by human
activities, such as navigation dredging, on estuarine fish and
shellfish requires an integration of findings from biological and
engineering studies. Knowledge is needed of (1) the suspended
sediment characteristics typical of both ambient and
dredging-induced conditions, (2) the biological responses of
aquatic organisms to these suspended sediment dosages, and (3) the
likelihood that organisms of interest will encounter suspended
sediment plumes. This paper synthesizes the results of studies that
report biological responses to known suspended sediment
concentrations and exposure durations and relates these findings to
suspended sediment conditions associated with dredging projects.
Biological responses of taxonomic groups and life history stages
are graphed as a function of concentration and exposure duration.
The quality and taxonomic breadth of studies on which resource
managers must rely when evaluating potential impacts from
activities that resuspend sediments, such as dredging projects, are
addressed. Review of the pertinent literature indicates that few
data exist concerning biological responses of fish and shellfish to
suspended sediment dosages commonly associated with dredging
projects. Much of the available data come from bioassays that
measured acute responses and required high concentrations of
suspended sediments to induce the measured response, usually
mortality. Although anadromous salmonids have received much
attention, little is known of behavioral responses of many
estuarine fishes to suspended sediment plumes. Likewise, the
effects of intermittent exposures at periodicities that simulate
the effects of tidal flushing or the conduct of many dredge
operations have not been addressed.


© Thomson

167. Biological Implications of Sulfide in
Sediment: A Review Focusing on Sediment Toxicity.


Wang, F. and Chapman, P.
M.


Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry
11: 2526-2532.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E58;

ISSN: 0730-7268

Descriptors:  
Reviews/ Sediment pollution/
Sulfide/ Polluted environments/ Metals/ Sulfides/ Toxicology/
Biota/ Behavior/ Irrigation/ Toxicity/ Pollution effects /
Pollutant identification/ Behaviour/ Pollution tolerance/ Chemical
reactions/ Sulphides/ Analytical techniques/ Sediment chemistry/
Sediment Contamination/ Bioassay/ Ecological Effects/ Reviews/
Toxicology and health/ Effects on organisms/ Effects of
pollution


Abstract: The biological implications of sulfide in
sediment are poorly understood and all too often ignored despite
the fact that sulfide can be extremely important in determining
sediment toxicity to resident biota. Sulfide influences sediment
toxicity in three major ways, which are reviewed in detail: as a
toxicant in its own right; by reducing metal toxicity by forming
insoluble metal sulfide solids and/or by forming metal sulfide
complexes; and by affecting animal behavior, which in turn can
alter the toxicity of not just the sulfide but also other sediment
contaminants. Our present limited understanding of sulfide in
sediments represents two major problems related to determining the
toxicity of sediments, both in the laboratory and the field, and
the causative agents of such toxicity. First, we do not know how
important sulfide toxicity is to resident populations. Second, by
not adequately considering sulfide toxicity, we risk
underestimating toxicity and misidentifying the causative agents.
Generic and specific recommendations related to resolving these
problems are provided, including appropriate measurement and
monitoring of sulfide in the laboratory and the field,
determination of toxicity thresholds and tolerances for a wide
range of sediment-dwelling organisms, further development of
toxicity identification evaluation procedures, further research
into sulfide effects on metal toxicity, and determination of the
influence of sulfide on bioirrigation.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

168. Biological methods for determination of
physiologically active substances in environmental
samples.


Tumanov, A. A.; Kitaeva, I. A.; and
Barinova, O. V.


Journal of Analytical
Chemistry
48 (1): 2-11.
(1993);


ISSN: 1061-9348

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

169. Biological monitoring: Lichens as
bioindicators of air pollution assessment: A review.


Conti, M E and Cecchetti,
G


Environmental
Pollution
114 (3): 471-492.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E52;

ISSN: 0269-7491

Descriptors:  
lichen (Lichenes): bioindicator/
Nonvascular Plants/ Plants/ air pollution/ air quality


Abstract: Often as part of environmental impact
studies and, above all, to obtain authorisations in accordance with
prescriptions from the Ministry for the Environment (Italy),
surveys and controls that use biological indicators are required.
This is because such indicators are valid instruments for
evaluating the quality of the air ensuing from the subject (often
an industrial plant) of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).
In this context, this paper aims to analyse some of the theoretical
aspects of biological monitoring and to provide a progress report
on the use of lichens as bioindicators of air quality, with a
particular eye to the situation in Italy. The object of this paper
is that of pointing out the most important lines in the current
state of knowledge in this field, evaluating the methodological
applications and their advantages/disadvantages with respect to
traditional surveying methods.


© Thomson

170. Biological monitoring of eutrophication in
rivers.


Kelly, M. G. and Whitton, B.
A.


Hydrobiologia 384: 55-67. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
410 H992;

ISSN: 0018-8158

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

171. Biological monitoring: The dilemma of data
analysis.


Norris, R. H.

Journal of the North
American Benthological Society
14 (3): 440-450. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
QL141.F7;

ISSN: 0887-3593

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

172. Biological substitutes for
pesticides.


Gerhardson, Berndt

Trends in
Biotechnology
20 (8):
338-343. (2002)


NAL Call #:  
TP248.13.T72;

ISSN: 0167-7799

Descriptors:  
pesticides/ biological pest control
methods/ crop plant resistance/ environmental concerns/ health
concerns/ pesticide biological substitutes


Abstract: In the 20th century an increasing number
of pesticides, based on biocidal molecules, were the means for a
substantial increase in food and fibre production and quality.
Because of health and environmental concerns continued extensive
use of such molecules is intensively debated and substitutes are
often urgently required. Beside crop plant resistance, various
biological control methods based on natural pest suppressing
organisms are regarded as main alternatives. Several approaches and
concepts also have been tested and commercial organism-based
preparations are steadily increasing. However, further
biotechnological efforts are required to give them status of being
practical substitutes to pesticides. At present they are not
comparable to pesticides in meeting efficacy, market and other
expectations, but they still have a promising future, especially
where genetically modified organisms can be used.


© Thomson

173. Biological weed control with pathogens:
Search for candidates to applications.


Khachatourians, G. G.; Arora, D.
K.; Caesar, A. J.; and Charudattan, R.


In: Applied mycology and
biotechnology: Agriculture and food production/ Khachatourians, G.
G. and Arora, D. K.; Vol. 2, 2002; pp. 239-274.


ISBN: 0-444-51030-3

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

174. The biologically significant attributes of
forest canopies to small birds.


Sharpe, F.

Northwest Science
70 (special issue): 86-93.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
470-N81;

ISSN: 0029-344X [NOSCAX]

Descriptors:  
wild birds/ coniferous forests/
deciduous forests/ canopy/ structure/ habitats/ forest ecology/
habitat selection/ riparian forests/ ecosystems/ literature
reviews/ Pacific Northwest states of USA/ ecosystem
management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

175. Biology and ecology of higher Diptera from
freshwater wetlands.


Keiper, J. B.; Walton, W. E.; and
Foote, B. A.


Annual Review of
Entomology
47: 207-232.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
421-An72;

ISSN: 0066-4170 [ARENAA]

Descriptors:  
diptera/ biology/ life cycle/
feeding habits/ habitats/ population ecology/ community ecology/
species diversity/ sampling/ aquatic insects/ freshwater ecology/
wetlands/ literature reviews/ cyclorrhapha/ schizophora/ niche
partitioning

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

176. Biology and establishment of mountain
shrubs on mining disturbances in the Rocky Mountains,
USA.


Paschke, M. W.; Redente, E. F.; and
Brown, S. L.


Land Degradation and
Development
14 (5): 459-480.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
S622.L26;

ISSN: 1085-3278

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

177. The biology and integrated management of
leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) on North Dakota
rangeland.


Lym, Rodney G

Weed Technology 12 (2):  367-373. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
SB610.W39;

ISSN: 0890-037X

Descriptors:  
picloram / 2,4 D/ herbicides/
Aphthona czwalinae (Coleoptera): biological control agent, flea
beetle/ Aphthona lacertosa (Coleoptera): biological control agent,
flea beetle/ Aphthona nigriscutus (Coleoptera): biological control
agent, flea beetle/ Euphorbia esula [leafy spurge] (Euphorbiaceae):
weed/ Spurgia esulae [spurge gall midge] (Diptera): biological
control agent/ Angiosperms/ Animals/ Arthropods/ Dicots/ Insects/
Invertebrates/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants/
rangelands


Abstract: Leafy spurge, a long-lived perennial,
grows in many habitats, from floodplains to grasslands and mountain
slopes. The plant emerges in early spring and produces showy,
yellow bracts that appear in late May. The true flowers emerge in
mid-June. The plant spreads by both seeds and roots and contains a
white sticky latex that deters grazing by many animals. Dicamba,
2,4-D, glyphosate, and picloram have commonly been used to control
leafy spurge. Picloram plus 2,4-D is frequently used for leafy
spurge control in North Dakota. Ten insect species for leafy spurge
biocontrol have been released in North Dakota; the most successful
have been the flea beetles, Aphthona nigriscutis, A. czwalinae, and
A. lacertosa. The leafy spurge gall midge (Spurgia esulae) has been
most successful near wooded areas. Herbicides combined with either
the leafy spurge flea beetles or gall midge have controlled leafy
spurge better than either method used alone. Grazing with sheep or
goats is a cost-effective method for controlling leafy spurge top
growth in large infestations. Grazing combined with fall-applied
picloram plus 2,4-D reduced leafy spurge density more rapidly and
maintained control longer than either method used alone. Several
grass species are competitive with leafy spurge including 'Rebound'
smooth brome, 'Rodan' western wheatgrass, 'Pryor' slender
wheatgrass, and 'Manska' pubescent wheatgrass. Cultivating twice
each fall after harvest for 3 yr in cropland completely controlled
leafy spurge. A successful long-term management program should be
designed for specific situations and should include combinations of
herbicides, insects, grazing, and/or seeding competitive
species.


© Thomson

178. Biology and management of noxious rangeland
weeds.


Sheley, Roger L. and Petroff, J.
K.


Corvallis, OR: Oregon State
University Press; 438 p., 16 p. of plates: ill. (some col.), maps.
(1999)


Notes: 1st ed.; Includes bibliographical references and
index.


NAL Call #:  SB612.W47B564-1999; ISBN: 0870714619 (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Rangelands---Weed
control---West---United States/ Weeds---West---United States/ Range
plants---Control---West---United States/ Range
management---West---United States/ Invasive plants---West---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

179. The biology and management of purple
loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria).


Mullin, Barbra H

Weed Technology 12 (2):  397-401. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
SB610.W39;

ISSN: 0890-037X

Descriptors:  
Lythrum salicaria [purple
loosestrife] (Lythraceae): biology, weed, management/ Angiosperms/
Dicots/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants/ wetland
ecosystems


Abstract: Purple loosestrife is an invasive,
introduced plant that is usually associated with wetland, marshy,
or riparian sites. It is found across the northern tier states and
provinces in North America. Purple loosestrife affects the
diversity of native wetland ecosystems. Infestations lead to severe
wildlife habitat degradation, loss of species diversity, and
displacement of wildlife-supporting native vegetation, such as
cattails and bulrushes. The plant spreads effectively along
waterways, and the thick, matted root system can rapidly clog
irrigation ditches, resulting in decreased water flow and increased
maintenance. Effective management of purple loosestrife along
waterways and in riparian areas requires integrating management
strategies to prevent further introductions, detecting and
eradicating new infestations, and containing and controlling
large-scale infestations. Management practices that aid in the
control of purple loosestrife include herbicide, physical, and
biological practices. Each infestation site should be individually
evaluated to determine the appropriate control measure. Factors to
be considered include the proximity and type of vegetation on the
site, whether the water is flowing or still, and the utilization of
the site and the water (domestic, irrigation, recreation, or scenic
value).


© Thomson

180. Biomethanation under psychrophilic
conditions: A review.


Kashyap, D. R.; Dadhich, K. S.; and
Sharma, S. K.


Bioresource
Technology
87 (2): 147-153.
(Apr. 2003)


NAL Call #:  
TD930.A32;

ISSN: 0960-8524 [BIRTEB]

Descriptors:  
biogas/ bioenergy/ anaerobic
digestion/ methane production/ temperature/ animal manures/
agricultural wastes/ sewage/ biotechnology/ reviews/ psychrophilic
temperature


Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure,
sewage and other agricultural wastes at psychrophilic temperatures
has not been explored as extensively as either mesophilic or
thermophilic digestion, probably due to little anticipation of the
development of economically attractive systems using this
technology. This review article discusses psychrophilic anaerobic
digestion studies reported by various researchers using different
substrates. The effect of operational parameters such as type of
substrate, size of inoculum, concentration of volatile fatty acids,
hydraulic retention time and loading rate, on reduction of TS/VS,
BOD/COD and biogas yield is discussed in detail.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

181. Biomonitoring.

Isom, B. G.

Water Environment
Research
65 (4): 596-599.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1047-7624

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

182. Biomonitoring.

Lange, C. R. and Lange, S.
R.


Water Environment
Research
69 (4): 900-915.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1047-7624

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

183. Biopesticides: A review of their action,
applications and efficacy.


Copping, L. G. and Menn, J.
J.


Pest Management
Science
8: 651-676.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
SB951-.P47;

ISSN: 1526-498X

Descriptors:  
Pesticides/ Chemical control/
Arthropoda/ Agricultural & general applied
entomology


Abstract: A survey is given of the wide range of
different materials and organisms that can be classified as
biopesticides. Details are given of those currently of commercial
importance, and future developments in this area are discussed. It
is considered that, while in the immediate future biopesticides may
continue to be limited mainly to niche and speciality markets,
there is great potential for long-term development and growth, both
in their own right and in providing leads in other areas of pest
management science.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

184. Biophysical Interactions and the Structure
and Dynamics of Riverine Ecosystems: The Importance of Biotic
Feedbacks.


Naiman, R. J.; Elliott, S. R.;
Helfield, J. M.; and O'Keefe, T. C.


Hydrobiologia 410: 79-86. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
410 H992;

ISSN: 0018-8158.

Notes: Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers; DOI:
10.1023/A:1003768102188


Descriptors:  
Ecosystem management/ Rivers/
Physical properties/ Nature conservation/ Biotic factors/ Streams/
Climatic conditions/ Disturbance/ Forests/ Dynamics/ Ecosystems/
Structure/ Reviews/ Conservation/ Riparian Vegetation/ Biological
Properties/ Habitat community studies/ Topography and morphology/
Freshwater/ Streamflow and runoff


Abstract: Characteristics of streams and rivers
reflect variations in local geomorphology, climate, natural
disturbance regimes and the dynamic features of the riparian
forest. Hierarchical interactions between these components result
in a rich variety of distinct stream communities which, when
considered in combination with strong biotic feedbacks to the
physical environment, present formidable challenges in discovering
and understanding fundamental, system-level characteristics of
natural rivers. The objectives of this article are to briefly
review the traditional view of hierarchical physical controls on
stream structure and dynamics and to show how this viewpoint is
changing as recognition of strong biological influences on physical
structure are emerging. In combination, identifying natural stream
characteristics and the interactions among individual components,
as well as recognizing the importance of biotic feedbacks on
physical structure, form the basis for establishing effective
conservation strategies.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

185. Bioremediation in the
rhizosphere.


Anderson, Todd A; Guthrie,
Elizabeth A; and Walton, Barbara T


Environmental Science and
Technology
27 (13):
2630-2636. (1993)


NAL Call #:  
TD420.A1E5;

ISSN: 0013-936X

Descriptors:  
microorganisms (Microorganisms
Unspecified)/ microorganisms/ contaminated soil/ hazardous waste/
microbial degradation/ pesticides


© Thomson

186. Bioremediation of DDT-Contaminated Soils: A
Review.


Foght, J.; April, T.; Biggar, K.;
and Aislabie, J.


Bioremediation
Journal
5 (3): 225-246.
(2001);


ISSN: 1088-9868

Descriptors:  
Reviews/ Bioremediation/ DDT/ Soil/
Dechlorination/ Biodegradation/ Soil remediation/ Insecticides/
Aeration/ Bioreactors/ Pesticides/ Soils/ Environmental factors/
Microorganisms/ Literature reviews/ Water pollution treatment /
Bacteria/ Fungi/ organic matter/ aeration/ pH effects/ temperature
effects/ Bacteria/ Microbial degradation/ Land pollution/
Physiology, biochemistry, biophysics/ Protective measures and
control/ Soil Pollution: Monitoring, Control &
Remediation


Abstract: The insecticide
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) has been used
extensively since the 1940s for control of agricultural pests, and
is still used in many tropical countries for mosquito control.
Despite a ban on DDT use in most industrialized countries since
1972, DDT and its related residues (DDTr) persist in the
environment and pose animal and human health risks. Abiotic
processes such as volatilization, adsorption, and photolysis
contribute to the dissipation of DDTr in soils, often without
substantial alteration of the chemical structure. In contrast,
biodegradation has the potential to degrade DDTr significantly and
reduce soil concentrations in a cost-effective manner. Many
bacteria and some fungi transform DDT, forming products with
varying recalcitrance to further degradation. DDT biodegradation is
typically co-metabolic and includes dechlorination and ring
cleavage mechanisms. Factors that influence DDTr biodegradation in
soil include the composition and enzymatic activity of the soil
microflora, DDTr bioavailability, the presence of soil organic
matter as a co-metabolic substrate and (or) inducer, and prevailing
soil conditions, including aeration, pH, and temperature.
Understanding how these factors affect DDTr biodegradation permits
rational design of treatments and amendments to stimulate
biodegradation in soils. The DDTr-degrading organisms, processes
and approaches that may be useful for bioremediation of
DDTr-contaminated soils are discussed, including in situ
amendments, ex situ bioreactors and sequential anaerobic and
aerobic treatments.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)




187. Bioremediation of heavy metals and
organictoxicants by composting.


Barker, Allen V and Bryson,
Gretchen M


The Scientific World
2:  407-420. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
472 SCI25;

ISSN: 1537-744X.

Notes: Online version cited April 4, 2002

Descriptors:  
heavy metals: binding, degradation,
pollutant, toxin/ organic toxicants: binding, degradation,
pollutant, toxin/ pesticides: pollutant/ polychlorinated biphenyls
[PCBs]: pollutant/ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]:
pollutant/ microbe (Microorganisms): diversity/ Microorganisms/
noncontaminated organic matter/ soil pollution


Abstract: Hazardous organic and metallic residues or
by-products can enter into plants, soils, and sediments from
processes associated with domestic, municipal, agricultural,
industrial, and military activities. Handling, ingestion,
application to land or other distributions of the contaminated
materials into the environment might render harm to humans,
livestock, wildlife, crops, or native plants. Considerable
remediation of the hazardous wastes or contaminated plants, soils,
and sediments can be accomplished by composting. High microbial
diversity and activity during composting, due to the abundance of
substrates in feedstocks, promotes degradation of xenobiotic
organic compounds, such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).For
composting of contaminated soils, noncontaminated organic matter
should be cocomposted with the soils. Metallic pollutants are not
degraded during composting but may be converted into organic
combinations that have less bioavailability than mineral
combinations of the metals. Degradation of organic contaminants in
soils is facilitated by addition of composted or raw organic
matter, thereby increasing the substrate levels for cometabolism of
the contaminants. Similar to the composting of soils in vessels or
piles, the on-site addition of organic matter to soils (sheet
composting) accelerates degradation of organic pollutants and binds
metallic pollutants. Recalcitrant materials, such as
organochlorines, may not undergo degradation in composts or in
soils, and the effects of forming organic complexes with metallic
pollutants may be nonpermanent or short lived. The general
conclusion is, however, that composting degrades or binds
pollutants to innocuous levels or into innocuous compounds in the
finished product.


© Thomson

188. Bioremediation of selenium in soil and
water. [Erratum: June 1998, v. 163 (6), p. 507.].


Losi, M. E. and Frankenberger, W.
T.


Soil Science 162 (10): 692-702. (Oct. 1997)

NAL Call #:  
56.8-So3;

ISSN: 0038-075X [SOSCAK]

Descriptors:  
agricultural soils/ drainage water/
selenium/ contamination/ bioremediation/ technical progress/ soil
pollution/ water pollution/ pollution control/ microbial
activities/ transformation/ toxicity/ wildlife/ reviews/
California


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

189. Biosensors for environmental
monitoring.


Dennison, M J and Turner, A P
F


Biotechnology
Advances
13 (1): 1-12.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TP248.2.B562;

ISSN: 0734-9750

Descriptors:  
pesticide/ pollution

© Thomson

190. Biosensors for the detection of
pesticides.


Marty, J L; Leca, B; and Noguer,
T


Analusis 26 (6): M144-M149. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
QD71.A52;

ISSN: 0365-4877

Descriptors:  
carbamate insecticides (detection of
pollutants) dithiocarbamate fungicides (detection of pollutants)
imidazolinone herbicides (detection of pollutants) organophosphorus
insecticides (detection of pollutants) pesticides (detection of
pollutants) sulfonylurea herbicides (detection of pollutants)
triazine herbicides: detection, pollutant


Abstract: This review presents the last advances in
the field of biosensors for pesticide detection. The main
categories of reported sensors are presented according to the
immobilized biological sensing element: immunosensors, enzyme
sensors and "whole cell" sensors. The potential of each type of
sensor in environmental monitoring is discussed and the advantages
and drawbacks of the described devices are highlighted.


© Thomson

191. Biosolids and Sludge Management.

Krogmann, U.; Boyles, L. S.; Bamka,
W. J.; Chaiprapat, S.; and Martel, C. J.


Water Environment
Research
5: 692-714.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
Waste Management/ Solids/ Sludge/
Land Disposal/ Landfills/ Composting/ Reviews/ Sludge disposal/
Ultimate disposal of wastes


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

192. Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing
Standards and Practices.


Committee on Toxicants and
Pathogens in Biosolids Applied to Land; National Research Council,
Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST).


National Academy Press,
2002.


ISBN: 0-309-08486-5; Table of Contents: Front Matter,
pp. i-xx; Summary, pp. 1-16 1, Introduction, pp. 17-30; 2,
Biosolids Management, pp. 31-105; 3, Epdiemiological Evidence of
Health Effects Associated with Biosolids Production and
Application, pp. 106-125; 4, Advances in Risk Assessment since the
Establishment of the Part 503 Rule, pp. 126-163; 5, Evaluation of
EPA's Approach to Setting Chemical Standards, pp. 164-256; 6,
Evaluation of EPA's Approach to Setting Pathogen Standards, pp.
257-321; 7, Integration of Chemical and Pathogen Risk Assessment,
pp. 322-334; Glossary, pp. 335-337; Appendix A, Biographical
Information on the Committee on Toxicants and Pathogens in
Biosolids Applied to Land, pp. 338-343; Appendix B, Partipants at
Public Sessions,


pp. 344-346.
(image/tiff)


http://search.nap.edu/books/0309084865/html/

Descriptors:  
biosolids/ land application/
environmental management/ risk assessment/ physicochemical
properties/ pathogens/ issues and policy/ Environmental Protection
Agency


Abstract:  This National Research Council
report recommends changes in EPA's regulations for the land
application of biosolids.




193. Biotechnical engineering as an alternative
to traditional engineering methods. A biotechnical streambank
stabilization design approach.


Li, Ming-Han and Eddleman, K.
E.


Landscape and Urban
Planning
60 (4): 225-242.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1L32;

ISSN: 0169-2046

Descriptors:  
Streams/ Environmental restoration/
Engineering/ Riparian environments/ Revegetation/ Conservation/
General Environmental Engineering


Abstract: Focus on ecologically fragile streams in
the US has resulted in heightened recognition and popularity of
biotechnical streambank stabilization methods. This ancient
technique re-emerges in the US in response to the link between
traditional protection measures and numerous occurrences of
streambank failures. The purpose of this study was to investigate
biotechnical engineering as a viable alternative to traditional
channelization and hard-armoring methods. Primarily by literature
review, this study analyzed and organized various streambank
stabilization approaches in traditional engineering, fluvial
geomorphological, ecological and biotechnical engineering
perspectives. Strengths and weaknesses in these four perspectives
are discussed, suitable biotechnical alternatives are presented,
and a cost-strength matrix of biotechnical techniques is
introduced.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

194. Biotechnical erosion control.

Snider, Joseph A. and United
States. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Jamie L. Whitten
Plant Materials Center.


Jackson, MS: Natural Resources
Conservation Service; Series: Technical note (Jamie L. Whitten
Plant Materials Center) v. 12, no. 2. (1996)


Notes: Title from title page of source document.
"September 1996" Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  aS627.P55-T43-v.-12,-no.-2

http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/pubs/mspmctn9602.pdf

Descriptors:  
Soil conservation/ Bioengineering/
Erosion/ Riparian ecology


Abstract:  "This study was conducted [in Panola
County, Mississippi] to evaluate the potential of selected plant
species and Biotechnical Erosion Control (BEC) techniques for
streambank stabilization in the Mid-South.".


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

195. Biotechnology and environmental issues in
dairying.


Tamminga. S.

In: Milk composition, production
and biotechnology/ Welch, R. A.; Burns, D. J.; Davis, S. R.; Popay,
A. I.; and Prosser, C. G., 1997; pp. 513-532


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

196. Biotechnology and new integrated pest
management approaches.


DeVault, J. D.; Hughes, K. J.;
Johnson, O. A.; and Narang, S. K.


Bio/technology (Nature
Publishing)
14 (1): 46-49.
(Jan. 1996)


NAL Call #:  
QH442.B5;

ISSN: 0733-222X [BTCHDA]

Descriptors:  
insect pests/ biological control/
biological control agents/ microbial pesticides/ genetic control/
genetic engineering/ integrated pest management/ environmental
impact/ literature reviews/ microbial insecticides


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

197. Biotechnology: Environmental impacts of
introducing crops and biocontrol agents in North American
agriculture.


Pimentel, D.

In: Biological control: Benefits
and risks/ Hokkanen, H. M. and Lynch, J. M.; Series: Plant and
microbial biotechnology research series No. 4, 1995; pp.
13-29.


ISBN: 052154405X

NAL Call #:  TP248.27.P55P54

Descriptors:  
plant introduction/ introduced
species/ crops/ livestock/ game birds/ game animals/ environmental
impact/ weeds/ pests/ biological control agents/ weed control/
insects/ insect pests/ genetic engineering/ recombinant DNA/
transgenic plants/ risk/ literature reviews/ North America/ animal
pests/ pest potential/ weed eating insects


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

198. Biotechnology in the treatment of animal
manure.


Woestyne, M. V. and Verstraete,
W.


In:
Biotechnology-in-animal-feeds-and-animal-feeding/ Wallace, R. J.
and Chesson, A.,  1995; pp. 311-327


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

199. Birds of lake, pond, and marsh: Water and
wetland birds of eastern North America.


Eastman, John

Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books;
xv, 271 p.: ill. (1999)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 263-266)
and index.


NAL Call #:  QL683.E27-E375-1999; ISBN: 0811726819 (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Water birds---East---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

200. Bound pesticide residues in soils: A
review.


Gevao, B.; Semple, K. T.; and
Jones, K. C.


Environmental
Pollution
 108 (1):
3-14. (2000)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E52;

ISSN: 0269-7491 [ENPOEK].

Notes: Special Issue: Non-extractable residues in soils
and sediments: Characterisation and Environmental Significance.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
pesticide residues/ technology/ soil
properties/ land management/ microorganisms/ biological activity in
soil/ aging/ soil pollution/ environmental impact/ literature
reviews/ pesticide classes/ chemical bonding/ soil aging/ bound
residues


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

201. Breeding bird communities of Midwestern
prairie fragments: The effects of prescribed burning and habitat
area.


Herkert, J. R.

Natural Areas Journal
14: 128-135. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
QH76.N37  

Descriptors:  
Wildlife habitat/ breeding birds/
agricultural practices/ fire


Abstract: Compared the effects of habitat area and
prescribed burning on breeding bird communities using Midwestern
prairie fragments.

202. A brief review of the potential benefits of
buffer zones as field margins in UK agriculture.


Davies, D. H. K.

Aspects of Applied
Biology
(54): 61-70.
(1999);


ISSN: 0265-1491

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

203. Broiler litter as a fertilizer or livestock
feed.


Bagley, C. P.; Evans, R. R.; and
Burdine, W. B. Jr.


Journal of Production
Agriculture
9 (3): 342-346.
(July 1996-Sept. 1996)


NAL Call #:  
S539.5.J68;

ISSN: 0890-8524 [JPRAEN]

Descriptors:  
poultry manure/ broilers/ waste
utilization/ uses/ organic fertilizers/ forage/ crop production/
application to land/ nutrients/ management/ nutrient content/ beef
cattle/ feeds/ nutritive value/ feed conversion/ performance/
farming systems/ integration/ reviews/ southeastern states of
USA


Abstract: The growth in the broiler industry and the
concomitant increase in the broiler litter generated out of these
operations, coupled with increased environmental awareness, has
resulted in increased interest by producers and scientists in uses
for broiler litter. Long-term land applications of broiler litter
have resulted in a buildup of some nutrients in certain soils.
Research results indicate that annual application rates of up to 4
tons/acre of litter are acceptable, but should be accompanied by
annual soil testing. Broiler litter of adequate quality is
acceptable as a livestock feed, provided the litter is properly
processed prior to feeding. When used as a livestock feed, the ash
level in litter is of concern due to its negative effects on the
nutritive value (total digestible nutrients, TDN) of litter diets
containing relatively high ash levels. Based on expected levels of
performance, broiler litter-based diets require varying levels of
grain to meet the nutrient requirements of different classes of
livestock. Broiler litter can be used as both fertilizer and
livestock feed, and the combining of broiler production with a
commercial beef operation represents an attractive integration of
two enterprises.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

204. Broiler phosphorus intake versus broiler
phosphorus output in the United States: Nutrition or soil
science?


Miles, D. M. and Sistani, K.
R.


World's Poultry Science
Journal
58 (4): 493-500.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
47.8-W89;

ISSN: 0043-9339

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

205. Buffer Zones and Water Quality Protection:
General Principles.


Correll, D. L.

In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes
and Potential in Water Protection Conference Handbook.

(Held 2 Aug 1930-2 Sep 1996 at
Oxfordshire, UK.)


Cardigan, UK: Samara Publishing
Limited; pp. 13-14; 1996.


Notes: Conference: Int. Conf. Buffer Zones: Their
Processes and Potential in Water Protection, Woodstock, Oxfordshire
(UK), 30 Aug-2 Sep 1996


Descriptors:  
literature review/ water quality
control/ protection/ riparian land/ zones/ groundwater movement/
overland flow/ riparian vegetation/ organic matter/ soil
properties/ floods/ riparian environments/ groundwater/ nutrients/
streams/ soil/ buffer zones/ flooding/ Water quality control/
Freshwater pollution


Abstract:  Riparian buffer zones (RBZ) improve
water quality in different ways depending upon the pathway of
delivery to the water to the RBZ. Groundwater passing through the
RBZ may be cleansed of nitrate and acidity due to a combination of
denitrification, biostorage, and changes in soil composition.
Overland storm flows entering laterally from the uplands may be
cleansed of suspended particulates, with adhering nutrients,
inorganic toxins, and pesticides, as well as some dissolved
nutrients and toxins. Sometimes these overland flows will also
infiltrate within the RBZ and become a part of the groundwater,
thus also obtaining the benefits associated with groundwaters in
the RBZ. During stream flooding events, waters flooding out into
the RBZ may also be cleansed of sediments, nutrients, and toxic
materials as a result of particulate trapping and the binding of
materials on the leaf litter and soils within the RBZ. The RBZ is
also an important source to the stream of high quality dissolved
and particulate organic matter which is delivered both vertically
and laterally. Forested RBZs also provide shade and evaporative
cooling to streams, maintaining lower summertime temperatures
critical to some biota. Factors which limit the effectiveness of
the functions can be divided into internal and external. Factors
external to the RBZ include watershed area and gradient, stream
channel morphology, soil mineralogy and texture, bedrock type and
depth, and climate. Factors internal to the RBZ include width and
type of vegetation, water logging and organic content of soils,
hydraulic conductivity, soil nutrient content and geochemistry.
These water quality functions of RBZs and the factors which limit
their effectiveness in various settings will be reviewed from the
world literature.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

206. Buffer zones to improve water quality: A
review of their potential use in UK agriculture.


Muscutt, A. D.; Harris, G. L.;
Bailey, S. W.; and Davies, D. B.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
45 (1-2): 59-77.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
S601 .A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

207. Butterfly conservation
management.


New, T. R.; Pyle, R. M.; Thomas, J.
A.; Thomas, C. D.; and Hammond, P. C.


Annual Review of
Entomology
40: 57-83.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
421-An72;

ISSN: 0066-4170 [ARENAA]

Descriptors:  
lepidoptera/ wildlife conservation/
protected species/ wildlife management/ ecology/ habitats/
environmental legislation/ reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

208. Cadmium contamination of vegetable crops,
farmlands, and irrigation waters.


Cabrera, C.; Ortega, E.; Lorenzo,
M. L.; and Lopez, M. C.


Reviews of Environmental
Contamination and Toxicology
154: 55-81. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
TX501.R48;

ISSN: 0179-5953 [RCTOE4]

Descriptors:  
pollutants/ food contamination/
toxicology/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

209. Calibration of pesticide leaching models:
Critical review and guidance for reporting.


Dubus, Igor G; Beulke, Sabine; and
Brown, Colin D


Pest Management
Science
58 (8): 745-758.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
SB951-.P47;

ISSN: 1526-498X

Descriptors:  
critical review/ environmental
implications/ reporting guidance


Abstract: Calibration of pesticide leaching models
may be undertaken to evaluate the ability of models to simulate
experimental data, to assist in their parameterisation where values
for input parameters are difficult to determine experimentally, to
determine values for specific model inputs (eg sorption and
degradation parameters) and to allow extrapolations to be carried
out. Although calibration of leaching models is a critical phase in
the assessment of pesticide exposure, lack of guidance means that
calibration procedures default to the modeller. This may result in
different calibration and extrapolation results for different
individuals depending on the procedures used, and thus may
influence decisions regarding the placement of crop-protection
products on the market. A number of issues are discussed in this
paper including data requirements and assessment of data quality,
the selection of a model and parameters for performing calibration,
the use of automated calibration techniques as opposed to more
traditional trial-and-error approaches, difficulties in the
comparison of simulated and measured data, differences in
calibration procedures, and the assessment of parameter values
derived by calibration. Guidelines for the reporting of calibration
activities within the scope of pesticide registration are
proposed.


© Thomson

210. Can cows and fish co-exist.

Fitch, L. and Adams, B.
W.


Canadian Journal of Plant
Science
78 (2): 191-198.
(Apr. 1998)


NAL Call #:  
450-C16;

ISSN: 0008-4220 [CPLSAY].

Notes: Paper presented at the Symposium on the Effects
of Agriculture on the Riparian Ecosystem held 1996, Lethbridge,
Alberta, Canada. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
cattle/ freshwater fishes/ rivers/
riparian grasslands/ water quality/ grazing/ habitats/
environmental management/ grassland management/ grazing systems/
watersheds/ productivity/ populations/ wildlife/ degradation/
literature reviews/ water pollution/ Alberta


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

211. Capillary electrophoresis and
electrochromatography of pesticides and metabolites.


Tegeler, Tony and El, Rassi
Ziad


Electrophoresis 22 (19): 4281-4293. (2001);

ISSN: 0173-0835

Descriptors:  
pesticide metabolites: analysis,
detection/ pesticides: analysis, detection, uses


Abstract: Synthetic pesticides are important
chemicals since they are widely used to control many types of
weeds, insects, and other pests in a wide variety of agricultural
and nonagricultural settings. This review article is aimed at
describing the recent progress made in capillary electrophoresis
(CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) of pesticides and
metabolites. The various electrophoretic systems and detection
schemes that were introduced during the period extending from the
second half of 1999 to the first half of 2001 for the CE and CEC of
pesticides are discussed. Also included in this review article are
the various approaches for trace enrichment that are involved in
the analysis of dilute pesticide samples.


© Thomson

212. Carabid beetles in sustainable agriculture:
A review on pest control efficacy, cultivation impacts and
enhancement.


Kromp, B.

Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
74 (1/3):
187-228. (June 1999)


NAL Call #:  
S601.A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO].

Notes: Special issue: Invertebrate biodiversity as
bioindicators of sustainable landscapes / edited by M.G. Paoletti.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
carabidae/ sustainability/
agriculture/ insect control/ efficacy/ farming systems/ fields/
agricultural land/ ecosystems/ biological control agents/
landscape/ species diversity/ arable land/ trapping/ field
experimentation/ colonization/ beneficial insects/ foraging/ insect
pests/ habitats/ biological indicators/ plowing/ conservation/
tillage/ weed control/ burning/ green manures/ manures/ nitrogen
fertilizers/ plant density/ microclimate/ seasonal variation/
phenology/ intercropping/ literature reviews/ predators of insect
pests


Abstract: This review article on carabids in
sustainable agro-ecosystems of the temperate Northern hemisphere
presents a compilation of the available knowledge on the
significance of carabids for natural pest control and the effects
of cultivation methods (except pesticides) and landscape structural
elements. Field carabids are species rich and abundant in arable
sites, but are affected by intensive agricultural cultivation. For
sampling, fenced pitfall trapping or pitfall trapping is
recommended according to the type of study. Many of the assumed
beneficial pest control activities of carabids are still based on
laboratory feeding records. In the field, carabids have been
demonstrated to reduce cereal and sugar beet aphid populations in
their early colonization phase, mainly by foraging on aphids that
have fallen from the vegetation. Egg predation on Dipteran eggs,
e.g. the cabbage root fly, has been overestimated in earlier
literature. Scattered data indicate carabidforaging on certain
coleopteran pest larvae. In North America, some evidence has been
found for control of pest lepidopterans. Larger carabids, e.g. Abax
parallelepipedus, can effectively control slugs in greenhouses.
Because of their spermophagous feeding habits, certain species of
Harpalus and Amara could have some potential for biological weed
control. As a result of their sensitive reaction to anthropogenic
changes in habitat quality, carabids are considered of
bioindicative value for cultivation impacts. Carabids seem to be
negatively affected by deep ploughing and enhanced by reduced
tillage systems. No negative effects have been found for mechanical
weed control and flaming. Carabid recruitment is enhanced by proper
organic fertilization and green manuring. Intensive nitrogen
amendment might indirectly affect carabids by altering crop density
and microclimate. Field carabid assemblages are not bound to a
certain crop type, but shift in dominance according to the
crop-specific rhythmicity of cultivation measures and changes in
crop phenology and microclimate. Crop rotation effects could also
be influenced by field-size dependent recolonization capability of
carabids. They are enhanced by crop diversification in terms of
monocrop heterogeneity and weediness as well as by intercropping
and the presence of field boundaries, although corresponding
increases in their pest reduction efficacy have not yet been
evidenced.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

213. Carbon and nutrient cycles.

Delgado, J. A. and Follett, R.
F.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
57 (6): 455-464.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
56.8-J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3].

Notes: Special section: Nutrient management in the
United States. Paper presented at a joint symposium of the Soil and
Water Conservation Society and the Soil Science Society of America
held August 4-8, 2001, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina and Charlotte,
North Carolina.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
carbon cycle/ cycling/ nutrients/
nitrogen cycle/ phosphorus/ sulfur/ soil flora/ soil biology/ soil
fertility/ soil organic matter/ carbon/ crops/ nutrient uptake/
crop residues/ decomposition/ plant residues/ soil chemistry/ soil
organic carbon


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

214. Carbon distribution and losses: Erosion and
deposition effects.


Gregorich, E. G.; Greer, K. J.;
Anderson, D. W.; and Liang, B. C.


Soil and Tillage
Research
47 (3/4): 291-302.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S48;

ISSN: 0167-1987

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

215. Carbon sequestration in soils: Some
cautions amidst optimism.


Schlesinger, W. H.

Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
82 (1/3):
121-127. (Dec. 2000)


NAL Call #:  
S601.A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO].

Notes: Special issue: Food and forestry: Global change
and global challenges / edited by P.J. Gregory and J.S.I. Ingram.
Paper presented at a conference held September 1999, Reading, UK.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
soil/ carbon dioxide/ conservation
tillage/ vegetation/ abandoned land/ soil organic matter/ emission/
fertilizers/ irrigation/ biomass/ calcium carbonate/ chemical
precipitation/ manures/ literature reviews/ carbon cycle/
revegetation


Abstract: A sink for atmospheric carbon (i.e., CO2)
in soils may derive from the application of conservation tillage
and the regrowth of native vegetation on abandoned agricultural
land. Accumulations of soil organic matter on these lands could
offset emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion, in the context
of the Kyoto protocol. The rate of accumulation of soil organic
matter is often higher on fertilized fields, but this carries a
carbon "cost" that is seldom assessed in the form of CO2 emissions
during the production and application of inorganic fertilizer.
Irrigation of semiarid lands may also produce a sink for carbon in
plant biomass, but its contribution to a sink for carbon in soils
must be discounted by CO2 that is emitted when energy is used to
pump irrigation water and when CaCO3 precipitates in the soil
profile. No net sink for carbon is likely to accompany the use of
manure on agricultural lands.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

216. A case for using plethodontid salamanders
for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of North
American forests.


Welsh, H. H. Jr. and Droege,
S.


Conservation Biology
15 (3): 558-569. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1C5;

ISSN: 0888-8892

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

217. A case for wetland restoration.

Hey, Donald L. and Philippi, Nancy
S.


New York: Wiley; x, 215 p.: ill.
(some col.), maps. (1999)


Notes: "A Wiley-Interscience publication." Includes
bibliographical references and index.


NAL Call #:  QH75-.H49-1999;

ISBN: 0471176427 (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Wetland conservation/ Wetlands/
Restoration ecology/ Wetland conservation---United States---Case
studies


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

218. Catch crops and green manures as biological
tools in nitrogen management in temperate zones.


Thorup Kristensen, K.; Magid, J.;
and Jensen, L. S.


Advances in Agronomy
79: 227-302. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
30-Ad9;

ISSN: 0065-2113 [ADAGA7]

Descriptors:  
nutrient management/ soil fertility/
nutrient availability/ nitrogen/ soil nutrient dynamics


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

219. Cattle phosphorus requirements may be
lowered.


Paterson, J.

Feedstuffs 75 (16): 11-14. (2003);

ISSN: 0014-9624

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

220. Caveat emptor: Safety considerations for
natural products used in arthropod control.


Trumble, John T

American Entomologist
48 (1): 7-13. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
QL461.A52;

ISSN: 1046-2821

Descriptors:  
arthropod (Arthropoda): pest/ insect
(Insecta): pest/ Animals/ Arthropods/ Insects/ Invertebrates/
arthropod control/ natural products/ safety
considerations


© Thomson

221. Challenges and opportunities for integrated
weed management.


Buhler, D. D.

Weed Science 50 (3): 273-280. (May 2002-June
2002)


NAL Call #:  
79.8-W41;

ISSN: 0043-1745 [WEESA6]

Descriptors:  
weed control/ integrated pest
management/ trends/ cropping systems/ herbicide resistant weeds/
population dynamics/ plant communities/ weed associations/
survival/ literature reviews


Abstract: Despite several decades of modern weed
control practices, weeds continue to be a constant threat to
agricultural productivity. Herbicide-resistant weeds and weed
population shifts continue to generate new challenges for
agriculture. Because of weed community complexity, integrated
approaches to weed management may help reduce economic effects and
improve weed control practices. Integrated weed management
emphasizes the combination of management techniques and scientific
knowledge in a manner that considers the causes of weed problems
rather than reacts to existing weed populations. The goal of weed
management is the integration of the best options and tools to make
cropping systems unfavorable for weeds and to minimize the effect
of weeds that survive. No single practice should be considered as
more than a portion of an integrated weed management strategy. The
best approach may be to integrate cropping system design and weed
control strategies into a comprehensive system that is
environmentally and economically viable. Management decisions must
also be made on a site- and time-specific basis. Considering weeds
in a broader ecological and management context may lead to the use
of a wider range of cultural and management practices to regulate
weed communities and prevent the buildup of adapted species. This
will help producers manage herbicides and other inputs in a manner
that preserves their effectiveness and move weed scientists toward
the development of more diverse and integrated approaches to weed
management.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

222. Challenges and Opportunities for Science in
Reducing Nutrient Over-enrichment of Coastal Ecosystems.


Boesch, D. F.

Estuaries 25 (4b): 886-900. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
GC96.E79;

ISSN: 0160-8347.

Notes: Special issue: Nutrient Over-enrichment in
Coastal Waters: Global Patterns of Cause and Effect


Descriptors:  
Nutrients (mineral)/ Anoxic
conditions/ Eutrophication/ Ecosystem disturbance/ Trophic
structure/ Pollution effects/ Estuaries/ Bays/ Coastal waters/ Semi
enclosed seas/ Marginal seas/ Pollution monitoring/ Pollution
control/ Pollution legislation/ Research/ Aquatic sciences/ Marine
sciences/ Coastal states/ World/ Nutrients/ Water management/
Fertilizers/ Legislation/ environmental policy/ Legislation (on
water resources)/ Water policy/ Europe/ North America/ Asia/
Oceania/ ANE, Baltic Sea/ ANE, North Sea/ MED, Adriatic Sea/ MED,
Black Sea/ ASW, Mexico Gulf/ INW, Japan, Seto Naikai Sea/ Pollution
Control and Prevention/ Prevention and control/ Pollution control/
Environmental action/ Water Resources and Supplies/ General
Environmental Engineering


Abstract: Nutrient over-enrichment has resulted in
major changes in the coastal ecosystems of developed nations in
Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania, mostly taking place over
the narrow period of 1960 to 1980. Many estuaries and embayments
are affected, but the effects of this eutrophication have been also
felt over large areas of semi-enclosed seas including the Baltic,
North, Adriatic, and Black Seas in Europe, the Gulf of Mexico, and
the Seto Inland Sea in Japan. Primary production increased, water
clarity decreased, food chains were altered, oxygen depletion of
bottom waters developed or expanded, seagrass beds were lost, and
harmful algal blooms occurred with increased frequency. This period
of dramatic alteration of coastal ecosystems, mostly for the worse
from a human perspective, coincided with the more than doubling of
additions of fixed nitrogen to the biosphere from human activities,
driven particularly by a more than 5-fold increase in use of
manufactured fertilizers during that 20-year period. Nutrient
over-enrichment often interacted synergistically with other human
activities, such as overfishing, habitat destruction, and other
forms of chemical pollution, in contributing to the widespread
degradation of coastal ecosystems that was observed during the last
half of the 20th century. Science was effective in documenting the
consequences and root causes of nutrient over-enrichment and has
provided the basis for extensive efforts to abate it, ranging from
national statutes and regulations to multi-jurisdictional compacts
under the Helsinki Commission for the Baltic Sea, the Oslo-Paris
Commission for the North Sea, and the Chesapeake Bay Program, for
example. These efforts have usually been based on a relatively
arbitrary goal of reducing nutrient inputs by a certain percentage,
without much understanding of how and when this would affect the
coastal ecosystem. While some of these efforts have succeeded in
achieving reductions of inputs of phosphorus and nitrogen,
principally through treatment of point-source discharges,
relatively little progress has been made in reducing diffuse
sources of nitrogen. Second-generation management goals tend to be
based on desired outcomes for the coastal ecosystem and
determination of the load reductions needed to attain them, for
example the Total Daily Maximum Load approach in the U.S. and the
Water Framework Directive in the European Union. Science and
technology are now challenged not just to diagnose the degree of
eutrophication and its causes, but to contribute to its prognosis
and treatment by determining the relative susceptibility of coastal
ecosystems to nutrient over-enrichment, defining desirable and
achievable outcomes for rehabilitation efforts, reducing nutrient
sources, enhancing nutrient sinks, strategically targeting these
efforts within watersheds, and predicting and observing responses
in an adaptive management framework.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

223. Challenges of pest control with enhanced
toxicological and environmental safety. An overview.


Duke, S. O.; Menn, J. J.; and
Plimmer, J. R.


ACS Symposium Series
(American Chemical Society)
(524): 1-13. (1993)

NAL Call #:  
QD1.A45;

ISSN: 0097-6156 [ACSMC].

Notes: In the series analytic: Pest control with
enhanced environmental safety / edited by S.O. Duke, J.J. Menn, and
J.R. Plimmer.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
pest control/ plant protection/
legislation/ microbial pesticides/ pesticides/ genetic engineering/
environmental protection


Abstract: Much of the increase in agricultural
productivity over the past half century has been due to more
efficacious and economical pest control through the use of
synthetic chemical pesticides (SCPs). However, there is continued
and growing social and legislative pressure to reduce the
toxicological and environmental risks associated with control of
agricultural pests with SCPs. Public and private sector research is
being conducted to develop biorational pesticides and to replace or
reduce the use of SCPs with natural product-based pesticides,
biocontrol (including classical biocontrol), genetically-engineered
pest resistance, and combinations of these replacement strategies.
Nevertheless, these emerging pest control technologies will likely
represent only a small percentage of the pest control market by the
year 2000. Therefore, methods to reduce use rates of synthetic
pesticides and to develop more environmentally and toxicologically
benign pesticides are also important in risk abatement. Such
strategies as biorational design, development of pesticide
synergists, and development of crops resistant to more
environmentally safe herbicides, insects, and plant pathogens can
improve the environmental quality, food safety, and allay societal
fears concerning crop protection technology.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

224. Challenging targets for future
agriculture.


Kirchmann, H. and Thorvaldsson,
G.


European Journal of
Agronomy
12 (3/4): 145-161.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
SB13.E97;

ISSN: 1161-0301

Descriptors:  
agriculture/ trends/ prediction/
sustainability/ ecosystems/ pesticides/ water/ leaching/ soil
fertility/ soil compaction/ emission/ crop quality/ biodiversity/
organic farming/ ethics/ soil degradation/ agricultural research/
health foods/ site specific crop management / cropping systems/
soil biology/ cycling/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

225. Change in soil carbon following
afforestation.


Paul, K. I.; Polglase, P. J.; and
Khanna, P. K.


Forest Ecology and
Management
168 (1-3):
241-257. (2002)


NAL Call #:  
SD1.F73;

ISSN: 0378-1127.

Notes: Publisher: Elsevier Science

Descriptors:  
Land use / Climatic conditions/
Afforestation/ Reforestation/ Soil nutrients/ Carbon cycle/ Forest
management/ Pinus radiata/ Monterey pine/ Radiata pine/
Management


Abstract: Quantifying changes in soil C may be an
important consideration under large-scale afforestation or
reforestation. We reviewed global data on changes in soil C
following afforestation, available from 43 published or unpublished
studies, encompassing 204 sites. Data were highly variable, with
soil C either increasing or decreasing, particularly in young
(10-year) forest stands. Because studies varied in the number of
years since forest establishment and the initial soil C content, we
calculated change in soil C as a weighted-average (i.e. sum of C
change divided by sum of years since forest establishment) relative
to the soil C content under previous agricultural systems at 10,
>10 and 30cm sampling depths. On average, soil C in the 10cm (or
30cm) layers generally decreased by 3.46% per year (or 0.63% per
year) relative to the initial soil C content during the first 5
years of afforestation, followed by a decrease in the rate of
decline and eventually recovery to C contents found in agricultural
soils at about age 30. In plantations older than 30 years, C
content was similar to that under the previous agricultural systems
within the surface 10cm of soil, yet at other sampling depths, soil
C had increased by between 0.50 and 0.86% per year. Amounts of C
lost or gained by soil are generally small compared with
accumulation of C in tree biomass. The most important factors
affecting change in soil C were previous land use, climate and the
type of forest established. Results suggest that most soil C was
lost when softwoods, particularly Pinus radiata plantations, were
established on ex-improved pastoral land in temperate regions.
Accumulation of soil C was greatest when deciduous hardwoods, or
N2-fixing species (either as an understorey or as a plantation),
were established on ex-cropped land in tropical or subtropical
regions. Long-term management regimes (e.g. stocking, weed control,
thinning, fertiliser application and fire management) may also
influence accumulation of soil C. Accumulation is maximised by
maintaining longer (20-50 years) forest rotations. Furthermore,
inclusion of litter in calculations reversed the observed average
decrease in soil C, so that amount of C in soil and litter layer
was greater than under preceding pasture.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

226. Changes to the soil environment under
conservation tillage.


Johnson, A. M. and Hoyt, G.
D.


HortTechnology 9 (3): 380-393. (July 1999-Sept.
1999)


NAL Call #:  
SB317.5.H68;

ISSN: 1063-0198

Descriptors:  
conservation tillage/ soil
chemistry/ soil physical properties/ soil biology/ soil
degradation/ erosion/ sloping land/ soil water content/ costs/
cultivation/ soil temperature/ soil fertility/ phosphorus/ nutrient
availability/ nitrogen/ soil ph/ cation exchange capacity/ base
saturation/ nitrogen cycle/ carbon cycle/ soil organic matter/ soil
flora/ microbial flora/ cover crops/ losses from soil/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

227. Channelization and Levee Construction of
Illinois: Review and Implications for Management.


Mattingly, R. L.; Herricks, E. E.;
and Johnston, D. M.


Environmental
Management
17 (6): 781-795.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
HC79.E5E5;

ISSN: 0364-152X

Descriptors:  
streams/ environmental impact/
riparian environments/ United States, Illinois/ environmental
impact/ environment management/ river basin management/ dams/
rivers/ environmental effects/ resources management/ channeling/
levees/ construction/ riparian vegetation/ channelization/ levees/
mitigation/ Management/ Law, policy, economics and social sciences/
Protective measures and control/ Conservation/ Ecological impact of
water development/ Structures


Abstract: The environmental impact of loss of
natural stream and riparian habitat is of concern throughout the
United States and Europe. Environmental impacts related to such
activities as channelization of and levee construction along
streams and rivers are particularly apparent in the Midwestern
United States. The objective of the research presented here was to
delineate the extent, relative degree of impact, and implications
for management of channelization and levee construction along
watercourses located in the state of Illinois. According to records
maintained through the Illinois Streams Information System data
base (Illinois Department of Conservation), nearly 25% of surface
water resources in the state have been modified directly by
channelization and/or levee construction. Reviews of agency
records, elaboration of case histories, interviews with agency
personnel, and inspections of impacted sites indicated that these
alterations have occurred without the benefit of effective
mitigation. Although permit records may provide suggestions for
mitigation to be incorporated in the design of a particular
project, permits issued generally do not require even minimal
instream habitat and bank stabilization efforts in conjunction with
channel alteration. Information derived from policy and case study
analyses suggests that institutional constraints, rather than lack
of particular understanding about mitigation, provide major
barriers to protecting the state's surface water resources in terms
of regulatory review, policy interpretation and implementation, and
project evaluation. Recommendations for environmental management
efforts regarding these and similar channel alterations are
elaborated from these findings.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

228. Characteristics of animal wastes and
waste-amended soils: An overview of the agricultural and
environmental issues.


Sims, J. T.

In: Animal waste and the land-water
interface.


Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers,
1995; pp. 1-13.


ISBN: 1566701899

NAL Call #:  TD930.A55-1995

Descriptors:  
animal wastes/ soil amendments/
characteristics/ soil fertility/ management/ waste utilization/
pollution/ pollution control/ environmental control/ environmental
impact/ waste management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

229. Characteristics of wood ash and influence
on soil properties and nutrient uptake: An overview.


Demeyer, A.; Voundi Nkana, J. C.;
and Verloo, M. G.


Bioresource
Technology
77 (3): 287-295.
(May 2001)


NAL Call #:  
TD930.A32;

ISSN: 0960-8524 [BIRTEB].

Notes: Reviews issue. Includes references.

Descriptors:  
waste utilization/ application to
land/ soil fertility/ soil biology/ soil chemistry


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




230. Chemical mixtures: Current risk assessment
methodologies and future directions.


Seed, Jennifer; Brown, Ronald P;
Olin, Stephen S; and Foran, Jeffery A


Regulatory Toxicology and
Pharmacology
22 (1): 76-94.
(1995);


ISSN: 0273-2300

Descriptors:  
biphenyls/ carcinogen/ pesticides/
polychlorinated biphenyls/ toxicity


Abstract: Some of the most challenging problems that
toxicologists confront are determining how biological effects of
components in a complex mixture may interact, determining how these
interactions affect the overall toxicity of the mixture, and
determining how to incorporate this information into risk
assessments of chemical mixtures. There has been considerable
effort in this area since the publication of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency's guidelines for risk assessment of chemical
mixtures in 1986. This paper reviews the terminology used to
describe chemical interactions and the methodologies that have been
developed for conducting risk assessments of chemical mixtures.
Particular attention is directed towards an examination of the
applicability and validity of the methods for the assessment of
risk posed by exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations
of chemical mixtures. Limited, yet compelling, data are reviewed
that suggest that for noncancer endpoints, adverse effects are
unlikely to occur when the individual components in the mixture are
present at levels well below their respective thresholds.
Synergistic or antagonistic effects, not readily predicted from the
mechanisms of action of the individual components, are possible
when the mixture components are present at levels equal to or above
their individual thresholds. Finally, synergistic carcinogenic
effects have been observed in animal studies of mixtures, even at
relatively low doses.


© Thomson

231. Chemicals from nature for weed
management.


Duke, S. O.; Dayan, F. E.; Rimando,
A. M.; Schrader, K. K.; Aliotta, G.; Oliva, A.; and Romagni, J.
G.


Weed Science 50 (2): 138-151. (Mar. 2002-Apr.
2002)


NAL Call #:  
79.8-W41;

ISSN: 0043-1745 [WEESA6]

Descriptors:  
weeds/ weed control/ phytotoxicity/
herbicides/ phytotoxins/ mode of action/ pest management/ fish
culture/ cyanobacteria/ allelochemicals/ chemical structure/
structure activity relationships/ literature reviews


Abstract: Natural products represent a vast
repository of materials and compounds with evolved biological
activity, including phytotoxicity. Some of these compounds can be
used directly or as templates for herbicides. The molecular target
sites of these compounds are often unique. Strategies for the
discovery of these materials and compounds are outlined. Numerous
examples of individual phytotoxins and crude preparations with weed
management potential are provided. An example of research to find a
natural product solution of a unique pest management problem
(blue-green algae in aquaculture) is described. Finally, the
problems associated with natural products for pest control are
discussed.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

232. Chesapeake Bay area nutrient management
programs: An overview.


United States. Environmental
Protection Agency. Chesapeake Bay Program. Nutrient Subcommittee.
Nutrient Management Workgroup.


Annapolis, MD: Chesapeake Bay
Program; Series: Chesapeake Bay Program technology transfer report;
7 p.: ill. (1996)


Notes: Printed by the Environmental Protection Agency
for the Chesapeake Bay Program; "March 1996." "CBP/TRS 143/96,
EPA-903-R-96-001"--Cover.


NAL Call #:  TD225.C43C45--1996

Descriptors:  
Nutrient pollution of
water---Chesapeake Bay Region---Md and Va/ Water quality
management---Chesapeake Bay Region---Md and Va


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

233. Chesapeake Bay riparian handbook: A guide
for establishing and maintaining riparian forest
buffers.


Palone, Roxane S.; Todd, Albert H.;
United States. State and Private Forestry. Northeastern Area;
United States. Natural Resources Conservation Service; and United
States. Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension
Service.


Morgantown, WV: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Area State & Private
Forestry: Natural Resources Conservation Services: Cooperative
State Research, Education, and Extension Service; Series: NA-TP
97-02 (Rev. June 1998). (1998)


Notes: Title from web page. "May 1997." Description
based on content viewed May 6, 2003. Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  aSB763.A115-N38-no.-97-02


http://www.chesapeakebay.net/pubs/subcommittee/nsc/forest/riphbk.pdf

Descriptors:  
Riparian forests---Chesapeake
Bay---Md and Va---Handbooks, manuals, etc/ Riparian
ecology---Chesapeake Bay---Md and Va---Handbooks, manuals, etc/
Water quality management---Chesapeake Bay---Md and Va---Handbooks,
manuals, etc/ Buffer zones---Ecosystem management---Chesapeake
Bay---Md and Va---Handbooks, manuals, etc


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

234. Citronelle ponds: Little-known wetlands of
the central Gulf Coastal Plain, USA.


Folkerts, George W

Natural Areas Journal
17 (1): 6-16. (1997)

NAL Call #:  
QH76.N37;

ISSN: 0885-8608

Descriptors:  
Kaolinite/ Kaolinite dissolution/
Pond cypress/ Swamp tupelo/ Water fluctuation/ Freshwater ecology/
Habitat/ Forested depression wetland/ Dominant species/ Citronelle
ponds/ Conservation/ crustaceans (Crustacea Unspecified)/ insects
(Insecta Unspecified)/ Crustacea (Crustacea Unspecified)/ Insecta
(Insecta Unspecified)/ Nyssa biflora (Nyssaceae)/ Taxodium
ascendens (Coniferopsida)/ angiosperms/ animals/ arthropods/
crustaceans/ dicots/ gymnosperms/ invertebrates/ plants/
spermatophytes/ vascular plants/ Central Gulf coastal
plain


Abstract: Citronelle ponds are forested depression
wetlands occurring on relatively flat uneroded surfaces of the
Citronelle Formation along the Gulf coast of the United States from
Mississippi to the central Florida Panhandle. The depressions seem
to have formed by the dissolution of kaolinite in the substrate and
associated loss of volume. Most are temporarily flooded, typically
from early winter to late spring. Soils are usually of the Grady
series. Few depressions have connections with surface or subsurface
drainage. Nearly all Citronelle ponds were forested in their
primeval state, characteristically supporting pondcypress (Taxodium
ascendens Brogn.) and swamp tupelo (Nyssa biflora (Walt.) Sarg.) as
dominants. The fauna consists of species that can tolerate water
fluctuation and frequent drying and includes a large diversity of
crustaceans and insects. Fishes are seldom present. Most of the
ponds are isolated amid lands used for agriculture and forestry.
Few remain in anything resembling a natural state. Action to
preserve representative Citronelle ponds is urgently
needed.


© Thomson

235. Classical biological control: A critical
review of recent programs against citrus pests in
Florida.


Michaud, J P

Annals of the Entomological
Society of America
95 (5):
531-540. (2002);


ISSN: 0013-8746

Descriptors:  
Ageniaspis citricola [brown citrus
aphid] (Hymenoptera): pest/ Lipolexis scutellaris (Hymenoptera):
biological control agent/ Lysiphlebia japonica (Hymenoptera):
biological control agent/ Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera):
biological control agent/ citrus (Rutaceae): tropical subtropical
fruit crop/ Angiosperms/ Animals/ Arthropods/ Dicots/ Insects/
Invertebrates/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants/ biological
control/ integrated pest management


Abstract: Classical biological control is often
considered a cornerstone of integrated pest management, although
the introduction of exotic natural enemies can have unpredictable
and wide-ranging impacts on native ecosystems. In this article, I
question the wisdom of using the classical approach as an automatic
first response to invasive pests. I critically evaluate some
classical biological control programs recently implemented against
invasive pests of citrus in Florida including: Lysiphlebia japonica
Ashmead and Lipolexis scutellaris Mackauer (Hymenoptera:
Aphidiidae) introduced against the brown citrus aphid, Ageniaspis
citricola Logviniskaya (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) against the citrus
leafminer, and Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera:
Eulophidae) against the Asian citrus psyllid. I advance the
following contentions: (1) Not all invasive pests are appropriate
targets for the classical approach, especially those that lack
natural enemies specific to, or effective against them. (2) Some
invasive pests may be effectively controlled by generalist
predators within a time frame similar to that required for
evaluation of introduced parasitoids. (3) The contributions of
native species are often ignored when postrelease evaluations focus
on introduced species. (4) Parasitism is a highly apparent
phenomenon in the field, while predation is less apparent and far
more difficult to quantify, an empirical disparity that may
generate an undue bias regarding the perceived importance of
introduced parasites relative to indigenous predators in biological
control. (5) Classical programs have immediate political appeal to
agricultural sectors seeking quick solutions to new pest problems,
and to the government agencies seeking to respond to their demands
for action. Thus, funding incentives for research may be biased
toward 'rear and release' classical programs and away from other,
ecologically sound approaches to pest management such as
conservation biological control. I conclude that classical programs
are typically employed as a reflexive response to invasive pests,
often without adequate evaluation of the pest as a potential,
rather than automatic, target for this approach, and without
prerelease surveys to document indigneous natural enemies. A
classical program may be embarked on regardless of whether or not
suitable candidate species for introduction can be identified, and
often without objective postrelease evaluations. The net result is
a prevailing tendency to underestimate the potential ecological
resiliency of established insect communities to invasive
pests.


© Thomson

236. Clean coastal waters: Understanding and
reducing the effects of nutrient pollution.


National Research Council.
Committee on the Causes and Management of Eutrophication


Washington DC: National Academies
Press; 428 p. (2000);


ISBN: 0-309-06948-3

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309069483/html/

Descriptors:  
coastal water/ nutrient enrichment/
estuaries/ monitoring/ models/ water quality

237. Clean water and productive
rangelands.


Alexander, Susan V.; Shulman,
Roberta F.; Terrene Institute; and United States. Environmental
Protection Agency. Region VI. Water Quality Management
Branch.


Washington, DC: Terrene Institute;
15 p.: ill. (some col.). (1994)


Notes: "A challenge for Southwestern ranchers"--Cover.
"April 1994."


NAL Call #:  SF85.35.A165A44--1994

Descriptors:  
Rangelands---Southwest---Water
supply/ Rangelands---New Mexico---Water supply/ Range
management---Southwest/ Range management---New Mexico


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

238. Climate and biological control in organic
crops.


Stacey, D. A.

International Journal of
Pest Management
49 (3):
205-214. (2003)


NAL Call #:  
SB950.A1P3;

ISSN: 0967-0874.

Notes: Number of References: 159; Publisher: Taylor
& Francis Ltd


Descriptors:  
Entomology/ Pest Control/ biological
control/ climate change/ insect pests/ IPM/ natural enemies/
organic farming/ pesticides/ elevated atmospheric CO2/ insect
herbivore interactions/ natural enemies/ beauveria bassiana/ winter
wheat/ beneficial arthropods/ species composition/ erynia
neoaphidis/ orius laevigatus/ entomopathogenic fungus


Abstract: Organic farming has increased in
popularity in recent years, primarily as a response to the
perceived health and conservation benefits. While it is likely that
conventional farming will be able to respond rapidly to variations
in pest numbers and distribution resulting from climatic change, it
is not clear if the same is true for organic farming. Few studies
have looked at the responses of biological control organisms to
climate change. Here, I review the direct and indirect effects of
changes in temperature, atmospheric carbon dioxide and other
climatic factors on the predators, parasitoids and pathogens of
pest insects in temperate agriculture. Finally, I consider what
research is needed to manage the anticipated change in pest insect
dynamics and distributions.


© Thomson ISI

239. Climate change and its effect on water
quality and soil resources.


Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water
Conservation Society; 2003. (application/pdf)


http://www.swcs.org/docs/Climate%20change-final.pdf

Abstract:  The Soil and Water Conservation
Society has reviewed the literature and with an expert panel
produced a report that connects climate change as a possible cause
for set backs in progress, effecting water quality and preservation
of soil resources. The report also gives suggestions of what needs
to happen to circumvent these set backs. Suggestions include a new
way for conservation planning and highlights areas where more
information is needed.

240. Climate change and plant disease
management.


Melugin, Coakley Stella; Scherm,
Harald; and Chakraborty, Sukumar


Annual Review of
Phytopathology
37: 399-426.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
464.8 An72;

ISSN: 0066-4286

Descriptors:  
host pathogen interaction/ disease
resistance/ physiological change/ Climatology (Environmental
Sciences)/ Pest Assessment Control and Management/ Epidemiology
 (Population Studies)


© Thomson

241. Closure of earthen manure structures
(including basins, holding ponds and lagoons).


Jones, D. D.; Koelsch, R. K.;
Mukhtar, S.; Sheffield, R. E.; and Worley, J. W.


In: White papers on animal
agriculture and the environment/ National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management; Midwest Plan Service; and U.S. Department
of Agriculture; Raleigh, NC: National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management, 2001.


NAL Call #:  TD930.2-.W45-2002

Descriptors:  
Agricultural wastes---Environmental
aspects---United States




242. Collaborative planning for wetlands and
wildlife: Issues and examples.


Porter, Douglas R. and

Salvesen, David.

Washington, DC: Island Press; x,
293 p.: ill., maps. (1995)


NAL Call #:  QH76.C65--1995;

ISBN: 1559632879

Descriptors:  
Wetland conservation---United
States---Planning/ Wildlife conservation---United
States---Planning


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

243. Combining inferences from models of capture
efficiency, detectability, and suitable habitat to classify
landscapes for conservation of threatened bull trout.


Peterson, J. T. and Dunham,
J.


Conservation Biology
17 (4): 1070-1077. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1C5;

ISSN: 0888-8892.

Notes: Number of References: 20

Descriptors:  
Environment/ Ecology

Abstract: Effective conservation efforts for at-risk
species require knowledge of the locations of existing populations.
Species presence can be estimated directly by conducting
field-sampling surveys or alternatively by developing predictive
models. Direct surveys can be expensive and inefficient,
particularly for rare and difficult-to-sample species, and models
of species presence may produce biased predictions. We present a
Bayesian approach that combines sampling and model-based inferences
for estimating species presence. The accuracy and
cost-effectiveness of this approach were compared to those of
sampling surveys and predictive models for estimating the presence
of the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) via
simulation with existing models and empirical sampling data.
Simulations indicated that a sampling-only approach would be the
most effective and would result in the lowest presence and absence
misclassification error rates for three thresholds of detection
probability. When sampling effort was considered, however, the
combined approach resulted in the lowest error rates per unit of
sampling effort. Hence, lower probability-of-detection thresholds
can be specified with the combined approach, resulting in lower
misclassification error rates and improved
cost-effectiveness.


© Thomson ISI

244. Commercial application of enzyme technology
for poultry production.


Acamovic, T.

World's Poultry Science
Journal
57 (3): 225-242.
(Sept. 2001)


NAL Call #:  
47.8-W89;

ISSN: 0043-9339 [WPSJAO].

Notes: Paper presented at the 21st World's Poultry
Congress, August 20-24, 2000, Montreal, Canada.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
chickens / turkeys/ production
costs/ feed grains/ antinutritional factors/ enzyme preparations/
feed additives/ nutrient-nutrient interactions/ O-glycoside
hydrolases/ proteinases/ phytase/ esterases/ triacylglycerol
lipase/ enzyme activity/ digesta/ viscosity/ digestibility/ poultry
manure/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

245. Comparability of suspended sediment
concentration and total suspended solids data.


Gray, John R. and Geological Survey
(U.S.).


Reston, Va.: U.S. Dept. of the
Interior, U.S. Geological Survey; vi, 14 p.: ill.; Series:
Water-resources investigations report 00-4191. (2000)


Notes: "WRIR 00-4191"--Cover. "August 2000"--Cover.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 12-14).


NAL Call #:  GB701-.W375-no.-2000-4191

Descriptors:  
Suspended sediments---United States/
Water quality---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

246. Comparative study of methods of preparing
hydraulic-head surfaces and the introduction of automated
hydrogeological-GIS techniques.


Salama, R. B.; Ye, L.; and Broun,
J.


Journal of Hydrology
185 (1/4): 115-136. (Nov.
1996)


NAL Call #:  
292.8-J82;

ISSN: 0022-1694 [JHYDA7]

Descriptors:  
hydrology/ groundwater flow/
saturated flow/ aquifers/ surfaces/ geographical information
systems/ automation/ mapping/ maps/ geology/ topography/ water
table/ watersheds/ regression analysis/ saturated hydraulic
conductivity/ kriging/ wells/ statistical analysis/ western
Australia/ New South Wales/ hydrogeomorphic units/ hydrogeology/
reduced water levels/ geostatistics


Abstract: Construction of hydraulic-head surface
(HHS) maps is the most commonly used technique for groundwater
evaluation. A review of methods used for constructing HHS maps
showed that, of the manual methods, the hydrogeological
interpretative technique produces a better surface than the equally
spaced approach. Geostatistical methods gave similar surfaces to
the manual methods; they share the problem of groundwater contours
intersecting surface contours and the inability to identify
groundwater discharge areas. The results showed that the automated
hydrogeological-GIS (geographical information system) techniques,
which take into account the hydrogeomorphic and topographic
controls, produced the most realistic surfaces. Groundwater
contours follow the hydrogeomorphic trends, do not intersect
surface contours and can properly identify areas of groundwater
discharge. The major advantage of the hydrogeological-GIS technique
is the ability to prepare HHS maps with a small number of data
points. It is also possible to use regressions from other
catchments to prepare HHS maps for catchments with similar
hydrogeomorphic characteristics and elevation ranges but which have
no data.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

247. Comparison of Chlorpyrifos Fate and Effects
in Outdoor Aquatic Micro- and Mesocosms of Various Scale and
Construction.


Leeuwangh, P.

In: Freshwater Field Tests for
Hazard Assessment of Chemicals/ Hill, I. R.; Heimbach, F.;
Leeuwangh, P.; and Mattiessen, P.


Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers,
1994; pp. 217-248.


Notes: Conference: European Workshop on Freshwater
Field Tests, Potsdam (Germany), 25-26 Jun 1992;
ISBN: 0-87371-940-9

Descriptors:  
pesticides/ fate/ pollution effects/
experimental research/ freshwater ecology/ aquatic communities/
literature reviews/ fate of pollutants/ aquatic environment/
literature review/ insecticides/ taxonomy/ water pollution effects/
chlorpyrifos/ aquatic environments/ chlorpyrifos/ Effects on
organisms/ Effects of pollution/ Freshwater pollution


Abstract:  Various micro- and mesocosms
simulating the natural environment have been used to study the fate
and effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos. Literature was
reviewed to observe the influence of scale, test design and
meteorological conditions on the fate and effects of chlorpyrifos.
The disappearance of chlorpyrifos from water is consistent in all
studies, despite variation in system dimensions (9 to 450 m
super(3)) and in physico-chemical and biological properties. In
most studies however, the product has no effect on the
physico-chemical characteristics of the water. It is possible that
intermesocosm variability, especially that due to the macrophyte
biomass at the time of application of the pesticide, obscures
subtle effects. The primary effects of chlorpyrifos were consistent
in all studies, even though wide differences were apparent in the
composition of the main taxonomic groups at the time of application
of the pesticide. Indirect effects of chlorpyrifos in micro- and
mesocosms are much more variable, in both direction and magnitude.
In some, but not all studies, phytoplankton, periphyton, rotifers,
oligochaetes, some mollusc taxa and the isopod Asellus have shown a
tendency to increase in biomass or abundance. Reductions in
chlorpyrifos-sensitive invertebrate forage species resulted in
transient reduced growth of endemic larval fathead minnows. The
complexity of natural ecosystems and the lack of qualitative and
quantitative a priori information on trophic structure can make
prediction of indirect effects very difficult. In the reviewed
literature there were no indications of direct or indirect effects
on macrophytes, Coelenterata or Arachnida. No mention was made of
other taxa.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

248. Comparison of different techniques to
measure ammonia emission after manure application.


Ferm, M. and Institutet for vatten
och luftvardsforskning (Sweden).


Goteborg: IVL Swedish Environmental
Research Institute; 14 p.: ill.; Series: IVL report B 1383.
(2000)


Notes: Cover title. "juni 2000" Includes
bibliographical references (p. 13-14).


NAL Call #:  S654-.C66-2000

Descriptors:  
Ammonia as fertilizer/ Manure gases/
Ammonia---Physiological effect


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

249. Compensation ratios for wetland
mitigation.


King, Dennis M.; Bohlen, Curtis C.;
and Chesapeake Biological Laboratory.


Solomons, Md.: University of
Maryland, Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies,
Chesapeake Biological Laboratory; 14 leaves: 1 ill.
(1994)


Notes: Subtitle: Guidelines and tables for applying the
methodology described in Wetland mitigation: A framework for
determining compensation ratios; Cover title. "April 1, 1994."
"University of Maryland, CEES working paper
UMCEES-CBL-94-10."


NAL Call #:  QH76.K563--1994

Descriptors:  
Wetland conservation---Mathematical
models


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

250. Competing values and moral imperatives: An
overview of ethical issues in biological control.


Lockwood, J. A.

Agriculture and Human
Values
14 (3): 205-210.
(Sept. 1997)


NAL Call #:  
HT401.A36;

ISSN: 0889-048X [AHVAED].

Notes: Special issue: Ethical Issues in Biological
Control / edited by J.A. Lockwood.


Descriptors:  
pest management/ biological control/
bioethics/ moral values/ environmental impact/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

251. The complete book of pesticide management:
Science, regulation, stewardship, and communication.


Whitford, Fred.

New York: J. Wiley; Series:
Environmental Protection magazine series; xxiv, 787 p.: ill.
 (2002)


Notes: Contents note: The Evolution of Pesticide
Regulations: The Shift From Benefits to Risks / F. Whitford, et
al.-- Human Health Risk Assessment: Evaluating Potential Effects of
Pesticides on Human / F. Whitford, et al.-- Epidemiology:
Validating Human Risk Assessments / F. Whitford, et al.--
Ecological Risk Assessments: Evaluating Pesticide Risks to
Nontarget Species / F. Whitford, et al.-- Water Quality Risk
Assessment: Predicting Complex Interactions Between Pesticides and
the Environment / F. Whitford, et al.-- Product Development and
Registration: Blending Scientific Information into Public Policy
Decisions / F. Whitford, et al.-- Pesticide Lables: The Convergence
of Science, Public Policy, and User Responsibility / F. Whitford,
et al.-- Liabilities and Lawsuits: Understanding Regulations,
Inspections, and the Courts / F. Whitford, et al.-- Environmental
Site Assessments: Managing the Facility Against Contamination / F.
Whitford, et al.-- Occupational Use of Pesticides: Handling
Products in the Workplace / F. Whitford, et al.-- Personal
Protective Equipment: Selection, Care, and Use / F. Whitford, et
al.-- The Employee Bulletin Board: Where Employers Communicate
Policies, Procedures, and Practices / F. Whitford, et al.--
Planning for Emergencies: Preventing and Reacting to Emergencies in
the Workplace / F. Whitford, et al.-- The Insurance Policy:
Protecting Yourself Against the Unexpected / F. Whitford, et al.--
Educating the Community and the Workforce About Hazardous Chemicals
/ F. Whitford, et al.-- Educating Your Consumer Clientele: A
Holistic Approach to Pest Management / F. Whitford, et al.--
Pesticides and Risk Communication: Interactions and Dialogues with
the Public / F. Whitford, et al.) -- Today's Discussions,
Tomorrow's Issues / F. Whitford, et al.


NAL Call #:  RA1270.P4-C65-2002; ISBN: 0471407283

Descriptors:  
Pesticides Toxicology/ Pesticides
Health aspects/ Pesticides Safety measures/ Health risk assessment/
Pesticides---Government policy---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

252. Components of dairy manure management
systems.


Horn, H. H. van; Wilkie, A. C.;
Powers, W. J.; and Nordstedt, R. A.


Journal of Dairy
Science
77 (7): 2008-2030.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
44.8 J822;

ISSN: 0022-0302

This citation is provided courtesy of CAB International/CABI
Publishing.




253. Compost as an alternative weed control
method.


Ozores, Hampton Monica

HortScience 33 (6): 938-940. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
SB1.H6;

ISSN: 0018-5345

Descriptors:  
weeds (Tracheophyta)/ Plants/
Vascular Plants


© Thomson

254. Compost utilization for vegetable and fruit
crops.


Roe, Nancy E

HortScience 33 (6): 934-937. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
SB1.H6;

ISSN: 0018-5345

Descriptors:  
orange (Rutaceae): fruit crop/
Brassica chinensis [Chinese white cabbage] (Cruciferae): vegetable
crop/ Capsicum annuum [Chinese white cabbage] (Solanaceae):
vegetable crop/ Daucus carota [tomato] (Umbelliferae): vegetable
crop/ Hibiscus esculenta [Chinese white cabbage] (Malvaceae):
vegetable crop/ Lycopersicon esculentum [tomato] (Solanaceae):
vegetable crop/ Angiosperms/ Dicots/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/
Vascular Plants/ compost utilization/ nutrient uptake


© Thomson

255. Compost utilization in horticultural
cropping systems.


Stoffella, Peter J. and  Kahn,
Brian A.


Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers;
414 p.: ill. (2001)


NAL Call #:  S661-.C66-2001;

ISBN: 156670460X (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Compost/ Horticulture
 


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

256. Compost utilization in vegetable crop
production systems.


Stoffella, P. J.; Ozores-Hampton,
M.; Roe, N. E.; Li, Y. C.; and Obreza, T. A.


Acta Horticulturae
(No.607): 125-128. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
80 Ac82;

ISBN: 0567-757290-6605-986-9

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

257. Composting for feedlot manure management
and soil quality.


Deluca, T H and Deluca, D
K


Journal of Production
Agriculture
10 (2): 235-241.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
S539.5.J68;

ISSN: 0890-8524

Descriptors:  
corn (Gramineae)/ crop
(Angiospermae)/ plant (Plantae Unspecified)/ Zea mays (Gramineae)/
angiosperms/ monocots/ plants/ spermatophytes/ vascular plants/
animal husbandry/ biobusiness/ composting/ feedlot manure
management/ miscellaneous method/ soil science


Abstract: Contemporary industrialized grain and
livestock production is characterized by efficient, large-scale
confined animal feedlot operations (CAFOs) and equally efficient
and large-scale, but separate, grain operations. Though both are
highly productive, feedlot operators have come to view manure as a
waste management problem, while grain operations face declining
soil quality and a reliance on commercial fertilizers to maximize
yields. Neither type of operation can be considered sustainable.
Cooperative on-farm composting may provide solutions to some of the
problems facing our industrialized agricultural systems and reader
the systems more sustainable. In this paper we view cooperative
on-firm composting as the combination and processing of feedlot
manure with crop stover to produce a beneficial natural soil
amendment and fertilizer for those fields from which the stover was
taken. Cooperative on-firm composting would help protect surface
and groundwater from nutrient loading, save resources, and help
renew social ties within the agricultural community. Composting
stabilizes nutrients, kills pathogens and weed seeds, reduces
moisture content, reduces odor, and improves physical properties of
manure, thereby improving its value as a soil amendment and
fertilizer. Although some N in raw manure is lost during
composting, the end product differs from raw manure in that it
exhibits minimal N loss in storage or after field application.
Composted manure can become the primary fertilizer for grain
production once the cumulative N mineralization from previous
applications reach steady-state. The use of composted manure
improves soil quality and greatly reduces total energy consumption
compared with the use of commercial fertilizer. A hypothetical
example illustrates how compost applications to irrigated corn (Zea
mays L.) could result in a net energy savings of about 3.3 million
Btu/acre, which is equivalent to the energy contained in 19.4
gallons of diesel fuel/acre.


© Thomson

258. Composting for manure
management.


Emmaus, Pa.: JG Press; 77 p.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  S655-.C66-1998;

ISBN: 0932424198

Descriptors:  
BioCycle/ Manure handling/
Compost---Economic aspects/ Agricultural wastes


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

259. Composting for the treatment of cattle
wastes.


Bujang KB and Lopez Real
JM


Compost Science and
Utilization
1 (3): 38-40; 8
ref. (1993)


NAL Call #:  
TD796.5.C58

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

260. Composting manure for value-added products:
BioCycle.


Emmaus, Pa.: JG Press; 85 p.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  S655-.C67-2001;

ISBN: 0932424228

Descriptors:  
Farm manure/ Manure handling/
Compost/ Organic wastes---Recycling


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

261. Composting module: Environmentally
assured.


McGuire, Kellie. and National Pork
Producers Council (U.S.).


Des Moines, Iowa: National Pork
Producers Council; 78, 7 p.: ill. (1997)


Notes: "Environmental Assurance Program (EAP)." Cover
title. "Environmentally assured"--cover. Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  TD930-.C67-1997

Descriptors:  
Animal industry---Environmental
aspects/ Swine---Carcasses---Environmental aspects/ Compost
 


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

262. Composting piggery waste:

A review.

Imbeah, M.

Bioresource
Technology
63 (3): 197-203.
(Mar. 1998)


NAL Call #:  
TD930.A32;

ISSN: 0960-8524 [BIRTEB]

Descriptors:  
pig manure

Abstract: For many centuries, composting has been
used as a means of recycling organic matter back into the soil to
improve soil structure and fertility. The composting process has
received much attention in recent years because of pollution
concerns and the search for environmentally-sound methods for
treating animal waste. The pig industry faces increasing problems
from waste production as intensive pig production increases and pig
units become bigger. This paper reviews information on the use of
composting for treating piggery waste as a means of addressing the
environmental pollution concerns. Ways in which composting has been
used for treating pig manure, pig carcasses and pig litter as well
as factors influencing the composting process are discussed.
Suggestions for possible future applications are also
presented.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

263. Concept and Determination of Exchangeable
Phosphate in Aquatic Sediments.


Aminot, A. and Andrieux,
F.


Water Research 30 (11):  2805-2811. (Nov.
1996)


NAL Call #:  
TD420.W3;

ISSN: 0043-1354

Descriptors:  
phosphates/ sediment water
interfaces/ sediments/ phosphorus/ hydrogen ion concentration/
estuaries/ evaluation/ literature review/ sorption/ comparison
studies/ phosphorus cycle/ eutrophication/ sediment chemistry/
sediment water interface/ exchangeable phosphate/ Chemical
processes/ Estuaries/ Behavior and fate characteristics/ Freshwater
pollution


Abstract: Exchangeable phosphate represents a
reservoir of bioavailable phosphorus, since it can be rapidly
released into a water body when the soluble phosphate concentration
decreases. In the absence of a clear definition we first propose to
precisely define exchangeable phosphate with reference to phosphate
released in extreme conditions of solid dilution. A survey of the
literature indicates that a variety of methods have been developed
to provide its determination. The theoretical approach behind the
corresponding release experiments is presented to support an
evaluation of these methods with respect to the definition given.
It appears that most are not based on the rigorous application of
thermodynamic principles. Therefore, we have presented an infinite
dilution extrapolation (IDE) approach, both rigorous and simple,
enabling reliable comparison to be made. The method is based on
extraction in natural water or a soluble substitute. The effect of
pH was studied. Experimental conditions for use of the described
method have been developed and various side applications are shown
such as comparison of the extracting


power of extractants. Results of
application to estuarine sediments are briefly
presented.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

264. The concept of agricultural
sustainability.


Schaller, Neill

Agriculture Ecosystems and
Environment
46 (1-4): 89-97.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
S601 .A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809

Descriptors:  
agriculture/ food production/
profit/ resource management


Abstract: Sustainable agriculture has become a
popular code word for an environmentally sound, productive,
economically viable, and socially desirable agriculture. This paper
reviews reasons for growing interest in agricultural sustainability
(mainly the unanticipated, adverse side-effects of conventional
farming), examines the proposed ends and means of sustainability,
and discusses two issues frequently debated - the profitability of
sustainable farming and the adequacy of food production from
sustainable systems. The concept of agricultural sustainability
does not lend itself to precise definition, partly because it
implies a way of thinking as well as of using farming practices,
and because the latter cannot be specified as final answers.
Consequently, people's beliefs and values will continue to mold
public understanding of the concept. Two different views of
sustainable agriculture are held. One is that fine- tuning of
conventional agriculture - more careful and efficient farming with
sensitive technologies - will reduce or eliminate many undesirable
effects of conventional agriculture. The other is that fundamental
changes in agriculture are needed, requiring a major transformation
of societal values. Those who believe that only fine-tuning is
needed tend to argue that sustainable farming is inherently
unprofitable. If widely adopted, it would not feed the world's
expanding population as well as conventional agriculture. Those who
see a need for more fundamental changes in conventional systems
believe that sustainable farming, on the contrary, can be even more
profitable than the conventional, especially when the calculation
of profit counts all of the benefits and costs of farming. Further,
resource conservation, protection of the environment, and farming
in partnership with nature - all requirements of sustainability -
will enhance, not reduce, global food production. Other issues,
such as the connections between sustainable farming and the rest of
the food and fiber system, and the implications of sustainability
for rural communities and society as a whole, have yet to be
addressed significantly.


© Thomson

265. Concepts and directions in arthropod pest
management.


Funderburk, J.; Higley, L.; and
Buntin, G. D.


Advances in Agronomy
51: 125-172. (1993)

NAL Call #:  
30-Ad9;

ISSN: 0065-2113 [ADAGA7]

Descriptors:  
integrated pest management/
insecticides/ arthropod pests/ crop damage/ economic impact/ pest
resistance/ cultural control/ biological control/ population
dynamics/ selection pressure/ environmental impact/ ecosystems/
literature reviews/ economic injury level


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

266. Conceptual model and indicators for
assessing the ecological condition of agricultural
lands.


Hess, George R.; Campbell, C. Lee;
Fiscus, Daniel A.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; McQuaid, Betty F.; Munster,
Michael J.; Peck, Steven L.; and Shafer, Steven R.


Journal of Environmental
Quality
29 (3): 728-737.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.J6;

ISSN: 0047-2425.

Notes: Publisher: AMERICAN SOC OF AGRONOMY
INC,


MADISON, WI, (USA)

Descriptors:  
Farms/ Ecosystems/ Mathematical
models/ Agricultural products/ Productivity/ Environmental
protection/ Societies and institutions/ Agricultural lands/
Agroecosystem/ Sustainability/ Agricultural Machinery and
Equipment/ Agricultural Machinery and Equipment/ Biology/ Numerical
Methods/ Agricultural Products/ Environmental Impact and
Protection/ Biology/ Numerical Methods/ Agricultural Products/
Environmental Impact and Protection


Abstract: As part of an environmental monitoring and
assessment effort, we developed a conceptual model for measuring
and assessing the condition and sustainability of agroecosystems.
An agroecosystem is a field, pasture, or orchard and the associated
border areas. We focused on ecological sustainability and defined
the goals for agroecosystems in terms of the values people place on
them. The purpose of an agroecosystem is to produce food and fiber.
Other desired outcomes can be considered as goals for the larger
landscape and the rest of the world, and they sometimes function as
constraints on production. Condition is defined by agroecosystem
productivity and the degree to which farmers use management and
stewardship practices that conserve and protect valued natural
resources in the landscape and the rest of the world. An
agroecosystem in good condition is productive and is managed to
conserve valued resources. Sustainability is the maintenance of
good condition over time. We developed indicators that link system
condition and sustainability to societal values and goals. These
indicators measure productivity, management practices that promote
sustainability at the agroecosystem scale, and management practices
that promote sustainability at landscape and global scales. Our
initial efforts focused on annually harvested herbaceous crops;
however, the concepts we used can be adapted to other plant and
livestock systems. Our conceptual approach may be used to evaluate
the effectiveness of several major programs now being implemented,
including the USDA's Environmental Quality Incentive and
Conservation Reserve Programs.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

267. Concrete manure storages
handbook.


Pedersen, John H.; Runestad, Jay
A.; and Midwest Plan Service.


Ames, IA: Midwest Plan Service,
Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Dept., Iowa State
University; 70 p.: ill. (1993)


Notes: 1st ed.; "Most of this book updates and compiles
information previously published by the Midwest Plan
Service"--Pref. "MWPS-36." Includes bibliographical references (p.
[65]) and index.


NAL Call #:  S635.P44--1994;

ISBN: 0893730823 (pbk.)

Descriptors:  
Farm manure---Storage---Handbooks,
manuals, etc/ Concrete tanks---Design and construction---Handbooks,
manuals, etc


Abstract:  This handbook emphasizes planning
and design of rectangular and circular concrete manure storages for
depths to 14 feet. Designs for rectangular tanks include tanks with
open tops, solid tops up to 16 feet wide, and slats up to 12 feet
wide. Circular tanks include designs for above- and below-ground
open top tanks for diameters up to 120 feet. One appendix includes
information on concrete characteristics, and equations and
assumptions used in designs. A section with design aids includes
useful tables, conversions, and 14 illustrated data sheets to
record design decisions. A chapter with example problems shows how
to use the tables and data sheets.


© Midwest Plan Service
(MWPS)

268. Confined animal production and manure
nutrients.


Gollehon, Noel R. and United
States. Dept. of Agriculture. Economic Research Service.


Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Economic Research Service; iv, 35 p.: col. ill., col.
maps; Series: Agriculture information bulletin no. 771.
(2001)


Notes: Cover title. "June 2001"--P. [i]. Includes
bibliographical references


(p. 33-34).

NAL Call #:  1-Ag84Ab-no.-771

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib771/

Descriptors:  
Confinement farms Waste
disposal---United States/ Livestock Manure Handling---United
States/ Poultry Manure Handling---United States/ Organic wastes as
fertilizer---United States/ Farm manure---Environmental
aspects---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

269. Conservation implications of climate
change: Soil erosion and runoff from cropland.


Soil and Water Conservation Society
(U.S.).


Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water
Conservation Society; 24 p.: ill., maps. (2003)


Notes: "January 2003." Includes bibliographical
references (p. 21-22).


NAL Call #:  S624.A1-S642-2003

Descriptors:  
Soil erosion---United States/ Soil
conservation---United States/ Runoff---United States/
Precipitation---Meteorology---


United States

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

270. Conservation management of freshwater
habitats: Lakes, rivers and wetlands.


Maitland, Peter S. and Morgan, N.
C.


London; New York: Chapman &
Hall; x, 233 p.: ill.; Series: Conservation biology series 9.
(1997)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.
[207]-223) and index.


NAL Call #:  QH75.M34--1997;

ISBN: 0412594102

Descriptors:  
Wetland conservation/ Fishery
conservation/ Wildlife conservation/ Conservation of natural
resources/ Freshwater fishes


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

271. Conservation of aquatic insects: Worldwide
crisis or localized threats.


Polhemus, D. A.

American Zoologist
33 (6): 588-598. (1993)

NAL Call #:  
410-Am3;

ISSN: 0003-1569 [AMZOAF].

Notes: Paper presented at the Symposium, "The Crisis in
Invertebrate Conservation," Annual Meeting of the American Society
of Zoologists and the Canadian Society of Zoologists, December
27-30, 1992, Vancouver, British Columbia.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
aquatic insects/ nature
conservation/ endangered species/ species diversity/ legislation/
literature reviews/ biodiversity/ ambrysus amargosus


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

272. The conservation of challenge in
agriculture and the role of entomologists.


Van Hook, T.

Florida Entomologist
77 (1): 42-73. (Mar.
1994)


NAL Call #:  
420-F662;

ISSN: 0015-4040 [FETMAC].

Notes: Symposium: Insect Behavioral Ecology--'93.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
arthropods/ conservation/
sustainability/ landscape ecology/ environmental education/
legislation/ literature reviews/ biodiversity/ endangered species
act


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

273. The Conservation Reserve Program:
Opportunities for research in landscape-scale
restoration.


Jelinski, D. E. and Kulakow, P.
A.


Restoration and Management
Notes
14 (2): 137-139.
(1996);


ISSN: 0733-0707

Descriptors:  
research programs/ environmental
restoration/ conservation/ agricultural land/ soil conservation/
United States/ agriculture/ cultivated lands/ land management/
Reclamation/ Environmental action/ Watershed protection


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

274. Conservation tillage: An ecological
approach to soil management.


Blevins, R. L. and Frye, W.
W.


Advances in Agronomy
51: 33-78. (1993)

NAL Call #:  
30-Ad9;

ISSN: 0065-2113

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

275. Conservation tillage and depth
stratification of porosity and soil organic matter.


Kay, B. D. and VandenBygaart, A.
J.


Soil and Tillage
Research
66 (2): 107-118.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S48;

ISSN: 0167-1987

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

276. Conservation tillage and macropore factors
that affect water movement and the fate of chemicals.


Shipitalo, M J; Dick, W A; and
Edwards, W M


Soil and Tillage
Research
53 (3-4): 167-183.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S48;

ISSN: 0167-1987

Descriptors:  
chemical: transport/ solute:
transport/ chemical fate/ groundwater/ leaching/ macropore factors/
preferential flow/ water movement


Abstract: A thorough understanding of how
conservation tillage influences water quality is predicted on
knowledge of how tillage affects water movement. This paper
summarizes the effects of conservation tillage on water movement
and quality mainly based on long-term experiments on Luvisols at
the North Appalachian Experimental Watershed near Coshocton, OH,
USA. Conservation tillage can have a much larger effect on how
water moves through the soil than it does on the total amount
percolating to groundwater. Soil macroporosity and the proportion
of rainfall moving through preferential flow paths often increase
with the adoption of conservation tillage and can contribute to a
reduction in surface runoff. In some medium- and fine-textured
soils most of the water that moves to the subsoil during the
growing season (May-October) is probably transmitted by macropores.
If a heavy, intense storm occurs shortly after surface application
of an agricultural chemical to soils with well-developed
macroporosity, the water transmitted to the subsoil by the
macropores may contain significant amounts of applied chemical, up
to a few per cent, regardless of the affinity of the chemical for
the soil. This amount can be reduced by an order of magnitude or
more with the passage of time or if light rainstorms precede the
first major leaching event. Because of movement into the soil
matrix and sorption, solutes normally strongly adsorbed by the soil
should only be subject to leaching in macropores in the first few
storms after application. Even under extreme conditions, it is
unlikely that the amount of additional adsorbed solute transported
to groundwater will exceed a few per cent of the application when
conservation tillage is used instead of conventional tillage. In
the case of non-adsorbed solutes, such as nitrate, movement into
the soil matrix will not preclude further leaching. Therefore, when
recharge occurs during the dormant season thorough flushing of the
soil, whether macropores are present or not, can move the remaining
solutes to groundwater. Thus, the net effect of tillage treatment
on leaching of non-adsorbed solutes should be minimal.


© Thomson

277. Conservation tillage as a tool to improve
soil, water and air quality.


Tebrugge, F.

In: Proceedings 8th International
Congress on Mechanization and Energy in Agriculture.
(Held 15 Oct 2002-17 Oct 2002 at Kusadasi,
Turkey.) Evcim, U.; Bilgen, H.; Degirmencioglu, A.; Demir, V.;
Yalcin, H.; and Ozden, K. (eds.)


Ege (Turkey) University, Faculty of
Agriculture: Bornova-Izmir, Turkey; pp. 83-86; 2002.


Notes: Document no.: 975-483-560-8

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

278. Conservation tillage for carbon
sequestration.


Lal, R and Kimble, J M

Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems
49 (1-3):
243-253. (1997)


NAL Call #:  
S631 .F422;

ISSN: 1385-1314

Descriptors:  
carbon/ agriculture/ agroecosystems/
biobusiness/ burning/ carbon/ conservation tillage/ nutrient
cycling/ sequestration/ soil science


Abstract: World soils represent the largest
terrestrial pool of organic carbon (C), about 1550 Pg compared with
about 700 Pg in the atmosphere and 600 Pg in land biota.
Agricultural activities (e.g., deforestation, burning, plowing,
intensive grazing) contribute considerably to the atmospheric pool.
Expansion of agriculture may have contributed substantially to the
atmospheric carbon pool. However, the exact magnitude of carbon
fluxes from soil to the atmosphere and from land biota to the soil
are not known. An important objective of the sustainable management
of soil resources is to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) pool by
increasing passive or non-labile fraction. Soil surface management,
soil water conservation and management, and soil fertility
regulation are all important aspects of carbon sequestration in
soil. Conservation tillage, a generic term implying all tillage
methods that reduce runoff and soil erosion in comparison with
plow-based tillage, is known to increase SOC content of the surface
layer. Principal mechanisms of carbon sequestration with
conservation tillage are increase in micro-aggregation and deep
placement of SOC in the sub-soil horizons. Other useful
agricultural practices associated with conservation tillage are
those that increase biomass production (e.g., soil fertility
enhancement, improved crops and species, cover crops and fallowing,
improved pastures and deep-rooted crops). It is also relevant to
adopt soil and crop management systems that accentuate humification
and increase the passive fraction of SOC. Because of the importance
of C sequestration, soil quality should be evaluated in terms of
its SOC content.


© Thomson

279. Conservation tillage for vegetable
production.


Hoyt, G. D.; Monks, D. W.; and
Monaco, T. J.


HortTechnology 4 (2): 129-135. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
SB317.5.H68

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

280. Conservation tillage in U.S. agriculture:
Environmental, economic, and policy issues.


Uri, Noel D.

New York: Food Products Press; xi,
130 p.: ill. (1999)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 111-123)
and index.


NAL Call #:  S604-.U75-1999;

ISBN: 1560228849

Descriptors:  
Conservation tillage---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

281. Conservation tillage systems and
management: Crop residue management with no-till, ridge-till,
mulch-till, and strip-till.


Midwest Plan Service

Ames, IA: Midwest Plan Service.
(2000)


Notes: Second edition; Inlcudes bibliographical
references and index. "MWPS-45"


NAL Call #:   S604 .C675 2000

Descriptors:  
conservation tillage/ soil erosion/
water erosion/ wind erosion/ crop residues/ costs and returns/ soil
compaction/ water quality/ crop management/ nutrient management/
weed control/ disease and pest management/ pesticide
application


Abstract:  This publication is a resource for
those interested in learning about the major benefits of
conservation tillage, which include soil erosion management, water
conservation, improved soil tilth, lower input costs, and labor
efficiency. This edition contains 29 chapters with sections devoted
to growing with conservation tillage, tillage system definitions,
crop residue and irrigation water management, and water quality.
Other chapters discuss residue management at harvest, estimating
residue cover, crop response to tillage systems, costs and returns,
soil compaction, controlled traffic, and converting CRP to crop
production. More than 60 university and industry specialists
including agricultural and biological engineers, extension wildlife
specialists, conservationists, entomologists, plant pathologists,
weed and soil scientists, and agronomists contributed to the
publication.


© Midwest Plan Service
(MWPS)

282. Conservation-tillage systems for cotton: A
review of research and demonstration results from across the cotton
belt.


McClelland, M. R.; Valco, T. D.;
and Frans, R. E.


In: Special Report - Agricultural
Experiment Station, Division of Agriculture, University of
Arkansas, No. 160/ McClelland, M. R.; Valco, T. D.; and Frans, R.
E., 1993. 121 p.


Notes:

ISSN: 0571-0189

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




283. Constructed wetlands and wastewater
management for confined animal feeding operations.


Gulf of Mexico Program (U.S.) and
Nutrient Enrichment Committee


Gainesville, Fla.: CH2MHILL; 23 p.:
ill. (1997)


Notes: Cover title. [Author:] "Gulf of Mexico Program,
Nutrient Enrichment Issue Committee"--P. [4] of cover. Funded by
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf of Mexico
Program.


NAL Call #:  TD756.5.C662--1997

Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands---North
America/ Feedlot runoff---


North America/ Agricultural
pollution---North America


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

284. Constructed wetlands for animal waste
treatment: A manual on performance, design, and operation with case
histories.


CH2M Hill, Inc.; Payne Engineering;
Gulf of Mexico Program (U.S.); Nutrient Enrichment Committee;
Alabama Soil and Water Conservation Committee; and National Council
of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement
(U.S.).


Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf of Mexico Program.
(1997)


Notes: "Prepared for the Gulf of Mexico Program
Nutrient Enrichment Committee, under a contract to the Alabama Soil
and Water Conservation Committee (ASWCC) and National Council of
the Pulp and Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement
(NCASI)." "June 1997." Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  TD930.2-.C64-1997

Descriptors:  
Animal waste---Management/
Constructed wetlands/ Mexico, Gulf of---Nutrients


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

285. Constructed wetlands for livestock
wastewater management: Literature review, database, and research
synthesis.


Gulf of Mexico Program (U.S.);
Nutrient Enrichment Committee; CH2MHILL (Firm); and Payne
Engineering (Firm)


Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency; 1 v. (various pagings): ill.
(1997)


Notes: "Prepared under contract to National Council of
the Paper Industry for Air and Stream improvement (NCASI) and
Alabama Soil and Water Conservation Committee." "January 1997."
Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  TD930.2.C65--1997

Descriptors:  
Animal waste---Management/
Constructed wetlands


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

286. Constructed wetlands for pollution control:
Processes, performance, design and operation.


International Water Association.
IWA Specialist Group on Use of Macrophytes in Water Pollution
Control.


London: IWA Pub.; xii, 156 p.:
ill.; Series: Scientific and technical report (International Water
Association) no. 8. (2000)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 141-149)
and index.


NAL Call #:  TD756.5-.C76-2000

Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands/
Sewage---Purification---Biological treatment


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

287. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater
Treatment.


Sundaravadivel, M. and Vigneswaran,
S.


Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology
31 (4): 351-409. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1C7;

ISSN: 1064-3389

Descriptors:  
Reviews/ Pollutant removal/
Wastewater treatment/ Wetlands/ Technology/ Tropical environments/
Developing countries/ Biodegradation/ Biodegradation/ Tropical
regions/ Water Pollution Treatment/ Artificial Wetlands/ Sewage
& wastewater treatment/ Sewage/ Water quality control/ Water
& Wastewater Treatment


Abstract: In the field of wastewater treatment,
energy-intensive and highly mechanized technologies are giving way
to nature-based technologies that utilize solar energy and living
organisms. Constructed treatment wetland (CTW) technology has
played an important role in bringing about the change. Wetland
technology can provide cheap and effective wastewater treatment in
both temperate and tropical climates, and are suitable for adoption
in both industrialized as well as developing nations. Currently,
CTWs are being utilized for removal of a range of pollutants and a
broad variety of wastewaters worldwide. The objective of this
article is to provide a comprehensive review of the CTW technology
and to present the pollutant removal performance experiences
gathered through the application of this technology around the
world.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

288. Constructed wetlands for wastewater
treatment and wildlife habitat: 17 case studies.


United States. Environmental
Protection Agency.


Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency; iv, 174 p.: ill. (some col.), maps.
(1993)


Notes: Cover title. Shipping list no.: 95-0161-P.
"September 1993." "EPA832-R-93-005." Includes bibliographical
references (p. 8-10). SUDOCS: EP 1.2:W 53/7.


NAL Call #:  TD756.5.C65--1993

Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands---United
States---Case studies/ Sewage---Purification---Biological
treatment---United States---Case studies/
Habitat---Ecology---Modification---United States---Case
studies


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

289. Constructed wetlands for wastewater
treatment in cold climates.


Mander, U. and Jenssen, P.
D.


Southampton, UK; Boston: WIT Press;
325 p.: ill., map; Series: Advances in ecological sciences
1369-8273 (11). (2003)


NAL Call #:  QH540-.I67-v.-11;

ISBN: 1853126519

Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands---Cold weather
conditions/ Sewage---Purification---Biological treatment/
Sewage---Purification---Cold weather conditions


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

290. Constructed wetlands for water quality
improvement.


Moshiri, Gerald A.

Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers; 632
p.: ill., maps. (1993)


Notes: Papers presented at the Pensacola conference.
Includes bibliographical references and index.


NAL Call #:  TD756.5.M67--1993; ISBN: 0873715500 (acid-free paper)

Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands---Congresses/
Water quality management---Congresses/ Constructed wetlands---Case
studies---Congresses


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

291. Constructed wetlands in the sustainable
landscape.


Campbell, Craig S. and Ogden,
Michael


New York: Wiley; xiv, 270 p.: ill.,
maps. (1999)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 259-264)
and index; Contents note: The concept of sustainable development;
The nature of wetland processes / Craig Campbell -- Constructed
wetlands and wastewater treatment design; Design, operation, and
maintenance of constructed wetlands / Michael Ogden -- Stormwater
renovation with constructed wetlands; Single-family residential
systems; The pond; Wildlife considerations and management; Art,
engineering, and the landscape; Examples of multiple-use
constructed wetlands / Craig Campbell.


NAL Call #:  TD756.5-.C35-1999; ISBN: 0471107204 (paper)

Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands---Design and
construction/ Landscape architecture


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

292. Constructed Wetlands to Treat Wastewater
From Dairy and Swine Operations: A Review.


Cronk, J. K.

Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
58 (2-3): 97-114.
(July 1996)


NAL Call #:  
S601 .A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809

Descriptors:  
dairy industry/ wetlands/ wastewater
treatment/ waste management/ barn wastewater/ eutrophication/
design standards/ cost analysis/ maintenance/ artificial wetlands/
dairies/ constructed wetlands/ dairy industry/ artificial wetlands/
Wastewater treatment processes/ Pollution control/ Sewage &
wastewater treatment


Abstract: Animal wastewater can be a major
contributor to the cultural eutrophication of surface waters.
Constructed wetlands are under study as a best management practice
to treat animal wastewater from dairy and swine operations.
Preliminary results are promising when wetlands are a component of
a farm-wide waste management plan, but they are ineffective without
pretreatment of the wastewater. The feasibility of constructed
wetlands varies with waste characteristics and climate. While the
cost of wetland construction is low, the site must be maintained in
order for the initial investment in the wetland to be worthwhile.
In addition, several design iterations may be necessary before
effective treatment is obtained. The design of animal wastewater
treatment wetlands is still being researched and a number of the
present projects will help provide recommendations for the use of
constructed wetlands at animal operations.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

293. Constructing wetlands in the Intermountain
West: Guidelines for land resource managers.


Olson, Richard Arnold.

Laramie, Wyo.: University of
Wyoming; Series: B (Laramie, Wyo.) 1078. (1999)


Notes: Title from title page of source document.
Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  100-W99-1-no.-1078

http://www.uwyo.edu/ces/PUBS/B-1078.pdf

Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands---West---United
States/ Constructed wetlands---Rocky Mountains

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

294. Control of gaseous emissions from livestock
buildings and manure stores.


Hartung J and Phillips
VR


Journal of Agricultural
Engineering


Research 57 (3): 173-189; 85 ref. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
58.8-J82

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

295. Control of Water Pollution from
Agriculture.


Ongley, E. D.

Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations  [Also available as: FAO Irrigation and
Drainage Paper 55; ISBN 92-5-103875-9], 1996
(application/pdf)


ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/aglw/docs/idp55e.pdf

Descriptors:  
water pollution/ water quality/
water resources/ agricultural land/ sustainable agriculture/
sustainable development/ nonpoint source pollution/ agricultural
runoff/ irrigation/ fertilizers/ pesticides/ nutrient enrichment/
nitrate nitrogen/ sedimentation/ precipitation/ sediment yield/
erosion control/ environmental models/ environmental
monitoring

296. Controlled drainage: Effects on subsurface
runoff and nitrogen flows.


Wesstrom, Ingrid.

Uppsala: Swedish University of
Agricultural Sciences; 1 v. (various pagings): ill.; Series: Acta
Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae. Agraria 1401-6249 (350).
(2002)


Notes: Thesis (doctoral)--Swedish University of
Agricultural Sciences, 2002. Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  S419-.A28-no.-350; ISBN: 9157661618

Descriptors:  
Subirrigation---Sweden/
Drainage---Environmental aspects---Sweden/ Soils---Nitrogen
content---Sweden


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

297. Cooling of manure in manure culverts: A
method of reducing ammonia emissions in pig buildings.


Andersson, Mats.

Lund: Swedish University of
Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural, Biosystems and
Technology; 40 p.: ill.; Series: Specialmeddelande 218.
(1995)


Notes: "SLU-JBT-SPM--218--SE." Includes bibliographical
references (p. 35-36).


NAL Call #:  TH4911.A1U6--no.218

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

298. Correlating microbes to major odorous
compounds in swine manure.


Zhu, J. and Jacobson, L.
D.


Journal of Environmental
Quality
28 (3): 737-744. (May
1999-June 1999)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.J6;

ISSN: 0047-2425 [JEVQAA]

Descriptors:  
pig manure/ odor emission/ bacteria/
literature reviews


Abstract: Malodor generation from swine manure is
complicated by the involvement of many bacterial species that
produce an extensive array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A
lack of understanding of the basic manure microbiology further
complicates the problem. This review covers pertinent detailed
information about the indigenous bacterial genera in swine manure
and their potential for producing odorous volatile compounds. It
addresses not only the odorous compounds in swine manure but also
the relations between bacterial species and the related compounds.
It appears that volatile fatty acids may be the major odorous
compounds in swine manure, and two bacterial genera, Eubacterium
and Clostridium, are most likely the major contributors to these
odorous acids. More research is needed to identify the bacterial
species within these two genera to better understand the kinetics
of malodor production by the bacteria.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

299. Costs associated with development and
implementation of comprehensive nutrient management plans: Nutrient
management, land treatment, manure and wastewater handling and
storage, and recordkeeping.


United States. Natural Resources
Conservation Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.
(2003)


Notes: Part 1; Title from web page viewed Sept. 30,
2003. "June 2003" Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  aTD930.2-.C67-2003

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/land/pubs/cnmp1.html

Descriptors:  
Animal waste---Economic
aspects---United States/ Animal feeding---Economic aspects---United
States/ Agricultural pollution---Economic aspects---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

300. Cover crop effects on soil water
relationships.


Unger, P. W. and Vigil, M.
F.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
53 (3): 200-207.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

301. Cover crop impacts on watershed
hydrology.


Dabney, S. M.

Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
53 (3): 207-213.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
56.8-J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3].

Notes: Paper presented at the conference on "Cover
Crops, Soil Quality and Ecosystems" held March 12-14, 1997,
Sacramento, California. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
cover crops/ catchment hydrology/
relationships/ evaporation/ runoff/ infiltration/
evapotranspiration/ soil water/ storage/ erosion control/ tillage/
no-tillage/ experimental plots/ watersheds/ soil structure/
subsurface layers/ porosity/ reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

302. Cover crops and rotations.

Reeves, D. W.

In: Crops residue
management.


Boca Raton, Fla.: Lewis Publishers,
1994; pp. 125-172.


ISBN: 1566700035

NAL Call #:  S627.C76C76-1994

Descriptors:  
cover crops/ rotations/ plant
disease control/ pest control/ crop yield/ weed control/ erosion
control/ soil physical properties/ rooting depth/ soil water/
nutrients/ nitrogen content/ nitrogen fertilizers/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

303. The cow as a geomorphic agent: A critical
review.


Trimble, S. W. and Mendel, A.
C.


Geomorphology 13 (1/4):  233-253. (1996);
ISSN: 0169-555X

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




304. Created and natural wetlands for
controlling nonpoint source pollution.


Olson, Richard K.; United States.
Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and
Development; and United States. Environmental Protection Agency.
Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds.


Boca Raton, Fla.: C.K. Smoley; v,
216 p.: ill., maps. (1993)


Notes: "U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development,
and Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds." Includes
bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  TD223.C73-1993;

ISBN: 0873719433 (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Water quality management---United
States/ Water---Pollution---United States/ Wetland
conservation---United States/ Constructed wetlands---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

305. Creating freshwater wetlands.

Hammer, Donald A.

Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Lewis
Publishers; 406 p., 8 p. of plates: ill. (some col.).
(1997)


Notes: 2nd ed.; Includes bibliographical references (p.
343-353) and index.


NAL Call #:  QH87.3.H36--1997; ISBN: 1566700485 (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Wetlands/ Restoration
ecology


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

306. Creative solutions to the animal waste
problem.


Zilberman, D.; Metcalfe, M.; and
Ogishi, A.


In: White papers on animal
agriculture and the environment/ National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management; Midwest Plan Service; and U.S. Department
of Agriculture; Raleigh, NC: National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management, 2001.
NAL Call #:  TD930.2-.W45-2002

Descriptors:  
Agricultural wastes---Environmental
aspects---United States




307. A critical assessment of the sensitivity
concept in geomorphology.


Brunsden, Denys

Catena 42 (2-4): 99-123. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
GB400.C3;

ISSN: 0341-8162

Descriptors:  
erosion pattern/ geomorphology/
landform change/ landscape sensitivity/ shock absorption capacity/
spatial change/ temporal change


Abstract: The landscape sensitivity concept concerns
the likelihood that a given change in the controls of a system or
the forces applied to the system will produce a sensible,
recognisable, and persistent response. The idea is an essential
element of the fundamental proposition of landscape stability. This
is described as a function of the spatial and temporal
distributions of the resisting and disturbing forces and is known
as the factor of safety or the stability index. The resistance of a
system is defined by the system specifications: its structure,
strength properties, transmission linkages, coupling efficiency,
shock absorption capacity, complexity and resilience. The
disturbing forces include the steady application of energy from the
specified tectonic, climatic, biotic, marine and human
environmental controls. Change takes place through time and space
as a normal process-response function to these specifications and
involves material transport, morphological evolution and structural
rearrangement. These, in turn, progressively change the system
specifications, which alters the performance through time. To make
progress with these issues, the nature of waves of aggression,
temporal adjustments to disturbing forces, spatial interactions
with structure, divergent pathways of change propagation, evolution
of 'barriers to change,' effects of inheritance, decoupling, and
the effects of change on system specifications all need to be
understood at all temporal and spatial scales.


© Thomson

308. A critical review of the aerial and ground
surveys of breeding waterfowl in North America.


Smith, Graham W. and United States.
National Biological Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of the
Interior, National Biological Service; iii, 252 p.: ill.
(1995)


Notes: "July 1995." Includes bibliographical references
(p. 26).


NAL Call #:  QH301.B5656--no.5

Descriptors:  
Waterfowl---North
America---Breeding


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

309. Crop allelopathy and its role in ecological
agriculture.


Batish, D. R.; Singh, H. P.; Kohli,
R. K.; and Kaur, S.


Journal of Crop
Production
4 (2): 121-161.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
SB1.J683;

ISSN: 1092-678X [JCPRF8].

Notes: Special issue: Allelopathy in Agroecosystems /
edited by R.K. Kohli, H.P. Singh, and D.R. Batish. Includes
references.


Descriptors:  
crops/ allelopathy/ allelopathins/
plant ecology/ ecosystems/ agriculture/ interactions/ growth/ plant
development/ crop yield/ phytotoxicity/ phytotoxins/ continuous
cropping/ no-tillage/ pollen/ decomposition/ crop residues/
cultivars/ weed control/ pest management/ integrated pest
management/ green manures/ sustainability/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

310. Crop cultivars with allelopathic
capability.


Wu, H.; Pratley, J.; Lemerle, D.;
and Haig, T.


Weed Research 39 (3): 171-180. (June 1999)

NAL Call #:  
79.8-W412;

ISSN: 0043-1737 [WEREAT]

Descriptors:  
crops/ cultivars/ allelopathy/ plant
breeding/ weed control/ biological control/ integrated pest
management/ allelochemicals/ growth/ inhibition/ genotypes/
artificial selection/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

311. Crop management for soil carbon
sequestration.


Jarecki, M. K. and Lal,
R.


Critical Reviews in Plant
Sciences
22 (6): 471-502.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
QK1.C83;

ISSN: 0735-2689.

Notes: Number of References: 220; Publisher: CRC Press
Llc


Descriptors:  
Plant Sciences/ Animal & Plant
Science/ crop rotation/ greenhouse effect/ global C cycle/ ley
farming/ soil fertility/ precision farming/ organic matter
turnover/ winter cover crops/ no-tillage corn/ nitrogen
fertilization/ aggregate stability/ microbial biomass/ chemical
properties/ agroforestry systems/ physical properties/ residue
management


Abstract: Reducing emissions of greenhouse gases
(GHG) from agriculture is related to increasing and protecting soil
organic matter (SOM) concentration. Agricultural soils can be a
significant sink for atmospheric carbon (C) through increase of the
SOM concentration. The natural ecosystems such as forests or
prairies, where C gains are in equilibrium with losses, lose a
large fraction of the antecedent C pool upon conversion to
agricultural ecosystems. Adoption of recommended management
practices (RMPs) can enhance the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to
fill the large C sink capacity on the world's agricultural soils.
This article collates, reviews, and synthesizes the available
information on SOC sequestration by RMPs, with specific references
to crop rotations and tillage practices, cover crops, ley farming
and agroforestry, use of manure and biosolids, N fertilization, and
precision farming and irrigation. There is a strong interaction
among RMPs with regards to their effect on SOC concentration and
soil quality. The new equilibrium SOC level may be achieved over 25
to 50 years. While RMPs are being adapted in developed economies,
there is an urgent need to encourage their adoption in developing
countries. In addition to enhancing SOC concentration, adoption of
RMPs also increases agronomic yield. Thus, key to enhancing soil
quality and achieving food security lies in managing agricultural
ecosystems using ecological principles which lead to enhancement of
SOC pool and sustainable management of soil and water
resources.


© Thomson ISI

312. Crop residue management to reduce erosion
and improve soil quality: Appalachia and northeast.


Blevins, R. L.; Moldenhauer, W. C.;
and United States. Agricultural Research Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Series: Conservation
research report no. 41; v, 97 p.: ill. (1995)


Notes: Distributed by Conservation Technology
Information Center (West Lafayette, IN); "August 1995." One folded
col. map in pocket. Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  A279.9--Ag8-no.41

Descriptors:  
Crop residue
management---Appalachian Region/ Crop residue
management---Northeastern States/ Conservation
tillage---Appalachian Region/ Conservation tillage---Northeastern
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

313. Crop residue management to reduce erosion
and improve soil quality: North central.


Moldenhauer, W. C.; Mielke, L. N.;
and United States. Agricultural Research Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; v, 97 p.: ill.; Series:
Conservation research report no. 42. (1995)


Notes: "November 1995." One folded col. map in pocket.
Includes bibliographical references; Distributed by Conservation
Technology Information Center,


West Lafayette, IN

NAL Call #:  A279.9--Ag8-no.42

Descriptors:  
Crop residue management---Middle
West/ Conservation tillage---Middle West


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

314. Crop residue management to reduce erosion
and improve soil quality: Northern Great Plains.


Moldenhauer, W. C.; Black, A. L.;
and United States. Agricultural Research Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; v, 84 p.: ill.; Series:
Conservation research report no. 38. (1994)


Notes: "September 1994." One folded col. map in pocket.
Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  A279.9--Ag8-no.38

Descriptors:  
Crop residue management---Great
Plains/ Conservation tillage---Great Plains


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

315. Crop residue management to reduce erosion
and improve soil quality: Northwest.


Papendick, Robert I.; Moldenhauer,
W. C.; and United States. Agricultural Research Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; iv, 64 p.: ill.;
Series: Conservation research report no. 40. (1995)


Notes: "May 1995." One folded col. map in pocket.
Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  A279.9--Ag8-no.40

Descriptors:  
Crop residue
management---Northwestern States/ Conservation
tillage---Northwestern States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

316. Crop residue management to reduce erosion
and improve soil quality: Southeast.


Langdale, G. W.; Moldenhauer, W.
C.; and United States. Agricultural Research Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; v, 53 p.: ill.; Series:
Conservation research report no. 39. (1995)


Notes: "January 1995"--Cover. One folded col. map in
pocket. Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  A279.9--Ag8-no.39

Descriptors:  
Crop residue management---Southern
States/ Conservation tillage---Southern States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

317. Crop residue management to reduce erosion
and improve soil quality: Southern Great Plains.


Stewart, B. A.; Moldenhauer, W. C.;
and United States. Agricultural Research Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; vi, 70 p.: ill.;
Series: Conservation research report no. 37. (1994)


Notes: "September 1994." One folded col. map in pocket.
Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  A279.9--Ag8-no.37

Descriptors:  
Crop residue management---Great
Plains/ Conservation tillage---Great Plains


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

318. Crop residues reduce soil
erosion.


McGregor, K. C.; Cullum, R. F.; and
Mutchler, C. K.


In: ASAE/CSAE-SCGR Annual
International Meeting.
(Held
18 Jul 1999-21 Jul 1999 at Toronto, Ontario, Canada.)


St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society
of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE); pp. 15 pp.; 1999.


Notes: ASAE Paper No. 992045

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




319. Cropland reclamation.

Dunker, R. E. and Barnhisel, R.
I.


In: Reclamation of drastically
disturbed lands/ Barnhisel, R. I.; Darmody, R. G.; and Daniels, W.
L.


Urbana, Illinois: University of
Illinois, 2000; pp. 323-369.


ISBN: 0-89118-146-6;

Chapter 13 in monograph.

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

320. Crops and Drops: Making the Best Use of
Water for Agriculture.


Food and Agriculture Organization,
Land and Water Development Division.


Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations, 2000 (application/pdf)


ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/005/y3918e/y3918e00.pdf

Descriptors:  
water resources/ hydrologic cycle/
water use/ agricultural land/ irrigation/ food production/ food
biosecurity/ food supply/ water pollution/ drought/ floods/
sustainable development/ precipitation/ arid lands/ cropping
systems/ crop management/ agricultural policy/ water management/
water conservation

321. Cryptosporidium and public health: From
watershed to water glass.


Gradus, M. S.

Clinical Microbiology
Newsletter
22 (4): 25-32.
(2000);


ISSN: 0196-4399

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

322. Cryptosporidium Contamination of Water in
the USA and UK: A Mini-Review.


Lisle, J. T. and Rose, J.
B.


Aqua: Journal of Water
Services Research and Technology
44 (3): 103-117. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
TD201.A72;

ISSN: 0003-7214

Descriptors:  
USA/ drinking water/ public health/
water treatment/ water quality control/ bacteria/ pathogens/
disinfection/ resistance/ parasites/ parasitic diseases/ human
diseases/ disease transmission/ hazard assessment/ water supply/
microbial contamination/ water purification/ United States/ British
Isles/ Cryptosporidium/ Cryptosporidium/ Sources and fate of
pollution/ Public health/ medicines/ dangerous organisms/ water
pollution/


water quality/ Freshwater
pollution


Abstract: During the past 10 years the protozoan
parasite Cryptosporidium has been recognised as a public health
threat in drinking waters. Recently, the largest outbreak to date
occurred in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Over 1.5 million consumers
were exposed to this intestinal pathogen, of which 403 000 became
ill. Many of those who were immunocompromised died. The probability
of an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurring in drinking water
systems, relative to that of bacterial and viral pathogens, is
increased due to the resistant nature of oocysts to concentrations
of disinfectants routinely used in drinking-water treatment.
Surveys of surface and drinking waters in the USA and UK have shown
Cryptosporidium oocysts to be present in polluted, pristine and
drinking waters at concentrations that may put the consumer at risk
of infection, based upon current risk assessment models. This
mini-review is an attempt to present the most recent literature
concerning Cryptosporidium in regard to outbreaks, occurrence,
monitoring and detection, and regulatory implications.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

323. Cumulative impact analysis of wetlands
using hydrologic indices: Final report.


Nestler, John M.; Long, Katherine
S.; and United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Wetlands Research
Program (U.S.).


Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station; 19, 17 p.: ill., map;
Series: Wetlands Research Program technical report WRP-SM-3.
(1994)


Notes: At head of title: Wetlands Research Program.
"Prepared for U.S. Army Corps of Engineers." "September 1994."
Includes bibliographical references (p. 17-19).


NAL Call #:  QH541.5.M3N47--1994

Descriptors:  
Wetlands---Environmental aspects/
Hydrology---White River---Ark and Mo/ Stream
measurements---Illinois---Cache River


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

324. Cumulative Impacts to Wetlands.

Johnston, C. A.

Wetlands 14 (1): 49-55. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1W47;

ISSN: 0277-5212

Descriptors:  
wetlands/ United States/
environmental impact/ forest industry/ agriculture/ literature
reviews/ geographic information systems/ environmental effects/
forestry/ geographic information systems/ cumulative impact
analysis/ Mechanical and natural changes/ Freshwater pollution/
Effects on water of human nonwater activities/ Environmental
degradation


Abstract: "Cumulative impact," the incremental
effect of an impact added to other past, present, and reasonably
foreseeable future impacts, was reviewed as it pertains to southern
forested wetlands. In the U.S., the largest losses of forested
wetlands between the 1970s and 1980s occurred in southeastern
states that had the most bottomland hardwood to begin with:
Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina,
and South Carolina. These losses were due primarily to forestry and
agriculture. Other sources of cumulative impact include decrease in
average area of individual wetlands, shift in proportion of wetland
types, change in spatial configuration of wetlands, and loss of
cumulative wetland function at the landscape scale. For two
wetland-related functions, flood flow and loading of suspended
solids, watersheds that contained less than 10% wetlands were more
sensitive to incremental loss of wetland area than were watersheds
with more than 10% wetlands. The relative position of wetlands
within a drainage network also influenced their cumulative
function. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are becoming an
important tool for evaluating cumulative impacts and their
effects.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)




325. Current pest management systems for
pecan.


Reid, W.

HortTechnology 12 (4): 633-639. (Oct. 2002-Dec.
2002)


NAL Call #:  
SB317.5.H68;

ISSN: 1063-0198

Descriptors:  
carya illinoinensis/ integrated pest
management/ orchards/ evaluation/ crop management/ seedlings/ low
input agriculture/ cultivars/ intensive farming/ ecology/
monitoring/ populations/ plant pests/ biological control agents /
pesticides/ natural enemies/ geographical variation/ literature
reviews


Abstract: Pecans (Carya illinoinensis) are produced
under a wide array of environmental conditions-from the warm humid
southeastern states, to the continental climate of the central
plains, to the arid climates of the American west. In addition,
pecan cultural systems vary from the low-input management of native
stands of seedling trees to the intensive management of
single-cultivar pecan orchards. This wide diversity of pecan
agroecosystems has fostered the development of innovative,
site-specific approaches toward pecan pest management. Current
pecan pest management programs require an intimate knowledge of
orchard ecology. Growers use monitoring methods and prediction
models to track pest populations. Biological control agents are
conserved by habitat manipulation and/or augmented through
inoculative releases. Selective pesticides are used to control
target pests while conserving natural enemies. Four pecan cultural
systems are described in detail to illustrate how ecological
principles are applied to widely diverse pecan
agroecosystems.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

326. Current strategies in nitrite detection and
their application to field analysis.


Dutt, J. and Davis, J.

Journal of Environmental
Monitoring
4 (3): 465-471.
(2002);


ISSN: 1464-0325

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

327. Current United States Department of
Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service research on
understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and
mitigate adverse environmental impacts.


Hapeman, C. J.; McConnell, L. L.;
Rice, C. P.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Schmidt, W. F.; McCarty, G. W.; Starr,
J. L.; Rice, P. J.; Angier, J. T.; and Harman-Fetcho, J.
A.


Pest Management
Science
59 (6-7): 681-690.
(June 2003-July 2003)


NAL Call #:  
SB951 .P47;

ISSN: 1526-498X.

Notes: Number of References: 88

Descriptors:  
Entomology/ Pest Control/ pesticide/
herbicide/ BMPs/ environmental fate/ air quality/ water quality/
sorption/ current use pesticides/ dissolved organic carbon/ methyl
bromide emission/ management model: REMM/ plain riparian system/
Nevada mountain range/ silt loam soil/ Chesapeake Bay/ water
quality/ metolachlor conformations


Abstract: Environmentally and economically viable
agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest
management options as no one system will be appropriate for every
situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools
used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied
with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site
movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical
knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural
ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental
compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties
of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and
structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research
Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate
have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern
the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals
under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results
from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of
agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based
management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the
ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas
and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the
chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental
matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and
transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of
better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information
System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management
systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and
management strategies can be identified that minimize negative
environmental impacts.


© Thomson ISI

328. Dairy farming in the Netherlands in
transition towards more efficient nutrient use.


Bruchem, Jaap van; Schiere, Hans;
and Keulen, Herman van


Livestock Production
Science
61 (2-3): 145-153.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
SF1.L5;

ISSN: 0301-6226

Descriptors:  
nitrogen: nutrient/ phosphorus:
nutrient/ farm nutrient flow: systems approach/ livestock system
sustainability/ nutrient emissions/ nutrient use efficiency: animal
conversion, soil uptake


Abstract: In the Netherlands, agriculture as a whole
is not environmentally sustainable. It contributes to the emission
of greenhouse gases (apprx15%), acid rain (apprx50%) and
groundwater pollution (apprx85%). The surplus of phosphate,
averaged over the area of cultivated land amounting to apprx40 kg P
ha-1, originates apprx30 and apprx40% from dairy farming and pigs,
respectively. Nitrogen surpluses, amounting to apprx350 kg ha-1,
contribute to ammonia, N2O and NOx volatilization and nitrate
leaching, levels that exceed present and future standards. Dairy
farming contributes apprx55% of the nitrogen losses. Despite their
genetic potential and advanced diet formulation, the efficiency
with which animals convert nutrients into animal products remains
rather low. A major part of the nutrients is excreted in faeces and
urine. Hence, there is an urgent need for more sustainable nutrient
management at higher hierarchical levels for production systems in
which the inputs are tuned to the carrying capacity of the agro-
ecosystem and the internal nutrients in animal manure, e.g. N and
P, are used more efficiently. The paper discusses the effectiveness
of management practices to reduce the nutrient losses, along with
aspects of system behaviour. Nutrient flows of dairy farms are
analysed and the most effective interventions identified to (1)
maintain level of production while (2) reducing the nutrient losses
to environmentally acceptable levels. Finally, results/projections
of prototype experimental farms are discussed.


© Thomson

329. Dairying and the environment.

Meyer D

Journal of Dairy
Science
83 (7): 1419-1427.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
44.8 J822

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

330. Databases and simulation modelling in
compaction and erosion studies.


Canarache, A. and Simota,
C.


Advances in
Geoecology
(35): 495-506.
(2002);


ISSN: 0722-0723,

ISBN: 3-923381-48-4

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

331. DDT Residues in the Environment: A Review
With a New Zealand Perspective.


Boul, H. L.

New Zealand Journal of
Agricultural Research
38 (2):
257-277. (1995);


ISSN: 0028-8233

Descriptors:  
DDT/ pesticide residues/ fate of
pollutants/ soil contamination/ New Zealand/ pollutant persistence/
Sources and fate of pollution/ Land pollution


Abstract: The source, form, and fate of DDT residues
in the environment are reviewed. Discussion is primarily from a New
Zealand perspective, where a major use of DDT was the control of
soil-dwelling pasture pests. Reasons for the persistence of DDT
residues, the association between residues and soil components, and
possible degradative and non-degradative losses from soils are
discussed.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

332. Deactivation of the biological activity of
paraquat in the soil environment: A review of long-term
environmental fate.


Roberts, Terry R; Dyson, Jeremy S;
and Lane, Michael C G


Journal of agricultural and
food chemistry
 50 (13):
3623-3631. (2002)


NAL Call #:  
381 J8223;

ISSN: 0021-8561

Descriptors:  
paraquat: adsorption,
biodegradation, deactivation, herbicide, long term environmental
fate/ soil microorganism (Microorganisms) / Microorganisms/ soil
environment


Abstract: During the many years of paraquat usage,
wide ranges of investigations of its environmental impact have been
conducted. Much of this information has been published, but key,
long-term field studies have not previously been presented and
assessed. The purpose of this review is to bring together and
appraise this information. Due to the nature of paraquat residues
in soils, the major part (some 99.99%) of a paraquat application
that reaches the soil within the typical Good Agricultural Practice
(GAP) is strongly adsorbed to soils of a wide variety of textures.
This is in equilibrium with an extremely low concentration in soil
solution. However, the paraquat in soil solution is intrinsically
biodegradable, being rapidly and completely mineralized by soil
microorganisms. The deactivation of the biological activity of
paraquat in soils, due to sorption, has been investigated
thoroughly and systematically. It is recognized that the
determination of total soil residues by severe extraction
procedures provides no insight into the amount of paraquat
biologically available in soil. Consequently, the key assay
developed for this purpose, namely, the strong adsorption
capacity-wheat bioassay (SAC-WB) method, has proved to be valuable
for determination of the adsorption capacity relevant to paraquat
for any particular soil. This method has been validated in the
field with a series of long-term (>10 years) trials in different
regions of the world. These trials have also shown that, following
repeated applications of very high levels of paraquat in the field,
residues not only reach a plateau but also subsequently decline.
This demonstrates that the known biodegradation of paraquat in soil
pore water plays an important role in field dissipation. The
biological effects of paraquat in the field have been assessed
under unrealistically high treatment regimes. These trials have
demonstrated that the continued use of paraquat under GAP
conditions will have no detrimental effects on either crops or
soil-dwelling flora and fauna. Any such effects can occur only
under extreme use conditions (above the SAC-WB), which do not arise
in normal agricultural practice.


© Thomson



333. Declining woody vegetation in riparian
ecosystems of the western United States.


Obedzinski, R. A.; Shaw, C. G.; and
Neary, D. G.


Western Journal of Applied
Forestry
16 (4): 169-181.
(Oct. 2001)


NAL Call #:  
SD388.W6;

ISSN: 0885-6095

Descriptors:  
riparian vegetation/ woody plants/
ecosystems/ sustainability/ forest health/ forest decline/
introduced species/ invasion/ stress/ mortality/ insect pests/
plant diseases/ drought/ forest fires/ climatic change/ castor/
water availability/ groundwater extraction/ dams/ logging/ forest
recreation/ grazing/ urbanization/ literature reviews/ United
States


Abstract: Riparian ecosystems serve critical
ecological functions in western landscapes. The woody plant
components in many of these keystone systems are in serious
decline. Among the causes are invasion by exotic species,
stress-induced mortality, increases in insect and disease attack,
drought, beaver, fire, climatic changes, and various anthropogenic
activities. The latter include agricultural development,
groundwater depletion, dam construction, water diversion, gravel
mining, timber harvesting, recreation, urbanization, and grazing.
This article examines the factors implicated in the decline and
discusses the importance of interactions among these factors in
causing decline. It also clarifies issues that need to be addressed
in order to restore and maintain sustainable riparian ecosystems in
the western United States, including the function of vegetation,
silvics of the woody plant species involved, hydrologic condition,
riparian zone structure, and landscape features, geomorphology, and
management objectives.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

334. Defining reference conditions for
restoration of riparian plant communities: Examples from
California, USA.


Harris, Richard R

Environmental
Management
24 (1): 55-63.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
HC79.E5E5;

ISSN: 0364-152X

Descriptors:  
plants (Plantae)/ Plants/ community
composition/ floodplain landforms/ restoration cost estimation/
riparian plant communities/ stream reaches


Abstract: Currently, there is an emphasis on
restoration of riparian vegetation in the western United States.
Deciding on what and where to restore requires an understanding of
relationships between riparian plant communities and their
environments along with establishment of targets, or reference
conditions, for restoration. Several methods, including off-site
data and historical analysis have been used for establishing
restoration reference conditions. In this paper, criteria are
proposed for interpreting reference community composition and
structure from the results of multivariate cluster analysis. The
approach is illustrated with data from streams in the California
Sierra Nevada, Central Valley, and southern coastal region to
derive descriptions of reference communities for stream reaches and
floodplain landforms. Cluster analysis results can be used to
quantify the areas of both degraded and reference communities
within a flood-plain, thereby facilitating restoration cost
estimation.


© Thomson

335. The Degradation of Organophosphorus
Pesticides in Natural Waters: A Critical Review.


Pehkonen, S. O. and Zhang,
Q.


Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology
32 (1): 17-72. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1C7;

ISSN: 1064-3389

Descriptors:  
Organophosphorus compounds/
Agrochemicals/ Pesticides/ Reviews/ Pollutant persistence/
Environmental impact/ Public health/ United States/
Organophosphorus Pesticides/ Degradation/ Water Pollution Effects/
Water Quality Control/ Pesticides (Organophosphorus) / Water
pollution control/ Public health/ Environmental protection
agencies/ Decomposition/ United States/ Freshwater pollution/
Pesticides/ Sources and fate of pollution / Water
Quality


Abstract: Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) have
been widely used throughout the world since the decline in the use
of organochlorine pesticides in the 1960s and 1970s. They are less
persistent in the environment when compared with organochlorine
pesticides and thus pose less long-term health risks to nontarget
aquatic organisms and humans. However, in recent years several
governmental agencies, including the USEPA, have started to
reconsider the wide use of organophosphorus pesticides due to
concern about their effects on the central nervous systems of
humans, children in particular. This review discusses the fate of
organophosphorus pesticides in the aquatic environment via
processes such as adsorption, hydrolysis, oxidation, and
photochemical degradation. Furthermore, the breakdown products of
OPs are discussed, as new research has indicated that the products
of degradation can be very harmful as well and because relatively
little research has been carried out on comprehensive product
identification. Recommended future research areas are
highlighted.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

336. Degradation of pesticides by
actinomycetes.


De Schrijver, Adinda and De Mot,
Rene


Critical Reviews in
Microbiology
25 (2): 85-119.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
QR1.C7;

ISSN: 1040-841X

Descriptors:  
pesticides: biotransformations,
degradation/ xenobiotics: biotransformations, degradation/
actinomycetes (Actinomycetes and Related Organisms)/ bacteria
(Bacteria)/ Bacteria/ Eubacteria/ Microorganisms/ biodegradation/
bioremediation/ cometabolism


© Thomson

337. Degradation of Pesticides in Subsurface
Soils, Unsaturated Zone: A Review of Methods and
Results.


Fomsgaard, I. S.

International Journal of
Environmental Analytical Chemistry
58 (1-4): 231-245. (1995);

ISSN: 0306-7319.

Notes: Conference: 4. Workshop on Chemistry and Fate of
Modern Pesticides, Prague (Czech Rep.), 8-10 Sep 1993; Source:
Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Chemistry and Fate
of Modern Pesticides; Issue editors: Barcelo, D./Hajslova,
J./Nielen, M.


Descriptors:  
water pollution sources/ fate of
pollutants/ pesticides/ soil contamination/ groundwater pollution/
degradation/ aeration zone/ subsoil/ groundwater contamination/
Sources and fate of pollution/ Network design/ Land
pollution


Abstract: Methods and results from degradation
studies in subsoils, unsaturated zone, were reviewed for mecoprop,
2,4-D, atrazine, alachlor, aldicarb, carbofuran, linuron, oxamyl,
methomyl, MCPA, dichlorprop, monochlorprop, dichlorphenol, TCA,
parathion, metribuzin, metolachlor and fenamiphos. Most of the
investigations were laboratory studies where small soil samples
were sieved and pesticides were added in concentrations from 0.5-5
mu g/g. A few of the studies mentioned the importance of working
with undisturbed samples; another few studies used isotope-labelled
pesticides which made it possible to work with concentrations as
low as 0.02 mu g/g. Subsoil samples were characterized according to
factors as microbial activity, soil temperature, water content,
oxygen content, concentration of pesticide, pretreatment of the
soil and soil type, factors considered to have influence on
degradation of pesticides. Chemical hydrolysis was considered to be
the most dominant pathway in the degradation of aldicarb in subsoil
in one of the published papers; all other investigations considered
the degradation of pesticides in subsoil to be primarily
microbiological. Only a few of the investigations measured the
biomass or biological activity of the subsoil samples.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

338. Denitrification activity in soils amended
with poultry litter.


Johnson, William F.

Fayetteville, Arkansas: University
of Arkansas, 1995.


Notes: "August 1995" Thesis (Ph. D.)

NAL Call #:  ArU S592.6.N5J64-1995

Descriptors:  
Soils---Nitrogen content/
Poultry---Manure/ Denitrification/ Nitrous oxide


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

339. Denitrification in Coastal Ecosystems:
Methods, Environmental Controls, and Ecosystem Level Controls, a
Review.


Cornwell, J. C.; Kemp, W. M.; and
Kana, T. M.


Aquatic Ecology 1: 41-54. (1999);

ISSN: 1386-2588.

Notes: Special Issue: Coastal Eutrophication;
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers; DOI:
10.1023/A:1009921414151


Descriptors:  
Eutrophication/ Pollution effects/
Zoobenthos/ Analytical techniques/ Dissolved oxygen/ Aquatic
plants/ Sediment chemistry/ Biogeochemical cycle/ Estuarine
chemistry/ Coastal waters/ Literature reviews/ Denitrification/
Estuaries/ Measuring techniques/ Reviews/ United States, Chesapeake
Bay/ Ecosystems/ Literature Review/ Sediments/ Aquatic Habitats/
Coastal zone/ Nitrogen/ Nutrient loading/ Biogeochemistry/ Marine
environment / ANW, USA, Chesapeake Bay/ Ecosystems and energetics/
Mechanical and natural changes/ Pollution Environment/ Methodology
general/ Sources and fate of pollution / Marine Pollution/ Brackish
water


Abstract: In this review of sediment denitrification
in estuaries and coastal ecosystems, we examine current
denitrification measurement methodologies and the dominant
biogeochemical controls on denitrification rates in coastal
sediments. Integrated estimates of denitrification in coastal
ecosystems are confounded by methodological difficulties, a lack of
systematic understanding of the effects of changing environmental
conditions, and inadequate attention to spatial and temporal
variability to provide both seasonal and annual rates. Recent
improvements in measurement techniques involving super(15)N
techniques and direct N sub(2) concentration changes appear to
provide realistic rates of sediment denitrification. Controlling
factors in coastal systems include concentrations of water column
NO super(-) sub(3), overall rates of sediment carbon metabolism,
overlying water oxygen concentrations, the depth of oxygen
penetration, and the presence/absence of aquatic vegetation and
macrofauna. In systems experiencing environmental change, either
degradation or improvement, the importance of denitritication can
change. With the eutrophication of the Chesapeake Bay, the overall
rates of denitrification relative to N loading terms have
decreased, with factors such as loss of benthic habitat via anoxia
and loss of submerged aquatic vegetation driving such
effects.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

340. Desert grassland and shrubland
ecosystems.


Loftin, S. R.; Aguilar, R.; Chung
MacCoubrey, A. L.; and Robbie, W. A.


In: Ecology, diversity, and
sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin; Fort Collins, Colo.:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest
and Range Experiment Station, 1995. pp. 80-94.


NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42-no.268

Descriptors:  
grasslands/ shrubs/ ecosystems/
deserts/ geographical distribution/ rangelands/ livestock/
overgrazing/ plant succession/ sustainability/ erosion/ pollution/
water quality/ surface water/ water resources/ geology/ climate/
soil/ hydrology/ plant communities/ vegetation/ wildlife/ land
management/ fires/ fire ecology/ literature reviews/ New
Mexico


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




341. Design and development of environmental
indicators with reference to Canadian agriculture.


McRae, T.; Hillary, N.; MacGregor,
R. J.; and Smith, C. A.


In: North American Workshop on
Monitoring for Ecological Assessment of Terrestrial and Aquatic
Ecosystems / Taller Norteamericano Sobre Monitoreo para la
Evaluacion Ecologica de Ecosistemas Terrestres y Acuaticos.

(Held 18 Sep 1995-22 Sep 1995 at
 Mexico City.)


Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest
Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station; pp.
118-139; 1996.


NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42-no.284

Descriptors:  
biological indicators/ agriculture/
indicator species/ agricultural land/ ecosystems/ environmental
assessment/ natural resources/ spatial variation/ monitoring/
climatic zones/ simulation models/ prediction/ erosion/ resource
management/ tillage/ soil degradation/ erosion control/ air
pollution/ carbon dioxide/ efficiency/ literature reviews/
Canada


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

342. Design and estimation for investigating the
dynamics of natural resources.


Nusser, S. M.; Breidt, F. J.; and
Fuller, W. A.


Ecological
Applications
8 (2): 234-245.
(May 1998)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.E23;

ISSN: 1051-0761

Descriptors:  
Resource management/ Resource
evaluation/ Sampling/ Land use/ Environmental monitoring/ United
States/ temporal variations/ Methodology general/
Management


Abstract: Federal agencies, policy makers, and
scientists have long been interested in monitoring natural
resources and environmental conditions on a national and regional
scale. One of the main objectives of these studies is to estimate
temporal changes in the extent and condition of natural resources.
In its simplest form, temporal change can be defined as the
difference between population parameter values at two time points
for a given population. A more complex investigation of change in
an ecological system involves studying the underlying dynamics that
produce an observed net change. We discuss the general problem of
sample design and statistical estimation to support investigations
of the dynamics of change in ecological systems, particularly when
a limited number of temporal observations are available. We focus
on large-scale natural resource monitoring surveys through the
example provided by the National Resources Inventory (NRI), a
longitudinal survey conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA). Sample design, data collection, and statistical methods for
constructing an accessible database are outlined, with emphasis on
features that support investigations concerned with temporal
dynamics. An example from the 1992 NRI is presented to illustrate
methods for investigating temporal changes in land use in relation
to observed changes in erosion rates over time. Finally, we discuss
how statistical methods developed for the NRI program can be
applied more broadly to environmental monitoring
studies.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

343. Design and implementation of rapid
assessment approaches for water resource monitoring using benthic
macroinvertebrates.


Resh, V. H.; Norris, R. H.; and
Barbour, M. T.


Australian Journal of
Ecology
20 (1): 108-121.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.A8;

ISSN: 0307-692X

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

344. Design Considerations for Increased
Sedimentation in Small Wetlands Treating Agricultural
Runoff.


Braskerud, B. C.

Water Science and
Technology
45 (9): 77-85.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
TD420.A1P7;

ISSN: 0273-1223.

Notes: Conference: 5. International Conference on
Diffuse Pollution, Milwaukee [USA], 10-15 Jun 2001; Source:
Diffuse/Non-Point Pollution and Waterhsed Management;


ISBN: 1843394154

Descriptors:  
Norway/ Water Pollution Control/
Nonpoint Pollution Sources/ Artificial Wetlands/ Agricultural
Runoff/ Sedimentation/ Optimization/ Design Criteria/ Water Depth/
Vegetation/ Data Collections/ Reviews/ Pollution (Nonpoint
sources)/ Wetlands/ Runoff (Agricultural)/ Design data/ Norway/
Water quality control/ Water Quality/ Water Pollution: Monitoring,
Control & Remediation


Abstract: Some suggestions to increase the
sedimentation of non-point source pollution in small surface flow
wetlands are presented. The recommendations are based on results
from seven Norwegian constructed wetlands (CWs) after 3-7 years of
investigation, and a literature review. The wetlands were located
in first and second order streams. Surface areas were 265-900 m
super(2), corresponding to 0.03-0.4% of the watershed. Each CW had
a volume proportional composite sampler in the inlet and outlet, in
addition to sedimentation plates. The mean annual retention of soil
particles, organic particles and phosphorus was 45-75%, 43-67% and
20-44%, respectively. Results showed that erosion and
transportation processes in arable watersheds influenced the
retention. Sedimentation was the most important retention process,
and increased with runoff, because the input of larger aggregates
increased. Retention of nitrogen did not follow the same pattern,
and was only 3-15%. Making CWs shallow (0-0.5 m) can optimize
sedimentation. The hydraulic efficiency can be increased by aquatic
vegetation, large stones in the inlet, baffles and water-permeable,
low dams. Vegetation makes it possible to utilize the positive
effect of a short particle settling distance, by hindering
resuspension of sediments under storm runoff conditions. As a
result, the phosphorus retention in shallow CWs was twice that of
deeper ponds.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

345. Design for stream restoration.

Shields, F. D.; Copeland, R. R.;
Klingeman, P. C.; Doyle, M. W.; and Simon, A.


Journal of Hydraulic
Engineering (ASCE)
129 (8):
575-584. (2003)


NAL Call #:  
290.9 Am3PS (Hy);

ISSN: 0733-9429

Descriptors:  
Civil Engineering/ stream
improvement/ design/ restoration/ gravel bed rivers/ discharge/
channels/ management/ adjustment/ stability/ geometry/ sediment/
project/ motion


Abstract: Stream restoration, or more properly
rehabilitation, is the return of a degraded stream ecosystem to a
close approximation of its remaining natural potential. Many types
of practices (dam removal, levee breaching, modified flow control,
vegetative methods for streambank erosion control, etc.) are
useful, but this paper focuses on channel reconstruction. A tension
exists between restoring natural fluvial processes and ensuring
stability of the completed project. Sedimentation analyses are a
key aspect of design since many projects fail due to erosion or
sedimentation. Existing design approaches range from relatively
simple ones based on stream classification and regional hydraulic
geometry relations to more complex two- and three-dimensional
numerical models. Herein an intermediate approach featuring
application of hydraulic engineering tools for assessment of
watershed geomorphology, channel-forming discharge analysis, and
hydraulic analysis in the form of one-dimensional flow and sediment
transport computations is described.


© Thomson ISI

346. Detection and enumeration of coliforms in
drinking water: Current methods and emerging approaches.


Rompre, Annie; Servais, Pierre;
Baudart, Julia; de Roubin, Marie; and  Laurent,
Patrick


Journal of Microbiological
Methods
49 (1): 31-54.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
QR65.J68;

ISSN: 0167-7012

Abstract: The coliform group has been used
extensively as an indicator of water quality and has historically
led to the public health protection concept. The aim of this review
is to examine methods currently in use or which can be proposed for
the monitoring of coliforms in drinking water. Actually, the need
for more rapid, sensitive and specific tests is essential in the
water industry. Routine and widely accepted techniques are
discussed, as are methods which have emerged from recent research
developments. Approved traditional methods for coliform detection
include the multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) technique and the
membrane filter (MF) technique using different specific media and
incubation conditions. These methods have limitations, however,
such as duration of incubation, antagonistic organism interference,
lack of specificity and poor detection of slow-growing or viable
but non-culturable (VBNC) microorganisms. Nowadays, the simple and
inexpensive membrane filter technique is the most widely used
method for routine enumeration of coliforms in drinking water. The
detection of coliforms based on specific enzymatic activity has
improved the sensitivity of these methods. The enzymes beta-D
galactosidase and beta-D glucuronidase are widely used for the
detection and enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli,
respectively. Many chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates exist for
the specific detection of these enzymatic activities, and various
commercial tests based on these substrates are available. Numerous
comparisons have shown these tests may be a suitable alternative to
the classical techniques. They are, however, more expensive, and
the incubation time, even though reduced, remains too long for
same-day results. More sophisticated analytical tools such as solid
phase cytometry can be employed to decrease the time needed for the
detection of bacterial enzymatic activities, with a low detection
threshold. Detection of coliforms by molecular methods is also
proposed, as these methods allow for very specific and rapid
detection without the need for a cultivation step. Three
molecular-based methods are evaluated here: the immunological,
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in-situ hybridization (ISH)
techniques. In the immunological approach, various antibodies
against coliform bacteria have been produced, but the application
of this technique often showed low antibody specificity. PCR can be
used to detect coliform bacteria by means of signal amplification:
DNA sequence coding for the lacZ gene (beta-galactosidase gene) and
the uidA gene (beta-D glucuronidase gene) has been used to detect
total coliforms and E. coli, respectively. However, quantification
with PCR is still lacking in precision and necessitates extensive
laboratory work. The FISH technique involves the use of
oligonucleotide probes to detect complementary sequences inside
specific cells. Oligonucleotide probes designed specifically for
regions of the 16S RNA molecules of Enterobacteriaceae can be used
for microbiological quality control of drinking water samples. FISH
should be an interesting viable alternative to the conventional
culture methods for the detection of coliforms in drinking water,
as it provides quantitative data in a fairly short period of time
(6 to 8 h), but still requires research effort. This review shows
that even though many innovative bacterial detection methods have
been developed, few have the potential for becoming a standardized
method for the detection of coliforms in drinking water
samples.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

347. Detection and occurrence of indicator
organisms and pathogens.


Baker, K. H.

Water Environment
Research
67 (4): 406-410.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
literature review/ bioindicators/
bacteria/ Protozoa/ viruses/ pathogens/ drinking water/ wastewater/
analytical methods/ microbiological analysis/ pollution detection/
pollutant identification/ pollution indicators/ indicator species/
analytical techniques/ wastewater/ water pollution/ protozoa/
Identification of pollutants/ Freshwater pollution/ water
pollution/ water quality/ Methods and instruments


Abstract: This review covers the detection and
occurrence of bacterial, protozoan and viral indicator organisms
and pathogens in drinking water and wastewater. In view of the
continued emergence of infections carried by water-borne routes,
opportunistic pathogens and non-traditional indicators are included
also.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

348. Detection and occurrence of indicator
organisms and pathogens.


Baker, Katherine H and Bovard,
Debrah S


Water Environment
Research
68 (4): 406-416.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
biosolids/ indicator organism/
pollution control/ water pollution/ water quality/ invertebrate
(Invertebrata Unspecified)/ microorganism (Microorganisms
Unspecified)/ protozoa (Protozoa


Unspecified)/ viruses (Viruses
General)/ Invertebrata (Invertebrata Unspecified)/ animals/
invertebrates/ microorganisms/ protozoans


© Thomson

349. Detection and occurrence of indicator
organisms and pathogens.


Baker, K. H. and Hegarty, J.
P.


Water Environment
Research
69 (4): 403-415.
(June 1997)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
literature review/ pathogens/
pollutant identification/ monitoring/ bioindicators/ analytical
methods/ risk/ water sampling/ microorganisms/ reviews/ indicator
species/ pollution monitoring/ risk assessment/ Escherichia coli/
literature reviews/ pollution indicators/ pollution detection/
microbial contamination/ public health/ Escherichia coli/
Identification of pollutants/ Environmental/ Freshwater pollution/
Public health/ medicines/ dangerous organisms


Abstract: Geldrich (1996) reviewed the detection and
occurrence of pathogenic organisms, including bacteria, enteric
viruses, protozoa, and parasitic worms, in freshwater supplies. He
summarized an enormous amount of data on the sources of these
organisms, their occurrence, and their detection in water supplies.
Because routine monitoring for pathogens is often unrealistic,
Geldrich argued that the use of indicator organisms, specifically
coliforms and fecal coliforms, should be the mainstay of routine
monitoring programs. He suggested that the lack of correlation
between these organisms and pathogens such as protozoa and viruses
may be a reflection of the vast difference in sample sizes used for
the analysis (100 mL for coliforms versus greater than 1 L for
viruses and protozoa) and recommended that the standard sample size
for analysis of indicator organisms should be increased. Finally,
Geldrich presented several case studies of waterborne disease
outbreaks with a complete discussion of not only the source of the
pathogenic organisms but also the measures that were successful in
controlling the outbreaks. Gale (1996), in a review of microbial
risk assessment, also addressed the difficulties in comparing
densities of indicator organisms from samples of different volumes.
As he noted, current information on the occurrence of pathogens in
drinking water supplies is only available for sample volumes
significantly larger that the amount ingested daily by any
individual, and little information is available on how organisms
are dispersed within these large volumes. This makes the estimation
of risk to the individual consumer difficult, if not impossible, to
determine. Dufour (1996) and Edberg (1996) reviewed water and
wastewater microbiology. Both emphasized the importance of
enzymatic and molecular techniques in the detection and enumeration
of indicator bacteria. Busse et al. (1996) reviewed the techniques
available for the identification of bacteria. In addition to the
traditional biochemical and physiological tests, they discussed
more recent chemotaxonomic approaches such as analysis of quinone
system, fatty acid profiles, polar lipid patterns, polyamine
patterns, whole cell sugars, and peptidoglycan diamino acids;
analytical fingerprinting and cellular protein patterning; and
nucleic acid techniques such as 16S rDNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
sequencing, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP),
macrorestriction analysis, and random amplified polymorphic DNA
(RAPD).


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)




350. Detection and occurrence of indicator
organisms and pathogens.


Baker, Katherine H

Water Environment
Research
70 (4): 405-418.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
bacteria (Bacteria): pollution
indicator/ coliforms (Enterobacteriaceae): pollution indicator/
protozoa (Protozoa): pollution indicator/ viruses (Viruses):
pollution indicator/ Animals/ Bacteria/ Eubacteria/ Invertebrates/
Microorganisms/ Protozoans/ Viruses/ groundwater/ microbial
contamination/ pathogens/ recreational water/ water contamination/
water quality


© Thomson

351. Detection and Occurrence of Waterborne
Bacterial and Viral Pathogens.


Black, E. K. and Finch, G.
R.


Water Environment
Research
65 (6): 295-299.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47

Descriptors:  
Literature review/ Pathogenic
bacteria/ Pathogens/ Pollutant identification/ Reviews/ Viruses/
Waterborne diseases/ AIDS/ Aeromonas/ Coliforms/ Cryptosporidium/
Drinking water/ Enteric bacteria/ Escherichia coli/ Giardia/
Groundwater/ Immunoassay/ Mycobacterium/ Protozoa/ Public health/
Salmonella/ Surface water/ Wastewater/ Identification of
pollutants/ Sources and fate of pollution


Abstract: The occurrence and detection of waterborne
pathogens in drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and
wastewater is important to world health as shown by numerous
epidemics that have caused disease in humans. The most frequently
reported bacteria in drinking water, surface water, groundwater,
and wastewater were Escherichia coli, followed by the coliform
group. Surveys have shown seasonal variation in bacterial pathogens
in surface waters and correlations between total coliforms and
other pathogenic bacteria. Surveys of river water and recreational
water showed that virus levels varied throughout the year. The
infectivity of viruses from lawns irrigated with wastewater was
examined using an animal model. Fewer piglets exposed for 2 hr to
lawns irrigated with 40,000 50% cell-culture infectious dose
(CCID50) virus particles became positive than piglets inoculated
with 100 CCID50 virus particles. The survival of human
immunodeficiency viruses in wastewater was less than that of polio
viruses. The survival of the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum was
robust in all water types examined. Viable but non-culturable
organisms present a problem when detecting organisms in water.
Pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of samples, as well as the
newer technologies of gene probes and immunoassays, improve the
detection of injured and stressed organisms. Developments in gene
probe and immunoassay technologies are making these detection
methods more accessible to routine water analysis laboratories.
Immunoassays can detect toxins produced by organisms or the
organisms themselves, however, viability determination of the
detected cells is not reliable. A new technology that shows promise
is the combined use of conductance and immunology. Beads coated
with the antigen for a specific pathogen are exposed to the
organism. After a short incubation, the beads are separated,
washed, and re-suspended in broth. The change in conductance of the
broth is measured, and the resulting curve is specific for the
organism. Characteristic substances produced by Mycobacterium
species have been detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
(Geiger-PTT) 35 001232021


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

352. Detection of endocrine-disrupting
pesticides by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA):
Application to atrazine.


Gascon, Jordi; Oubina, Anna; and
Barcelo, Damia


Trends in Analytical
Chemistry
16 (10): 554-562.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
QD71.T7;

ISSN: 0165-9936

Descriptors:  
atrazine: endocrine disrupting
pesticide


Abstract: An overview of biological and
toxicological effects of relevant endocrine-disrupting compounds is
given. Special attention is paid to the determination of atrazine,
a relevant pesticide that is considered an endocrine disrupter, by
ELISA.

© Thomson

353. Determination of odour emission rates from
cattle feedlots: A review.


Smith, R. J. and Watts, P.
J.


Journal of Agricultural
Engineering Research
57 (3):
145-155. (Mar. 1994)


NAL Call #:  
58.8-J82;

ISSN: 0021-8634 [JAERA2].

Notes: Subtitle: [Part] I.

Descriptors:  
cattle/ feedlots/ odor emission/
odor abatement/ measurement/ wind tunnels/ models/ air
pollution


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

354. Determining the 'health' of estuaries:
Priorities for ecological research.


Fairweather, Peter G

Australian Journal of
Ecology
24 (4): 441-451.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.A8;

ISSN: 0307-692X

Descriptors:  
algae (Algae)/ shipworm
(Oligochaeta)/ Algae/ Animals/ Annelids/ Invertebrates/
Microorganisms / Nonvascular Plants/ Plants/ ecosystem health /
environmental assessment/ mangrove leaf decomposition/ predator
prey interactions/ soft sediment habitat


Abstract: 'Ecosystem health' is a relatively new
concept for environmental science and management. Although at least
two international journals use the term in their titles, there have
been few applications of it for estuaries and soft-sediment
habitats around the world. In this paper I: (i) introduce the ideas
behind ecosystem health, and assess their relation with other usage
such as 'integrity' or 'quality'; (ii) sketch the sorts of
multidisciplinary studies that could contribute to an assessment of
health of an estuary and how these must be approached in developing
useful indicators; and (iii) make a case for including measurements
of the rates of ecological processes in such an assessment. These
rate measurements, termed 'ecoassays', focus on important processes
such as decomposition, recruitment, predator-prey interactions, and
the like. A case study is introduced wherein these processes were
assessed in mangrove stands of estuaries around Sydney, New South
Wales, by explicitly comparing the rates of herbivory and
decomposition of mangrove leaves, attack of fallen wood by
shipworms, and colonization of pneumatophores by algae, as well as
with more traditional estimates of 'standing stocks'. Not
surprisingly, the different measures retrieved various patterns and
the challenge now is to integrate these into a scheme that
indicates something of value. The potential utility of such
measures is discussed in relation to the various scientific and
managerial requirements of environmental monitoring.


© Thomson

355. Developing an invertebrate index of
biological integrity for wetlands.


Helgen, Judy.; United States.
Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Science and Technology;
and United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of
Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds.


In: Methods for evaluating wetland
condition; Washington, D.C: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Water, 2002.


Notes: Original title: Developing an invertebrate index
of biological integrity for wetlands (#9); Title from web page.
"March 2002." "EPA-822-R-02-019." Description based on content
viewed April 10, 2003. "Prepared jointly by U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Health and Ecological Criteria Division (Office
of Science and Technology) and Wetlands Division (Office of
Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds)" Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  QH541.5.M3-H46-2002


http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/wetlands/9Invertebrate.pdf

Descriptors:  
Wetlands---United States/ Aquatic
invertebrates---Environmental aspects---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




356. Developing indicators for monitoring
catchment health: The challenges.


Reuter, D. J.

Australian Journal of
Experimental Agriculture
38
(7): 637-648. (1998)


NAL Call #:  
23-Au792;

ISSN: 0816-1089.

Notes: In the special issue: Moving towards precision
with soil and plant analysis. Proceedings of the Second National
Conference and Workshops of the Australian Soil and Plant Analysis
Council, November 23-26, 1997, Launceston, Tasmania. Includes
references.


Descriptors:  
watersheds/ watershed management/
indicators/ soil analysis/ plant analysis/ monitoring/
sustainability/ literature reviews/ Australia/ catchment health
indicators/ ecosystem health


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

357. Developing metrics and indexes of
biological integrity.


Teels, Billy M.; Adamus, Paul R.;
United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Science
and Technology; and United States. Environmental Protection Agency.
Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds.


In: Methods for evaluating wetland
condition; Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Science and Technology and Office of Wetlands, Oceans and
Watersheds, 2002.


Notes: Original title: Developing metrics and indexes
of biological integrity (#6); Title from web page. "March 2002."
"EPA-822-R-02-016." Description based on content viewed April 10,
2003. Includes bibliographic references.


NAL Call #:  QH541.15.E22-T44-2002

http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/criteria/wetlands/6Metrics.pdf

Descriptors:  
Ecological assessment---United
States/ Ecological integrity---United States/ Wetlands---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




358. Development of alternative weed management
strategies.


Buhler, D. D.

Journal of Production
Agriculture
9 (4): 501-505.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
S539.5.J68;

ISSN: 0890-8524

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

359. Development of composting technology in
animal waste treatment: Review.


Haga K

Asian Australasian Journal
of Animal Sciences
12 (4):
604-606; 3 ref. (1999)


NAL Call #:  
SF55.A78A7

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




360. Development of environmentally superior
technologies: Two-year progress report for technology determination
per agreements between the Attorney General of North Carolina and
Smithfield Foods, Premium Standards Farms and Frontline
Farmers.


Williams, C. M.

Raleigh, N.C.: North Carolina State
University. (2002)


NAL Call #:  TD930.2 .W56 2002

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/agcomm/waste/report.pdf

Descriptors:  
Animal waste---North
Carolina---Management/ Swine---Housing---Waste disposal---North
Carolina/ Water quality management---North Carolina/
Livestock---Housing---Odor control---North Carolina/ Farm manure,
Liquid---Odor control---North Carolina/ Feedlot runoff---North
Carolina---Measurement/ Feedlots---Environmental aspects---North
Carolina


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

361. The development of improved willow clones
for eastern North America.


Kopp, R. F.; Smart, L. B.; Maynard,
C. A.; Isebrands, J. G.; Tuskan, G. A.; and Abrahamson, L.
P.


Forestry Chronicle
77 (2): 287-292. (Mar. 2001-Apr.
2001)


NAL Call #:  
99.8-F7623;

ISSN: 0015-7546 [FRCRAX]

Descriptors:  
salix/ clones/ genetic improvement/
plant breeding/ biomass production/ bioremediation/ streams/ stream
erosion/ erosion control/ germplasm/ DNA fingerprinting/ heterosis/
literature reviews/ United States


Abstract: Efforts aimed at genetic improvement of
Salix are increasing in North America. Most of these are directed
towards developing improved clones for biomass production,
phytoremediation, nutrient filters, and stream bank stabilization
in the Northeast and North-central United States. Native species
are of primary interest, but a small number of clones containing
non-native germplasm are also being used in the breeding program to
provide valuable traits. Parent combinations for controlled crosses
are being selected with the hope of maximizing the probability of
producing clones exhibiting heterosis for traits of interest, such
as rapid early growth, pest resistance, general adaptability, etc.
The present strategy is to test as many parent clone combination as
possible, and then repeat the most promising crosses to produce
large families from which the best clones will be selected for
further testing. Molecular fingerprinting technology will be
applied to accelerate the rate of improvement. National and
international cooperation would facilitate regional clone
development and promotion of willow as a bioenergy crop.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

362. Development of new technologies for
minimization of nutrient excretion losses and odours in swine
manure.


Grandhi, Raja R.; Saskatchewan.
Agriculture Development Fund; and  Canada. Agriculture
and


Agri Food Canada.

Saskatchewan: Agriculture
Development Fund; 13, 10 p. (2000)


Notes: "March 2000"--Cover. "102-04506"--Mounted on
label. Includes bibliographical references (p. 11-12).
97000322.


NAL Call #:  SF396.5-.G722-2000

Descriptors:  
Swine---Feeding and feeds/
Swine---Manure---Environmental aspects


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

363. Development of P-hyperaccumulator plant
strategies to remediate soils with excess P
concentrations.


Novak, J. M. and Chan, A. S.
K.


Critical Reviews in Plant
Sciences
21 (5): 493-509.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
QK1.C83;

ISSN: 0735-2689 [CRPSD3].

Notes: Special issue Phytoremediation I / edited by
B.V. Conger. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
plants/ bioremediation/ phosphorus/
nutrient excesses/ soil pollution/ livestock/ intensive husbandry/
manures/ nutrient uptake/ roots/ plant morphology/ organic acids/
plant breeding/ genetic


engineering/ plant composition/
nutrient content/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

364. Development of Phosphorus Indices for
Nutrient Management Planning Strategies in the United
States.


Sharpley, A. N.; Weld, J. L.;
Beegle, D. B.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Gburek, W. J.; Moore, P. A.; and
Mullins, G.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
58 (3): 137-151.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  
freshwater/ eutrophication/ soil
nutrients/ water pollution/ phosphorus/ nutrient management/ soil
erosion/ soil management/ nonpoint source pollution/ water
quality


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

365. Development of weed IPM: Levels of
integration for weed management.


Cardina, J.; Webster, T. M.; Herms,
C. P.; and Regnier, E. E.


Journal of Crop
Production
2 (1): 239-267.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
SB1.J683;

ISSN: 1092-678X [JCPRF8].

Notes: Special issue: Expanding the context of weed
management / edited by Douglas D. Buhler.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
weeds/ weed control/ integrated pest
management/ population dynamics/ adaptation/ sustainability/
spatial variation/ time/ information/ rotations/ herbicide
resistant weeds/ decision making/ habitats/ agricultural policy/
cropping systems/ literature reviews/ integrated weed
management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

366. Developments in aerial pesticide
application methods for forestry.


Payne, Nicholas J

Crop Protection 17 (2):  171-180. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
SB599.C8;

ISSN: 0261-2194

Descriptors:  
aerial pesticide/ forestry/
pesticide environmental impact/ spray dispersal modeling


Abstract: Appropriate application methods play an
important role in the success of pesticide use, both in relation to
ensuring good efficacy and also minimising environmental impact.
Scientific and technological developments pertaining to aerial
pesticide application in forestry are reviewed, including
developments in the design and characterization of hydraulic and
rotary pesticide dispersal systems, application parameter research,
use of spray dispersal modelling, and mitigation of pesticide
environmental impact, including the use of buffer zones.


© Thomson

367. Diagnosing causes of bird population
declines.


Green, R. E.

Ibis 137 (Supplement 1): S47-S55. (1995);

ISSN: 0963-0856.

Notes: Conference: British Ornithologists' Union
Conference on Bird Conservation: The Science and the Action,
Shuttleworth College, Bedford (UK), 6-10 Apr 1994


Descriptors:  
Aves/ population decline/ diagnosis/
methodology/ Methodology general/ Birds


Abstract: The value to bird conservation of
determining the causes of population declines is considered and the
diagnostic methods available are reviewed, with examples. Diagnosis
of the cause or causes of a decline in bird numbers is likely to be
helpful in deciding the priority of conservation actions, though
actions which aim to reverse the changes in external conditions
which caused the decline need not be the most effective in
initiating recovery. The methods for diagnosing causes of declines
in bird numbers with the widest application make use of comparisons
between geographical areas or time periods with different trends.
Correlations between trends in numbers and measurements of external
factors are examined across areas or periods or both. The danger of
spurious correlations is minimized by drawing up a list of
plausible causes based on studies of the natural history of the
species. The effects of all of these candidates should be examined,
subject to availability of data. The consistency of observed
changes over time, or differences among areas, in survival rate or
breeding success with the postulated demographic mechanism of the
decline should be examined. Conclusions based on correlations
across geographical areas between trends in numbers and external
factors may be misleading if birds are able to move between the
areas selected for comparison and if their pattern of settlement
depends upon external factors thought to be implicated in the
decline. Manipulative experiments should be carried out to test
conclusions drawn from correlative studies. However, it must be
recognized that the capacity of birds to move between areas means
that experiments may measure effects of manipulations on settlement
patterns or distribution rather than population size. Experiments
that appear well designed in terms of controls and replication may
be misleading when applied to the conservation of bird populations
if their geographical scale is inappropriate.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

368. Diatom indicators of stream and wetland
stressors in a risk management framework.


Stevenson, Jan R

Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment
51 (1-2): 107-118.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
TD194.E5;

ISSN: 0167-6369

Descriptors:  
total phosphorus/ diatom
(Chrysophyta): periphyton/ Algae/ Microorganisms/ Nonvascular
Plants/ Plants/ biotic integrity/ ecological risk assessment/
periphytic assemblages/ risk management/ species composition/
specific pH/ water quality


Abstract: Ecological risk assessment and risk
management call for "state-of-the-science" methods and sound
scientific assessments of ecosystem health and stressor effects. In
this paper recent developments of periphyton indicators of biotic
integrity and ecosystem stressors of streams and wetlands are
related in a framework of ecological metrics that can be used to
quantify risk assessment and risk management options. Many
periphyton metrics have been employed in past assessments of water
quality and a periphyton indices of biotic integrity has been
applied by the state of Kentucky. In addition, the sensitivity of
species composition of periphytic diatom assemblages has been shown
to respond predictably to ecological stressors so that specific pH,
conductivity, and total phosphorus in wetlands and streams can be
inferred with weighted average indices. Inference of nutrient
conditions by diatom indicators of total phosphorus is shown to
have sufficient precision to be a valuable complement to one-time
measurement of highly variable total phosphorus in streams.
Quantitative indices of sustainability and restorability of
ecosystem integrity are proposed, respectively, as the changes in
ecological conditions that can occur without significant change in
ecological integrity or changes that are necessary to restore
ecological integrity.


© Thomson

369. Direct and indirect water
re-use.


Westerhoff, G. P.; Anderson, J.;
Mancuso, P. C. S.; Rodrigues, J. M. C.; Filho, J. L.; Zachariou,
M.; Rantala, P.; Bersillon, J. L.; Zanarek, A.; and Michail,
M.


Water Supply 12 (1/2): IR9-1-IR9/29. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
TD201.W346;

ISSN: 0735-1917 [WASUDN].

Notes: Paper presented at the "19th International Water
Supply Congress and Exhibition," October 2-8, 1993, Budapest,
Hungary. Includes International Report and 13 National Reports.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
water reuse/ groundwater recharge/
irrigation water/ waste water/ Australia/ Brazil/ Cyprus/ Finland/
France/ Israel/ Italy/ Japan/ Netherlands/ Portugal/ Sweden/ UK/
United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

370. Disinfection resistance of waterborne
pathogens on the United States Environmental Protection Agency's
Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).


Gerba, Charles P; Nwachuku, Nena;
and Riley, Kelley R


Journal of Water Supply
Research and Technology (AQUA)
52 (2): 81-94. (2003);

ISSN: 1606-9935

Descriptors:  
Adenovirus (Adenoviridae):
disinfection resistance, pathogen/ Aeromonas hydrophila
(Aeromonadaceae): pathogen, waterborne/ Calicivirus
(Caliciviridae): disinfection resistance, pathogen/ Coxsackievirus
(Picornaviridae): disinfection resistance, pathogen/ Echovirus
(Picornaviridae): disinfection resistance, pathogen/
Encephalitozoon intestinalis (Cnidosporidea): disinfection
resistance, pathogen, waterborne/ Mycobacterium avium
(Mycobacteriaceae): disinfection resistance, pathogen/ bacteria
(Bacteria): pathogen, waterborne/ cyanobacteria (Cyanobacteria):
pathogen, waterborne/ organism (Organisms): disinfection
resistance, waterborne pathogen/ Animals/ Bacteria/ Cyanobacteria/
Double Stranded DNA Viruses/ Eubacteria/ Invertebrates/
Microorganisms/ Organisms/ Positive Sense Single Stranded RNA
Viruses/ Protozoans/ Viruses/ Contaminant Candidate List [CCL]/
drinking water


Abstract: In 1999, the United States Environmental
Protection Agency developed a list of emerging waterborne microbial
pathogens that may pose a risk in drinking water. This review deals
with the disinfection resistance of microorganisms on the
Contaminate Candidate List or CCL. Current disinfection practices
in the United States appear to be capable of dealing with most of
the microorganisms on the CCL, with the exception of Mycobacterium
avium and adenoviruses. Mycobacterium avium is more resistant to
most disinfectants than other waterborne bacteria and adenoviruses
are the most resistant waterborne microorganisms to inactivation by
ultraviolet disinfection. The microsporidium, Encephalitozoon
intestinalis, shows significant resistance to inactivation by
chemical disinfectants and further research on additional species
of microsporidia appears to be warranted.


© Thomson

371. Dissolved and water-extractable organic
matter in soils: A review on the influence of land use and
management practices.


Chantigny, M. H.

Geoderma 113 (3/4): 357-380. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
S590.G4;

ISSN: 0016-7061

This citation is provided courtesy of CAB International/CABI
Publishing.

372. Distinguishing Human From Animal Faecal
Contamination in Water: A Review.


Sinton, L. W.; Finlay, R. K.; and
Hannah, D. J.


New Zealand Journal of
Marine and Freshwater Research
32 (2): 323-348. (1998);

ISSN: 0028-8330

Descriptors:  
Pollution detection/ Domestic
wastes/ Agricultural runoff/ Sewage/ Pollutant identification /
Literature reviews/ Feces/ Contamination/ Water Pollution/ Animal
Wastes/ Water Analysis/ Water Pollution Sources/ Fecal coliforms/
Humans/ Microbial contamination/ Statistical analysis/ Rhodococcus
coprophilus/ Bacteroides fragilis/ Bifidobacterium/ New Zealand/
Bifidobacterium/ Bacteroides fragilis/ Rhodococcus coprophilus/
human wastes/ Methods and instruments/ Sources and fate of
pollution/ Freshwater pollution


Abstract: Management of faecal contamination of
water would be improved if sources could be accurately identified
through water analysis. Human faeces are generally perceived as
constituting a greater human health risk than animal faeces, but
reliable epidemiological evidence is lacking. United States
waterborne disease data suggest that human-specific enteric viruses
account for over half the documented outbreaks. However, in New
Zealand, where there is a high grazing animal:human ratio
(increasing the relative importance of water-transmissible
zoonoses), it seems prudent to assume that human and animal faecal
pollution both constitute a risk to human health. Irrespective of
the relative risks, the ability to identify sources would assist in
overall management of microbial water quality. Faecal streptococci
do not appear to provide reliable faecal source identification.
Human and animal sources, respectively, may be distinguishable by
two tests on Bifidobacterium spp. - growth at 45 degree C in
trypticase phytone yeast broth and sorbitol fermentation. Different
species of Bacteroides tend to be present in humans and animals,
but poor survival in water is a problem. Phages of the Bacteroides
fragilis strain HSP40 appear to be human specific, but low counts
in effluent in some countries, including New Zealand, may limit
their usefulness. Different F-RNA phage subgroups appear to be
associated with human and animal faecal sources. The actinomycete
Rhodococcus coprophilus has potential as a grazing animal indicator
but it is persistent, and existing culturing techniques are time
consuming. The development of DNA-based techniques, such as
polymerase chain reaction (PCR), may assist in the assay of some
microbial faecal source indicators. Various faecal sterol isomers
offer the possibility of distinguishing between human and animal
sources, and even between different animals. Washing powder
constituents such as fluorescent whitening agents, sodium
tripolyphosphate and linear alkyl benzenes, offer useful human
source identifiers. It is unlikely that any single determinand will
be useful in all situations, but statistical analysis of
appropriate "baskets" of microbial and chemical determinands offers
the possibility of identifying and apportioning human and animal
faecal inputs to natural waters.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

373. Distribution of major herbicides in ground
water of the United States.


Barbash, J. E. and National Water
Quality Assessment Program (U.S.).


Sacramento, Calif.  U.S. Dept.
of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1999. 57 p.


Notes: "National Water-Quality Assessment
Program"--Cover.


NAL Call #:  GB701-.W375-no.-98-4245

http://ca.water.usgs.gov/pnsp/rep/wrir984245/

Descriptors:  
Pesticides---Environmental
aspects---United States/ Herbicides---Environmental
aspects---United States/ Water---Pollution---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

374. Do created wetlands replace the wetlands
that are destroyed?


Hunt, Randall J. and Geological
Survey (U.S.).


Madison, Wis.: USGS; Series: Fact
sheet (Geological Survey (U.S.)) FS-246-96. (1998)


Notes: Title from caption. Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  QH76.H86-1998

http://wi.water.usgs.gov/pubs/FS-246-96/index.html

Descriptors:  
Wetlands---United States/
Wetlands---Wisconsin/ Wetland conservation---United States/ Wetland
conservation---Wisconsin/ Wetland ecology---United States/ Wetland
ecology---Wisconsin


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

375. Do organic farming practices reduce nitrate
leaching.


Kirchmann, H. and Bergstrom,
L.


Communications in Soil
Science and Plant Analysis
32
(7/8): 997-1028. (2001)


NAL Call #:  
S590.C63;

ISSN: 0010-3624 [CSOSA2].

Notes: Special issue: Potential use of innovative
nutrient management alternatives to increase nutrient use
efficiency, reduce losses, and protect soil and water
quality/edited by J. Delgado. Proceedings of the Annual Conference
of the Soil and Water Conservation Society held Aug. 8-11, 1999,
Biloxi, Mississippi.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
organic farming/ nitrate nitrogen/
leaching/ rotations/ nitrogen fertilizers/ animal manures/ soil
fertility/ nutrient uptake/ farming/ nitrogen content/ crops/
literature reviews/ conventional farming


Abstract: Agriculture is a contributor of nitrate to
natural waters and there is concern about the excess nitrogen
burden loadings from agriculture on natural waters. Agricultural
practices that reduce nitrate leaching from arable land are needed.
It is postulated by certain groups that organic farming practices
reduce nitrate leaching among other environmental benefits. The
objectives of this paper are: (1) to compile, summarize and
critically analyse information about NO3-N leaching from farming
systems that were managed according to organic farming principles;
(2) to compare NO3-N leaching from organic farming systems with
that from conventional systems. This review consists of several
parts. The available literature on leaching of NO3-N from organic
farming and conventional farming systems was analysed. Leachable
amounts of NO3-N in soils from two types of farming systems were
compared. Finally NO3-N leaching from animal manure versus
inorganic fertilizer was examined. In all studies we found in the
literature, both the sequence and type of crops grown, and the
input intensity of N was different in organic and conventional
systems. Organic farming systems had on average a lower N input and
more legumes in rotation. Average leaching of NO3-N from organic
farming systems over a crop rotation period was somewhat lower than
in conventional agriculture. If the different input intensities of
N between organic and conventional systems were taken into account
and corrected for, no differences in leaching losses between
systems were found. However, a proper comparison of leaching
between the two types of systems should take the yield into
account. Attempting to do this in this review, we found only two
studies which provided data for this. In both studies, specific
conditions of the soil-a high organic matter content resulting in a
high N mineralization at one site and a heavy clay texture
resulting in very small leaching losses at the other site-did not
enable us to come up with a clear-cut answer. Nevertheless, we
could not find any evidence that nitrate leaching will be reduced
by the introduction of organic farming practices, if the goal is to
maintain the same crop yield levels as in conventional farming
systems. Reduction of nitrate leaching is not a question of organic
or conventional farming, but rather of introduction and use of
appropriate counter- measures. This insight should guide our
thinking when developing environmentally friendly and sustainable
cropping systems.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

376. Do U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
water quality guidelines for recreational waters prevent
gastrointestinal illness? A systematic review and
meta-analysis.


Wade, T. J.; Pai, N.; Eisenberg, J.
N. S.; and Colford, J. M. Jr.


Environmental Health
Perspectives
111 (8):
1102-1109. (2003)


NAL Call #:  
RA565.A1E54;

ISSN: 0091-6765

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

377. Does low biodiversity resulting from modern
agricultural practice affect crop pollination and yield.


Richards, A. J.

Annals of Botany
88 (2): 165-172. (Aug.
2001)


NAL Call #:  
450-An7;

ISSN: 0305-7364 [ANBOA4]

Descriptors:  
agriculture/ biodiversity/
pollination/ crop yield/ environmental impact/ foods/ crop quality/
intensive production/ habitat destruction/ pesticides/ transgenic
plants/ genetic engineering/ herbicides/ literature
reviews


Abstract: This Botanical Briefing examines the
hypothesis that modern agricultural practice affects natural biotic
pollination to the extent that crop yields suffer. Few staple foods
depend on animal pollination and relatively few other crops are
totally dependent on animal pollination. However, there are many
crops of local economic importance whose yield or quality may be
enhanced by good pollinator activity: studies of these deserve more
attention. Amongst those cases already documented, intensification
and habitat loss are the most frequent causes of pollinator
impoverishment reducing crop yield. As yet there is no clear
example of low crop yield resulting from the effect of pesticides
or transgenic plants on pollinators, and only one example involving
herbicides, although each of these agents can affect populations of
crop pollinators.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

378. Drainage Design for Water Quality
Management: Overview.


Guitjens, J. C.; Ayars, J. E.;
Grismer, M. E.; and Willardson, L. S.


Journal of Irrigation and
Drainage Engineering
123 (3):
148-153. (1997)


NAL Call #:  
290.9 AM3Ps (IR);

ISSN: 0733-9437.

Notes: DOI:
10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1997)123:3(148)


Descriptors:  
Hydrodynamics/ Water Quality
Management/ Subsurface Drainage/ Model Studies/ Design Criteria/
Solute Transport/ Water quality control/ Agricultural runoff/
Pollution control/ Drainage/ Simulation/ Control of water on the
surface/ Prevention and control/ Freshwater pollution


Abstract: Drainage design for water quality
management in irrigated areas requires use of hydrodynamic models
the delineate flow paths of subsurface water moving to drains. Use
of only traditional drainage design equations for protection
against water logging and salinization are inadequate for water
quality management; these equations should be coupled with
mechanistic models that account for transport and chemical changes
in the vadose and saturated zones that replace those associated
with a leaching fraction, or requirement concepts. Drainage designs
should now make use of hydrodynamic and chemical models that
simulate flow and transport of water and chemical constituents from
infiltration to drainage discharge. Management should be able to
manipulate the models prior to implementing steps aimed at
controlling the quantity and quality of drainage
discharge.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

379. Drainage manual: A water resources
technical publication: A guide to integrating plant, soil, and
water relationships for drainage of irrigated lands.


United States. Bureau of
Reclamation.


Denver, Colo.: U.S. Dept. of the
Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, xviii, 321 p.: ill.
(1993)


Notes: "Revised reprint 1993" Includes bibliographical
references and index.


NAL Call #:  TC970.D73--1993

Descriptors:  
Drainage---Handbooks, manuals, etc/
Irrigation---Handbooks, manuals, etc


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

380. Drainage of irrigated lands: A
manual.


Ritzema, H. P.; Kselik, R. A. L.;
Chanduvi, Fernando.; and Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations.


Rome: Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations; viii, 74 p.: ill.; Series:
Irrigation water management training manual no. 9.
(1996)


Notes: "M-56."--T.p. verso. Includes bibliographical
references (p. 73-74).


NAL Call #:  S621.R58--1996;

ISBN: 9251037795

Descriptors:  
Drainage/
Irrigation---Management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

381. Drainage principles and
applications.


International Institute for Land
Reclamation and Improvement.


Wageningen, Netherlands:
International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement; 1125
p.: ill., map; Series: Publication (International Institute for
Land Reclamation and Improvement) 16. (1994)


Notes: 2nd ed.; Includes bibliographies and
index.


NAL Call #:  54.9--In8-no.16

Descriptors:  
Drainage

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

382. Dynamic cropping systems: An adaptable
approach to crop production in the Great Plains.


Tanaka, D. L.; Krupinsky, J. M.;
Liebig, M. A.; Merrill, S. D.; Ries, R. E.; Hendrickson, J. R.;
Johnson, H. A.; and Hanson, J. D.


Agronomy Journal
94 (5): 957-961. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
4-AM34P;

ISSN: 0002-1962

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

383. Dynamics and availability of the
non-exchangeable NH4-N: A review.


Scherer HW

European Journal of
Agronomy
2 (3): 149-160; 115
ref. (1993)


NAL Call #:  
SB13.E97

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

384. Dynamics of leaf litter accumulation and
its effects on riparian vegetation: A review.


Xiong ShaoJun and Nilsson,
C.


Botanical Review
63 (3): 240-264. (1997)

NAL Call #:  
450 B6527 DNAr;

ISSN: 0006-8101

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

385. Earthen manure storage design
considerations.


Wright, P.; Grajko, W.; Lake, D.;
Perschke, S.; Schenne, J.; Sullivan, D.; and Tillapaugh,
B.


Ithaca, N.Y.: Natural Resource,
Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Cooperative Extension;
Series: NRAES 109; ix, 90 p.: ill., map. (1999)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.
90).


NAL Call #:  S675-.N72-no.-109; ISBN: 0935817387 (pbk.)

Descriptors:  
Farm manure---Storage/ Earth
construction


Abstract:  Earthen manure storages are becoming
more common for economic, environmental, and management reasons,
but there is a lack of information about safe, environmentally
sound, practical designs. This book was written to meet the needs
of producers, engineers, and design professionals who are seeking
information about designing, constructing, and managing earthen
storages. It covers environmental policies (both existing and
pending legislation); design standards and planning documents (such
as nutrient management and waste management plans); manure
characteristics; storage planning (determining size and location,
loading and unloading methods, on-site soils investigations, and
regulations); storage design (stability and drainage issues, types
of liners, and safety); construction (quality assurance, earthwork,
topsoil placement, seeding, and documentation); management
(maintaining the structure, clearing drains, and manure
management); and liability. A lengthy appendix provides guidelines
and calculations for soil liners; other appendixes provide pump
information, cost estimate information, and addresses for helpful
organizations.


© Natural Resource, Agriculture and
Engineering Service (NRAES)



386. Eastern Sierra Nevada riparian field
guide.


Weixelman, Dave.; Zamudio,
Desiderio C.; and Zamudio, Karen A.


Sparks, NV: Humbolt-Toiyabe
National Forest; 1 v. (various pagings): ill. (some col.).
(1999)


Notes: Humboldt National Forest (Nev.) and Toiyabe
National Forest (Nev. and Calif.).


NAL Call #:  QH541.5.R52-W436-1999

Descriptors:  
Riparian
ecology---California---Sierra Nevada---Handbooks, manuals, etc/
Riparian ecology---Nevada---Sierra Nevada---Handbooks, manuals,
etc


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

387. Ecological approaches and the development
of "truly integrated" pest management.


Thomas, M. B.

Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences
96 (11):
5944-5951. (1999);


ISSN: 0027-8424

Descriptors:  
Pest control/ Biological control/
Integrated control/ Crop production/ Reviews/ Insecta/ Insects/
Control/ Agricultural & general applied entomology


Abstract: Recent predictions of growth in human
populations and food supply suggest that there will be a need to
substantially increase food production in the near future. One
possible approach to meeting this demand, at least in part, is the
control of pests and diseases, which currently cause a 30-40% loss
in available crop production. In recent years, strategies for
controlling pests and diseases have tended to focus on short-term,
single-technology interventions, particularly chemical pesticides.
This model frequently applies even where so-called integrated pest
management strategies are used because in reality these often are
dominated by single technologies (e.g., biocontrol host plant
resistance, or biopesticides) that are used as replacements for
chemicals. Very little attention is given to the interaction or
compatibility of the different technologies used. Unfortunately
evidence suggests that such approaches rarely yield satisfactory
results and are unlikely to provide sustainable pest control
solutions for the future. Drawing on two case histories, this paper
demonstrates that by increasing our basic understanding of how
individual pest control technologies act and interact, new
opportunities for improving pest control can be revealed. This
approach stresses the need to break away from the existing
single-technology, pesticide-dominated paradigm and to adopt a more
ecological approach built around a fundamental understanding of
population biology at the local farm level and the true integration
of renewable technologies such as host plant resistance and natural
biological control, which are available to even the most
resource-poor farmers.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

388. Ecological costs of livestock grazing in
western North America.


Fleischner, T. L.

Conservation Biology
8 (3):  629-644.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1C5;

ISSN: 0888-8892

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

389. Ecological forecasting and the urbanization
of stream ecosystems: Challenges for economists, hydrologists,
geomorphologists, and ecologists.


Nilsson, C.; Pizzuto, J. E.;
Moglen, G. E.; Palmer, M. A.; Stanley, E. H.; Bockstael, N. E.; and
Thompson, L. C.


Ecosystems 6 (7): 659-674. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
QH540.E3645;

ISSN: 1432-9840.

Notes: Number of References: 117; Publisher:
Springer-Verlag


Descriptors:  
Environment/ Ecology/ land use
change/ ecological forecasts/ limitations of modeling/ streams/
urbanization/ watersheds/ urban land use/ headwater streams/ water
resources/ riparian zones/ flow/ management/ nitrogen/ rivers/
cover/ sediment


Abstract: The quantity and quality of freshwater
resources are now being seriously threatened, partly as a result of
extensive worldwide changes in land use, and scientists are often
called upon by policy makers and managers to predict the ecological
consequences that these alterations will have for stream
ecosystems. The effects of the urbanization of stream ecosystems in
the United States over the next 20 years are of particular concern.
To address this issue, we present a multidisciplinary research
agenda designed to improve our forecasting of the effects of
land-use change on stream ecosystems. Currently, there are gaps in
both our knowledge and the data that make it difficult to link the
disparate models used by economists, hydrologists,
geomorphologists, and ecologists. We identify a number of points
that practitioners in each discipline were not comfortable
compromising on-for example, by assuming an average condition for a
given variable. We provide five instructive examples of the
limitations to our ability to forecast the fate of stream and
riverine ecosystems one drawn from each modeling step: (a) Accurate
economic methods to forecast land-use changes over long periods
(such as 20 years) are not available, especially not at spatially
explicit scales; (b) geographic data are not always available at
the appropriate resolution and are not always organized in
categories that are hydrologically, ecologically, or economically
meaningful; (c) the relationship between low flows and land use is
sometimes hard to establish in anthropogenically affected
catchments; (d) bed mobility, suspended sediment load, and channel
form-all of which are important for ecological communities in
streams-are difficult to predict; and (e) species distributions in
rivers are not well documented, and the data that do exist are not
always publicly available or have not been sampled at accurate
scales, making it difficult to model ecological responses to
specified levels of environmental change. Meeting these challenges
will require both interdisciplinary cooperation and a reviewed
commitment to intradisciplinary research in the fields of
economics, geography, quantitative spatial analysis, hydrology,
geomorphology, and ecology.


© Thomson ISI

390. Ecological impacts of arable
intensification in Europe.


Stoate, C.; Boatman, N.; Borralho,
R.; Carvalho, C.; Snoo, G.; and Eden, P.


Journal of environmental
management
63 (4): 337-365.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
HC75.E5J6;

ISSN: 0301-4797.

Notes: Publisher: Academic Press

Descriptors:  
Agricultural practices/ Land use/
Agriculture/ Environmental impact/ Crops/ Biological diversity/
Soil contamination/ Groundwater pollution/ Air pollution/ Ecology/
Europe/ Agricultural Runoff/ Cultivated Lands/ Soil Erosion/ Water
Pollution Sources/ Surface Runoff/ Nutrients/ Pesticides/ Farms/
Organic Matter/ Environmental Quality/ Agricultural pollution/
Community composition/ Man induced effects/ Ecosystem disturbance/
Ecological crisis/ Biodiversity/ Pollution effects/ Nutrients
(mineral)/ Eutrophication/ Europe/ arable landscapes/ Cultivated
lands/ farms/ Environmental degradation / Environmental action/
Sources and fate of pollution/ Mechanical and natural
changes


Abstract: Although arable landscapes have a long
history, environmental problems have accelerated in recent decades.
The effects of these changes are usually externalised, being
greater for society as a whole than for the farms on which they
operate, and incentives to correct them are therefore largely
lacking. Arable landscapes are valued by society beyond the farming
community, but increased mechanisation and farm size,
simplification of crop rotations, and loss of non-crop features,
have led to a reduction in landscape diversity. Low intensity
arable systems have evolved a characteristic and diverse fauna and
flora, but development of high input, simplified arable systems has
been associated with a decline in biodiversity. Arable
intensification has resulted in loss of non-crop habitats and
simplification of plant and animal communities within crops, with
consequent disruption to food chains and declines in many farmland
species. Abandonment of arable management has also led to the
replacement of such wildlife with more common and widespread
species. Soils have deteriorated as a result of erosion,
compaction, loss of organic matter and contamination with
pesticides, and in some areas, heavy metals. Impacts on water are
closely related to those on soils as nutrient and pesticide
pollution of water results from surface runoff and subsurface flow,
often associated with soil particles, which themselves have
economic and ecological impacts. Nitrates and some pesticides also
enter groundwater following leaching from arable land. Greatest
impacts are associated with simplified, high input arable systems.
Intensification of arable farming has been associated with
pollution of air by pesticides, NO sub(2)and CO sub(2), while the
loss of soil organic matter has reduced the system's capacity for
carbon sequestration. Copyright 2001 Academic Press


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

391. Ecological implications of using thresholds
for weed management.


Norris, R. F.

Journal of Crop
Production
2 (1): 31-58.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
SB1.J683;

ISSN: 1092-678X [JCPRF8].

Notes: Special issue: Expanding the context of weed
management / edited by Douglas D. Buhler.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
weeds/ weed control/ integrated pest
management/ environmental assessment/ tolerance/ crop weed
competition/ decision making/ insect pests/ population dynamics/
economic analysis/ yield losses/ seed banks/ plant density/ seed
output/ establishment/ literature reviews/ economic
thresholds


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

392. Ecological issues related to wetland
preservation, restoration, creation and assessment.


Whigham, Dennis F

Science of the Total
Environment
240 (1-3): 31-40.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
RA565.S365;

ISSN: 0048-9697

Descriptors:  
ecologically based Hydrogeomorphic
approach/ wetland assessment/ wetland creation/ wetland ecosystem
function/ wetland-no-net-loss policy/ wetland preservation/ wetland
restoration


Abstract: A wide range of local, state, federal, and
private programs are available to support the national (USA) policy
of wetland 'No Net Loss'. Implementation of programs, however, has
resulted in the continued loss of natural wetlands on the premise
that restored or created wetlands will replace the functions and
values lost by destruction of natural wetlands. What are the
ecological implications and consequences of these programs from a
biodiversity and ecosystem perspective? From a biodiversity
perspective, ongoing wetland protection policies may not be working
because restored or created wetlands are often very different from
natural wetlands. Wetland protection policies may also be
inadequate to preserve and restore ecological processes such as
nutrient cycling because they mostly focus on individual wetlands
and ignore the fact that wetlands are integral parts of landscapes.
Wetland mitigation projects, for example, often result in the
exchange of one type of wetland for another and result in a loss of
wetland functions at the landscape level. The most striking
weakness in the current national wetlands policy is the lack of
protection for 'dry-end' wetlands that are often the focus of
debate for what is and what is not a wetland. From an ecological
perspective, dry-end wetlands such as isolated seasonal wetlands
and riparian wetlands associated with first order streams may be
the most important landscape elements. They often support a high
biodiversity and they are impacted by human activities more than
other types of wetlands. The failings of current wetland protection
and mitigation policies are also due, in part, to the lack of
ecologically sound wetland assessment methods for guiding decision
making processes. The ecologically based Hydrogeomorphic (HGM)
approach to wetland assessment has the potential to be an effective
tool in managing biodiversity and wetland ecosystem function in
support of the national 'No Net Loss' policy.


© Thomson

393. Ecological management of vertebrate pests
in agricultural systems.


Van Vuren, D. and Smallwood, K.
S.


Biological Agriculture and
Horticulture
13 (1): 39-62.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
S605.5.B5;

ISSN: 0144-8765 [BIAHDP]

Descriptors:  
vertebrate pests/ pest management/
farming systems/ sustainability/ control methods/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

394. Ecological relative risk (EcoRR): Another
approach for risk assessment of pesticides in
agriculture.


Sanchez-Bayo, F.; Baskaran, S.; and
Kennedy, I. R.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
9 (1/3): 37-57.
(Sept. 2002)


NAL Call #:  
S601 .A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO]

Descriptors:  
gossypium hirsutum/ environmental
impact/ risk assessment/ pesticides/ toxicity/ application rates/
evaluation/ persistence/ residual effects/ water/ sediment/ soil/
vegetation/ air/ simulation models


Abstract: Summary: A site-specific methodology was
developed to assess and compare the ecotoxicological risk that
agricultural pesticides pose to ecosystems. The ecological relative
risk (EcoRR) is a composite scoring index for comparing relative
risks between different plant protection products, and is used to
assess the potential ecological impact their residues have after
being applied to agricultural systems. The EcoRR model is based on
standard frameworks for risk assessment (e.g. PEC/toxicity), but
takes account of factors such as persistence of residues and
biodiversity of ecosystems. The exposure module considers the
environmental concentrations of a substance, its persistence,
bioaccumulation and probability of exposure in several
environmental compartments (water, sediment, soil, vegetation,
air). The toxicity module takes into account the biodiversity of
the ecosystems affected, whereby the endpoints used are weighted by
the proportional contribution of each taxon in a given
environmental compartment. EcoRR scores are calculated
independently for each compartment and affected areas, thus
enabling pinpointing of where risks will occur. The procedure to
calculate EcoRR scores is explained using an example, and a
sensitivity analysis of the model is included. A simulated risk
assessment of 37 pesticides intended for use in a cotton
development is also given as a case study. Exposure data were
obtained using fugacity model II in areas previously defined by
spray drift models. Toxicity data to vertebrate taxa and
crustaceans were obtained from several databases, and biodiversity
data from local sources. EcoRR scores were calculated for each
compartment both on- and off-farm, during a normal growing season
and during a flood, and a comparative relative assessment for all
pesticides is discussed. EcoRR scores were also compared to
traditional assessments using quotients for some taxa in the
aquatic and terrestrial environments, revealing a good correlation
between both models in some cases. It is apparent that EcoRR scores
reflect adequately the potential risk of those chemicals to
ecosystems, though they are less dependent on toxicity to sensitive
species than the simple quotient. This methodology can be used
either with field measured data or model predicted data, so
management options for new chemicals can be tested prior to their
application on crops.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

395. Ecological restoration and creation: A
review.


Anderson, P.

Biological Journal of the
Linnean Society
56 (suppl.A):
187-211. (Dec. 1995)


NAL Call #:  
QH301.B56;

ISSN: 0024-4066 [BJLSBG].

Notes: Special issue: The National Trust and Nature
Conservation--100 years on / edited by D.J. Bullock and H.J.
Harvey. Proceedings of a conference held June 20-21, 1994, London,
England.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
nature conservation/ wildlife
conservation/ nature reserves/ habitat destruction/ grasslands/
heathland/ woodlands/ vegetation management/ grazing/ mowing/
prescribed burning/ literature reviews/ Europe/ habitat
restoration/ habitat creation


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

396. Ecological risk assessment for aquatic
organisms from over-water uses of glyphosate.


Solomon, Keith R and Thompson, Dean
G


Journal of Toxicology and
Environmental Health: Part B, Critical Reviews
6 (3): 289-324. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
RA565.A1J6;

ISSN: 1093-7404

Descriptors:  
Induce: pesticide, surfactant/
Roundup: pesticide, surfactant/ Vision: pesticide, surfactant / X
77: pesticide, surfactant, toxin/ glyphosate [Rodeo formulation]:
accidental overspray, efficacy, enzyme inhibitor, herbicide, over
water uses, soil pollutant, toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, toxin,
water pollutant/ estuary/ forestry area/ pond/ sediment/ soil/
stream/ water bodies/ wetland


© Thomson

397. Ecology and integrated pest
management.


Lenteren, J C van and Overholt, W
A


Insect Science and its
Application
15 (6): 557-582.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
QL461.I57;

ISSN: 0191-9040

Descriptors:  
animals (Animalia Unspecified)/
Animalia (Animalia Unspecified)/ animals/ behavior/ ecology/
integrated pest management/ pest/ pest management/ pesticides/
population dynamics


Abstract: The struggle to control Populations of
organisms that feed on agricultural crops, livestock, and directly
on humans is as old as recorded history, and will continue into the
perceivable future. Only 30 years ago, the availability of
relatively cheap and highly effective synthetic organic pesticides
was thought to be the ultimate solution to pest populations.
However, our naivete regarding the ability of pest Populations to
rapidly adapt to simplistic man-induced selection pressures has
become increasingly apparent, as have the detrimental impacts of
pesticides on the environment. The evolution of the integrated pest
management paradigm can be traced to these concerns, and it is now
accepted that sustainable solutions to the management of pest
populations will only be borne out of an increased understanding of
the functioning of ecosystems. Knowledge of the population
dynamics, and underlying causes of density changes in pest
populations, behavioural ecology, and population genetics of pests
and natural enemies, are essential elements for designing
appropriate biologically intensive strategies for pest management.
Progress is being made, and several examples of innovative
strategies and promising areas of research, are discussed. Future
work must continue to be based on a solid foundation of ecological
understanding, to avoid the pitfalls of simple opportunistic
solutions.


© Thomson

398. Ecology and management of Arundo donax, and
approaches to riparian habitat restoration in southern
California.


Bell, G. P.

In: Plant invasions studies from
North Ameria and Europe/ Brock, J. H.; Wade, M.; Pysek, P.; and
Green, D.


Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys,
1997; pp. 103-113.


ISBN: 9073348234

NAL Call #:  SB613.5.P582-1997

Descriptors:  
arundo donax/ ecology/ weed control/
habitats/ riparian vegetation/ riparian forests/ plant succession/
wildfires/ water quality/ rivers/ plant competition/ wildlife/
species diversity/ competitive ability/ asexual reproduction/
integrated pest management/ glyphosate/ literature reviews/
California


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

399. Ecology of insect communities in nontidal
wetlands.


Batzer, D. P. and Wissinger, S.
A.


Annual Review of
Entomology
41: 75-100.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
421-An72;

ISSN: 0066-4170 [ARENAA]

Descriptors:  
insects/ wetlands/ community
ecology/ habitats/ interactions/ colonization/ nature conservation/
insect communities/ reviews/ freshwater ecology


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

400. The ecology of interfaces: Riparian
zones.


Naiman, R. J. and Decamps,
H.


Annual Review of Ecology and
Systematics
28: 621-658.
(1997);


ISSN: 0066-4162

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

401. Ecology of wetlands and associated
systems.


Majumdar, Shyamal K.; Miller, E.
Willard; and Brenner, Fred J.


Easton, PA: Pennsylvania Academy of
Science; xv, 685 p.: ill., maps. (1998)


NAL Call #:  QH541.5.M3E38-1998; ISBN: 094580914X

Descriptors:  
Wetland ecology/ Wetlands
 


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

402. The economic and environmental consequences
of nutrient management in agriculture.


Huang, Wen Yuan. and Uri, Noel
D.


Commack, N.Y.: Nova Science; viii,
174 p. (1999)


NAL Call #:  S651-.H826-1999;

ISBN: 1560727543

Descriptors:  
Nitrogen fertilizers/ Nitrogen
fertilizers---Environmental aspects


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




403. Economic and environmental contribution of
wetlands in agricultural landscapes.


Janssen, Larry.

Brookings, S.D.: Economics Dept.,
South Dakota State University; ii, 34 p.: ill.; Series: Economic
staff paper series no. 95-3. (1995)


Notes: "May 1995." Includes bibliographical references
(p. 19-21).


NAL Call #: HD1775.S8E262--no.95-3

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

404. Economic and environmental contributions of
wetlands in agricultural landscapes.


Janssen, Larry. and South Dakota
State University. Economics Dept.


Brookings, S.D.: Economics Dept.
South Dakota State University; ii, 35 p.: ill., map; Series:
Economics staff paper series 95-3. (1995)


Notes: "Revised July 1995." Includes bibliographical
references (p. 19-21).


NAL Call #:  HD1775.S8E262-no.95-3-1995

Descriptors:  
Wetlands---South Dakota/ Wetland
conservation---South Dakota/ Wetland ecology---South
Dakota


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

405. Economic evaluation of manure management
and farm gate applications: A literature review of environmental
and economic aspects of manure management in Alberta's livestock
sectors.


Unterschultz, James R.

Edmonton, Canada: Dept. of Rural
Economy, Faculty of Agriculture & Forestry, and Home Economics,
University of Alberta; 64 p.: ill.; Series: Project report
(University of Alberta. Dept. of Rural Economy) 01-03.
(2001)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.
35-43).


NAL Call #:  HD1790.A35-P76-no.-2001-03

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

406. Economics and environmental benefits and
costs of conservation tillage.


United States. Dept. of
Agriculture. Economic Research Service and United States. Natural
Resources Conservation Service.


Washington, DC: ERS, USDA; vi, 88
leaves: col. ill., col. maps. (1998)


Notes: Cover title. "February 1998"--P. [i]. Includes
bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  aS604-.E26-1998

Descriptors:  
Conservation tillage---Environmental
aspects/ Conservation tillage---Economic aspects


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

407. Economics of dryland cropping systems in
the Great Plains: A review.


Dhuyvetter, K. C.; Thompson, C. R.;
Norwood, C. A.; and Halvorson, A. D.


Journal of Production
Agriculture
9 (2): 216-222.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
S539.5.J68;

ISSN: 0890-8524

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

408. The economics of prescribed burning: A
research review.


Hesseln, H.

Forestry Sciences
46 (3): 322-334. (Aug.
2000)


NAL Call #:  
99.8-F7632;

ISSN: 0015-749X [FOSCAD]

Descriptors:  
prescribed burning/ wildfires/ risk
factors/ economic analysis/ literature reviews/ fire management/
risk management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

409. Ecosystems, sustainability, and animal
agriculture.


Heitschmidt, R. K.; Short, R. E.;
and Grings, E. E.


Journal of Animal
Science
74 (6): 1395-1405.
(June 1996)


NAL Call #:  
49-J82;

ISSN: 0021-8812 [JANSAG].

Notes: Presented at a symposium titled "Toward
Sustainability: Animal Agriculture in the Twenty-First Century" at
the ASAS 86th Annu. Mtg., Minneapolis, MN.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
beef cattle/ animal production/
sustainability/ input output analysis/ ecological balance/ energy
relations/ energy expenditure/ feed intake/ grazing/ dry lot
feeding/ irrigated farming/ alfalfa hay/ maize silage/ barley/
pastures/ body weight/ body protein/ body fat/ calving
rate


Abstract: The long-term sustainability of animal
agriculture is examined in an ecological context. As an aid to
defining agriculture, animal agriculture, and sustainable
agriculture, a broad overview of the structural and functional
aspects of ecosystems is presented. Energy output/cultural energy
input ratios were then calculated for 11 beef cattle management
systems as relative measures of their long-term sustainability.
Energy output was estimated by direct conversion of whole body mass
of steers to caloric values. Cultural energy inputs were estimated
using published forage and cereal grain production budgets in
combination with estimated organic matter intakes. Cultural energy
inputs included raw materials, manufacturing, distribution,
maintenance, and depreciation of all equipment and products used in
a 250-animal cow-calf farm/ranch operation. Management systems
evaluated included 1) spring calving with slaughter beginning at
either weaning (age of calf approximately 6 mo) or after 84, 168,
or 252 d in postweaning finishing lot; 2) spring calving with
slaughter beginning at about 18 mo of age after either 0, 42, 84,
or 126 d in finishing lot; and 3) fall calving with slaughter
beginning at about 14 mo of age after either 63, 126, or 189 d in
finishing lot. Estimate efficiencies were < 1.0 in all
treatments, even wine: assumed marketed calf crop was 100%. Product
energy output/cultural energy input ratios ranged from a high of
.40 in the spring calving leads to stocker leads to 126 d in
finishing lot treatment to a low of .23 in the spring calving leads
to slaughter at weaning treatment. The low levels of efficiency
were found to be largely the result of the interaction effects of
the high levels of culture energy required to maintain a productive
cow herd and grow and finish calves in the rather harsh environment
of the Northern Great Plains. Result pointedly reveal the high
level of dependency of the U.S. beef cattle industry on fossil
fuels. These finding in turn bring into question the ecological and
economic risks associated with the current technology driving North
American animal agriculture.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

410. Ecotoxicity tests for compost
applications.


Kapanen, A and Itavaara,
M


Ecotoxicology and
Environmental Safety
49 (1):
1-16. (2001)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E29;

ISSN: 0147-6513

Descriptors:  
enzymes/ microbe (Microorganisms)/
plant (Plantae)/ Microorganisms/ Plants/ biodegradation/ composted
material toxicity/ soil fauna


Abstract: Interest in the ecological effects of
composting has been growing recently. However, no established
methods are available for testing the toxicity of composted
materials. Despite this, international and national quality
requirements define that compost shall not contain any
environmentally harmful substances. Safety requirements have to be
fulfilled if the produced compost is intended for agricultural use.
This literature review focuses on methods that could potentially be
used to evaluate the ecotoxicity of compost. The toxicity test
methods discussed are those employing microbes, enzymes, soil
fauna, and plants.


© Thomson

411. Ecotoxicological risk assessment of soil
fauna recovery from pesticide application.


Straalen, N. M. van. and Rijn, J.
P. van


Reviews of Environmental
Contamination and Toxicology
154: 83-141. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
TX501.R48;

ISSN: 0179-5953 [RCTOE4]

Descriptors:  
soil fauna/ pesticides/ toxicology/
risk assessment / literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

412. Ecotoxicology and Wetland Ecosystems:
Current Understanding and Future Needs.


Catallo, W. J.

Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry
12 (12): 2209-2224.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E58;

ISSN: 0730-7268

Descriptors:  
wetlands/ contaminants/ ecosystem
analysis/ toxins/ ecosystems/ pollutants/ environmental policy/
aquatic environment/ literature reviews/ ecotoxicology/ Wetlands/
Sources and fate of pollution/ Freshwater pollution/ Pollution
Environment


Abstract: The term wetlands refers to a mosaic of
important ecosystems that typically form transition zones between
uplands and aquatic environments. These areas provide support
functions for natural and living resources and mediate
biogeochemical transformations of global significance. It is
becoming clear that the introduction of toxic and other
contaminants to large wetland areas has contributed to a series of
undesirable trends in habitat quality; availability of valuable
fish and wildlife; and quality of associated resources, including
surface and ground waters. The purpose of this review is to
indicate the importance of wetlands to regional and global ecology
and discusses research on the effects of contaminants in wetland
ecosystems. Areas of needed future research also are
suggested.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

413. Effect of Agricultural Production on the
Chemistry of Natural Waters: A Survey.


Khilchevskiy, V. K.

Hydrobiological Journal /
Gidrobiologicheskiy Zhurnal
29/30 (1): 82-93. (1994);

ISSN: 0018-8166

Descriptors:  
literature reviews/ agricultural
pollution/ water pollution/ agricultural runoff/ literature review/
natural waters/ geochemistry/ nonpoint pollution sources/ erosion/
nonpoint pollution/ Characteristics, behavior and fate/ Sources and
fate of pollution/ Freshwater pollution


Abstract: The effect of agriculture on the chemical
composition of natural waters is surveyed, focusing on the factors
through which it acts (chemical melioration, use of pesticides,
hydromelioration), the sources of pollution (surface runoff from
nonirrigated farming, drainage from reclaimed lands, effluent from
livestock-raising farms) and the role of erosion.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

414. Effect of animal production on
environment.


Vondraskova S

Studijni Informace
 Zivocisna Vyroba
3:
1-31. (1998)


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

415. Effect of Land Development and Forest
Management on Hydrologic Response in Southeastern Coastal Wetlands:
A Review.


Richardson, C. J. and Mccarthy, E.
J.


Wetlands 14 (1): 56-71. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1W47;

ISSN: 0277-5212

Descriptors:  
forest industry/ land use/
hydrology/ United States, Southeast/ wetlands/ literature reviews/
United States, North Carolina/ resource management/ runoff/
evapotranspiration/ environmental impact/ land development/ forest
management/ hydrologic models/ environmental effects/ forest
management/ Mechanical and natural changes/ Ecosystems and
energetics/ Freshwater pollution/ Effects on water of human
nonwater activities/ Environmental degradation


Abstract: Land development activities such as
agriculture, clear cutting, peat mining, and the planting of forest
plantations on wetlands can affect the hydrologic behavior of these
ecosystems by affecting their water storage and release patterns on
the landscape. The effects of these development activities on
hydrologic fluxes in peatlands (Typic Medisaprists) were compared
to the effects of forest management practices in North Carolina
using a field-tested hydrologic simulation model (DRAINMOD).
Simulations revealed that natural peat-based (Histosol) pocosin
systems lose 66% (80 cm) of the 123 cm of average annual rainfall
by evapo-transpiration (ET) and 34% (42 cm/yr) via annual runoff.
Annual runoff values were 63 cm/yr for peat mining areas, 48 cm/yr
for cleared peatlands, 46 cm/yr for peatlands converted to
agriculture and 34 cm/yr for pine plantations, once the forest
canopy is closed. Thus, these wetlands alterations, except for
forestry, significantly increased runoff and decreased ET compared
to the natural ecosystem. Forest pine plantation management
decreased runoff and increased ET. A case study of the effects of
forest management practices was reviewed for a 15-year-old drained
loblolly pine plantation growing on fine sandy loam soils (Thermic
Typic umbraquults) in the coastal plains of North Carolina.
Forestry activities such as thinning (i.e., reduced leaf area index
by 50%) decreased ET and canopy interception and nearly doubled
drainage loss (38 cm/yr to 60 cm/yr). Commonly applied forest
practices, such as drainage, increased the average number of flow
events with flows > 5 mm/day to 86 days per year from 26 days
per year under natural conditions.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)




416. The Effect of Macrobenthos on the Mass
Exchange at the Water-Sediment Interface (Review).


Brekhovskikh, V. F. and
 Vishnevskaya, G. N.


Water Resources / Vodnye
Resursy
21 (3): 301-307.
(1994);


ISSN: 0097-8078

Descriptors:  
Erosion and sedimentation/
Geochemistry of sediments


Abstract: The effect of macrobenthos on the mass
exchange at the water-sediment interface is considered. Evidence is
presented on the intensification of mass exchange processes in the
presence of benthos organisms, specifically, an increase in the
dissolved substance fluxes through the water-sediment interface,
the oxygen consumption by the sediment, as well as the washout of
bound bottom material.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

417. Effect of milk yield level and feeding
systems on N excretion in dairy cows.


Delaby L; Peyraud JL; and Verite
R.


In: 2emes rencontres autour des
recherches sur les ruminants.
(Held 13 1995 at Paris, France.); pp. 349-353;
1995.


Notes: 10 ref.

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

418. Effect of phytase on production parameters
and nutrient availability in broilers and laying hens: A
review.


Hatten, L. F.; Ingram, D. R.; and
Pittman, S. T.


Journal of Applied Poultry
Research
10 (3): 274-278.
(Fall 2001)


NAL Call #:  
SF481.J68;

ISSN: 1056-6171

Descriptors:  
broilers / hens/ phytase/ nutrient
availability/ poultry manure/ nutrient content/ phosphorus/
leaching/ runoff/ excretion/ water pollution/ feed additives/
cations/ calcium/ magnesium/ zinc/ copper/ nitrogen/ proteinases/
phytic acid/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

419. Effect of soil properties and water quality
on concentrated flow erosion (rills, ephermal gullies and
pipes).


Bradford, J. M.; Shainberg, I.;
Norton, L. D.; and United States-Israel Binational Agricultural
Research and Development Fund.


Bet Dagan, Israel: BARD; 1 v.
(various pagings): ill. (1996)


Notes: Final report. Project no. US-2039-91. Includes
bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  S623.B69--1996

Descriptors:  
Soil erosion

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

420. Effect of Stream Channel Size on the
Delivery of Nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico: Nature.


Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; and
Schwarz, G. E.


Macmillan Journals, 2000.
 


http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/sparrow/nature/nature_alexetal.pdf
 (preprint)

NAL Call #:  TD223.5-.A64-2000

Descriptors:  
Water---Nitrogen
content---Environmental aspects---Mexico, Gulf of/
Eutrophication---Control---Mexico, Gulf of/
Hypoxia---Water---Mexico, Gulf of/ Agricultural
chemicals---Environmental aspects---Mexico, Gulf of / Water
Pollution---Environmental aspects---Mexico, Gulf of/
Rivers---Environmental aspects---Mexico, Gulf of/ Stream
flow---Environmental aspects---Mexico, Gulf of/ Nitrogen/
Electronic publications/ Government publications/ Basins---Geology/
Mexico, Gulf of---Channels/ Mexico, Gulf of/ United States Dept of
the Interior---Geological Survey


Abstract:  The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
presents the article entitled "Effect of Stream Channel Size on the
Delivery of Nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico," written by Richard B.
Alexander, Richard A. Smith, and Gregory E. Schwarz. This paper
offers an analysis of data from 374 U.S. monitoring stations that
shows a rapid decline in the average first-order rate of nitrogen
loss with channel size. The authors find that the closeness of
sources to large streams and rivers is an important determinant of
nitrogen delivery to the estuary in the Mississippi
basin.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

421. The effectiveness and restoration potential
of riparian ecotones for the management of nonpoint source
pollution, particularly nitrate.


Fennessy, M S and Cronk, J
K


Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology
27 (4): 285-317. (1997)

NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1C7;

ISSN: 1064-3389

Descriptors:  
carbon/ nitrate: loading, pollutant,
removal, uptake/ nutrients: surface retention/ channel morphology/
denitrification/ land use/ nitrogen cycling/ nonpoint source
pollution/ restoration potential/ riparian ecotones/ seasonal
dynamics/ stream vegetation/ subsurface flow/ surface water
contamination/ terrestrial systems/ water quality


© Thomson

422. Effects of agricultural diversification on
the abundance, distribution, and pest control potential of spiders:
A review.


Sunderland, K. and Samu,
F.


Entomologia Experimentalis
et Applicata
1: 1-13.
(2000);


ISSN: 0013-8703

Descriptors:  
Population density/ Population
dynamics/ Agricultural practices/ Pest control/ Araneae/
Agricultural & general applied entomology


Abstract: A review of the literature showed that
spider abundance was increased by diversification in 63% of
studies. A comparison of diversification modes showed that spider
abundance in the crop was increased in 33% of studies by
`aggregated diversification' (e.g. intercropping and non-crop
strips) and in 80% of studies by `interspersed diversification'
(e.g., undersowing, partial weediness, mulching and reduced
tillage). It is suggested that spiders tend to remain in
diversified patches and that extending the diversification
throughout the whole crop (as in interspersed diversification)
offers the best prospects for improving pest control. There is
little evidence that spiders walk in significant numbers into
fields from uncultivated field edges, but diversification at the
landscape level serves to foster large multi-species regional
populations of spiders which are valuable as a source of aerial
immigrants into newly planted crops. There are very few
manipulative field studies where the impact of spiders on pests has
been measured in diversified crops compared with undiversified
controls. It is encouraging, however, that in those few studies an
increased spider density resulted in improved pest control. Future
work needs are identified.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

423. Effects of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) on
terrestrial vegetation: A review.


Krupa, S. V.

Environmental
Pollution
124 (2): 179-221.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E52;

ISSN: 0269-7491.

Notes: Number of References: 327

Descriptors:  
ammonia/ effects/ terrestrial
vegetation/ ecosystems/ critical levels/ critical loads/ pine/
Pinus sylvestris/ Vulgaris l hull/ young coniferous trees/ long
term exposure/ root zone acidity/ bound amino acids/ Arnica Montana
l/ Flexuosa l trin/ nitrogen deposition/ air pollution


Abstract: At the global scale, among all N
(nitrogen) species in the atmosphere and their deposition on to
terrestrial vegetation and other receptors, NH3 (ammonia) is
considered to be the foremost. The major sources for atmospheric
NH3 are agricultural activities and animal feedlot operations,
followed by biomass burning (including forest fires) and to a
lesser extent fossil fuel combustion. Close to its sources, acute
exposures to NH3 can result in visible foliar injury on vegetation.
NH3 is deposited rapidly within the first 4-5 km from its source.
However, NH3 is also converted in the atmosphere to fine particle
NH4+ (ammonium) aerosols that are a regional scale problem. Much of
our current knowledge of the effects of NH3 on higher plants is
predominantly derived from studies conducted in Europe. Adverse
effects on vegetation occur when the rate of foliar uptake of NH3
is greater than the rate and capacity for in vivo detoxification by
the plants. Most to least sensitive plant species to NH3 are native
vegetation > forests > agricultural crops. There are also a
number of studies on N deposition and lichens, mosses and green
algae. Direct cause and effect relationships in most of those cases
(exceptions being those locations very close to point sources) are
confounded by other environmental factors, particularly changes in
the ambient SO2 (Sulfur dioxide) concentrations. In addition to
direct foliar injury, adverse effects of NH3 on higher plants
include alterations in: growth and productivity, tissue content of
nutrients and toxic elements, drought and frost tolerance,
responses to insect pests and disease causing microorganisms
(pathogens), development of beneficial root symbiotic or
mycorrhizal associations and inter species competition or
biodiversity. In all these cases, the joint effects of NH3 with
other air pollutants such as all-pervasive O-3 or increasing CO2
concentrations are poorly understood. While NH3 uptake in higher
plants occurs through the shoots, NH4+ uptake occurs through the
shoots, roots and through both pathways. However, NH4+ is immobile
in the soil and is converted to NO3- (nitrate). In agricultural
systems, additions of NO3- to the soil (initially as NH3 or NH4+)
and the consequent increases in the emissions of N2O (nitrous
oxide, a greenhouse gas) and leaching of NO3- into the ground and
surface waters are of major environmental concern. At the ecosystem
level NH3 deposition cannot be viewed alone, but in the context of
total N deposition. There are a number of forest ecosystems in
North America that have been subjected to N saturation and the
consequent negative effects. There are also heathlands and other
plant communities in Europe that have been subjected to N-induced
alterations. Regulatory mitigative approaches to these problems
include the use of N saturation data or the concept of critical
loads. Current information suggests that a critical load of 5-10 kg
ha(-1) year(-1) of total N deposition (both dry and wet deposition
combined of all atmospheric N species) would protect the most
vulnerable terrestrial ecosystems (heaths, bogs, cryptogams) and
values of 10-20 kg ha(-1) year(-1) would protect forests, depending
on soil conditions. However, to derive the best analysis, the
critical loa (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights
reserved.


© Thomson ISI

424. Effects of Disturbance on Birds of
Conservation Concern in Eastern Oregon and Washington.


Bull, E. L. and Wales, B.
C.


Northwest Science
75 ([supplement]): 166-173.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
470-N81;

ISSN: 0029-344X

Descriptors:  
Reviews/ Disturbance/ Rare species/
Conservation/ Fires/ Roads/ Human impact/ Forest management/ Aves/
Haliaeetus leucocephalus/ Falco peregrinus/ Histrionicus
histrionicus/ Bartramia longicauda/ Accipiter gentilis/ Buteo
regalis/ Leucosticte atrata/ Pinus ponderosa/ United States,
Washington/ United States, Oregon/ Birds/ Bald eagle/ Peregrine
falcon/ Harlequin duck/ Upland sandpiper/ Northern goshawk/
Ferruginous hawk/ Black Rosy finch/ Ponderosa Pine/
Management


Abstract: The effects on birds of forest insects,
tree diseases, wildfire, and management strategies designed to
improve forest health (e.g., thinning, prescribed burns, road
removal, and spraying with pesticides or biological microbial
agents) are discussed. Those bird species of concern that occur in
forested habitats in eastern Oregon and Washington include the bald
eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco
peregrinus), harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus), upland
sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda), northern goshawk (Accipiter
gentilis), ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis), and black rosy finch
(Leucosticte arctoa). In addition, seven species of woodpeckers and
nuthatches were considered because of their rare status. Forest
disturbances that create dead trees and logs are critical to
cavity-nesting birds because the dead trees with their subsequent
decay provide nesting and roosting habitat. The insects associated
with outbreaks or dead trees provide prey for the woodpeckers and
nuthatches. The loss of nest or roost trees as a result of
disturbance could be detrimental to bald eagles, goshawks, or
ferruginous hawks, while the loss of canopy cover could be
detrimental to harlequin ducks and goshawks or to prey of some of
the raptors. The more open canopies created by thinning may be
beneficial to a species like the black rosy finch, yet detrimental
to some woodpeckers due to a decrease in cover. Prescribed burning
may be beneficial to those woodpeckers primarily associated with
ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands and detrimental to other
woodpeckers because of the loss of coarse woody debris. Removal of
roads is likely to benefit most of these species because of the
subsequent decrease in human activity. Recovery plans for bald
eagles and peregrine falcons are available for managers to use in
managing habitat for these species.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)




425. Effects of forest management on soil C and
N storage: Meta analysis.


Johnson, D. W. and Curtis, P.
S.


Forest Ecology and
Management
140 (2/3):
227-238. (Jan. 2001)


NAL Call #:  
SD1.F73;

ISSN: 0378-1127 [FECMDW]

Descriptors:  
forest management/ forest soils/
carbon/ nitrogen/ soil fertility/ nutrient availability/ data
analysis/ carbon cycle/ nitrogen cycle/ logging/ species
differences/ logs/ forest fires/ prescribed burning/ wildfires/
charcoal/ organic matter/ vegetation/ nitrogen fixation/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

426. Effects of Forest Management on Surface
Water Quality in Wetland Forests.


Shepard, J. P.

Wetlands 14 (1): 18-26. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1W47;

ISSN: 0277-5212

Descriptors:  
wetlands/ water quality/ forest
industry/ fertilizers/ harvesting/ literature reviews/
environmental impact/ United States/ nutrients (mineral)/
sediments/ resource management/ forest management/ literature
review/ logging/ environmental effects/ Ecosystems and energetics/
Mechanical and natural changes/ Freshwater pollution/ Effects on
water of human nonwater activities/ Environmental
degradation


Abstract: A literature review on the effects of
silvicultural practices on water quality in wetland forests was
conducted. The review summarized results from nine wetland forests
in five states (AL, FL, MI, NC, and SC). Silvicultural practices
assessed were timber harvesting (including thinning and
clearcutting), site preparation, bedding, planting, drainage, and
fertilization. Many of the studies reviewed observed increased
concentrations of suspended sediment and nutrients following
silvicultural operations when compared with undisturbed controls.
Water quality criteria were rarely exceeded by silvicultural
operations, however, and effects on water quality were transient.
Water quality parameters returned to undisturbed levels within a
period ranging from months to several years.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

427. Effects of hay management on grassland
songbirds in Saskatchewan.


Dale, B. C.; Martin, P. A.; and
Taylor, P. S.


Wildlife Society
Bulletin
25 (3): 616-626
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
SK357.A1W5

Descriptors:  
birds/ environmental impact/
agricultural practices


Abstract: Evaluated impacts of hay management on
endemic grassland birds.

428. Effects of land application of waste water
from Mexico City on soil fertility and heavy metal accumulation: A
bibliographical review.


Gutierrez Ruiz, M. E.; Siebe, C.;
and Sommer, I.


Environmental Review
3 (3/4): 318-330. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
GE140.E59;

ISSN: 1181-8700

Descriptors:  
waste water/ irrigation water/ heavy
metals/ concentration/ crops/ crop yield/ soil fertility/
nutrient


content/ soil salinity/ application
to land/ irrigation/ agricultural land/ Mexico


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

429. Effects of livestock grazing on stand
dynamics and soils in upland forests of the interior
west.


Belsky, A Joy and Blumenthal, Dana
M


Conservation Biology
11 (2): 315-327. (1997)

NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1C5;

ISSN: 0888-8892

Descriptors:  
pine (Coniferopsida)/ gymnosperms/
plants/ spermatophytes/ vascular plants/ conservation/ livestock
grazing/ mixed conifer forests/ soil erosion/ species composition/
stand dynamics/ upland forests/ Western USA


Abstract: Many ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer
forests of the western, interior United States have undergone
substantial structural and compositional changes since settlement
of the West by Euro-Americans. Historically, these forests
consisted of widely spaced, fire-tolerant trees underlain by dense
grass swards. Over the last 100 years they have developed into
dense stands consisting of more fire-sensitive and
disease-susceptible species. These changes, sometimes referred to
as a decline in 'forest health,' have been attributed primarily to
two factors: active suppression of low-intensity fires (which
formerly reduced tree recruitment, especially of fire-sensitive,
shade-tolerant species), and selective logging of larger, more
fire-tolerant trees. A third factor, livestock grazing, is seldom
discussed, although it may be as important as the other two
factors. Livestock alter forest dynamics by (1) reducing the
biomass and density of understory grasses and sedges, which
otherwise outcompete conifer seedlings and prevent dense tree
recruitment, and (2) reducing the abundance of fine fuels, which
formerly carried low-intensity fires through forests. Grazing by
domestic livestock has thereby contributed to increasingly dense
western forests and to changes in tree species composition. In
addition, exclosure studies have shown that livestock alter
ecosystem processes by reducing the cover of herbaceous plants and
litter, disturbing and


compacting soils, reducing water
infiltration rates, and increasing soil erosion.


© Thomson

430. Effects of manure amendments on
environmental and production problems.


Moore, P. A. Jr.; Joern, B. C.;
Edwards, D. R.; Wood, C. W.; and Daniel, T. C.


In: White papers on animal
agriculture and the environment/ National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management; Midwest Plan Service; and U.S. Department
of Agriculture; Raleigh, NC: National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management, 2001.


NAL Call #:  TD930.2-.W45-2002

Descriptors:  
Agricultural wastes---Environmental
aspects---United States




431. Effects of open marsh water management on
selected tidal marsh resources: A review.


Wolfe, R. J.

Journal of the American
Mosquito Control Association
12 (4): 701-712. (Dec. 1996)

NAL Call #:  
QL536.J686;

ISSN: 8756-971X

Descriptors:  
pest control/ marshes/ water
management/ reviews/ literature reviews/ aquatic insects/
literature review/ mosquito control/ ecological effects/ resources
management/ Culicidae/ Diptera/ Diptera/ Medical & veterinary
entomology/ Control/ Species interactions: pests and control/
Ecological impact of water development/ Brackish water


Abstract: Open Marsh Water Management (OMWM) is a
method of salt-marsh mosquito control that advocates source
reduction and biological control through selective pond creation
and ditching in mosquito breeding areas. This method has been used
as an alternative to chemical insecticides in coastal wetlands for
30 years. This paper reviews the effects of OMWM on hydrology,
topography, vegetation, mosquitoes, invertebrates, fishes, birds,
mammals, and water quality. Other source reduction techniques and
the economics of OMWM are also discussed.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

432. Effects of pesticides and other organic
pollutants in the aquatic environment on immunity of fish: A
review.


Dunier, M. and Siwicki, A.
K.


Fish and Shellfish
Immunology
3 (6): 423-438.
(1993);


ISSN: 1050-4648

Descriptors:  
pesticides/ organic compounds/
immunology/ disease resistance/ fish culture/ literature reviews/
pollutants/ immunity/ effects on/ aquatic environment/ Pisces/
reviews/ aquatic environments/ organic/ Fish culture/ Effects on
organisms/ Reviews/ Reviews/ Freshwater pollution


Abstract: In the present paper the effects of
various pollutants from industry or agriculture on the fish immune
system are reviewed. The major xenobiotics involved as
immunomodulators are pesticides (insecticides, herbicides,
fungicides) and other organic pollutants such as polynuclear
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and
tributyltin (TBT). Immunotoxicology in mammals has become a very
active discipline, but there remains a scarcity of information
concerning fish immunotoxicology. This review gathers the data
available on the effects of certain pollutants in the aquatic
environment on the humoral and cellular immunity of
fish.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)




433. Effects of Pesticides on Soil and Water
Microflora and Mesofauna in Wetland Ricefields: A Summary of
Current Knowledge and Extrapolation to Temperate
Environments.


Roger, P. A.; Simpson, I.; Oficial,
R.; Ardales, S.; and Jimenez, R.


Australian Journal of
Experimental Agriculture
34
(7): 1057-1068. (1994)


NAL Call #:  
23-Au792;

ISSN: 0816-1089

Descriptors:  
reviews/ pesticides/ bibliographies/
wetlands/ rice/ temperate zone/ invertebrates/ fertilizers/
agricultural practices/ rice fields/ pollution effects/
microorganisms/ Invertebrata/ literature reviews/ agricultural
pollution/ data collections/ biodiversity/ Effects of pollution/
Effects on organisms/


Freshwater pollution

Abstract: This review summarises information on the
behaviour of pesticides and their impacts on microorganisms and
non-target invertebrates that was collected in, or is applicable
to, temperate wetland ricefields. An extensive bibliographic survey
shows that current knowledge is fragmentary and partly outdated.
Pesticides applied on soil at recommended levels rarely had a
detrimental effect on microbial populations or their activities.
They had more effect on invertebrate populations, inducing the
blooming of individual species of floodwater zooplankton and
reducing populations of aquatic oligochaetes in soil. Available
information raises concerns regarding the long-term effects of
pesticides on (i) microorganisms, primary producers, and
invertebrates of importance to soil fertility, (ii) predators of
rice pests and vectors, and (iii) microbial metabolism of
pesticides.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

434. Effects of Pollutants on Freshwater
Organisms.


Hall, S.; Chamberlain, J.; and
Godwin-Sadd, E.


Water Environment
Research
67 (4): 713-718.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
literature review/ water pollution
effects/ surface water/ ecosystems/ toxicity/ aquatic environment/
aquatic life/ metals/ pesticides/ Effects of pollution


Abstract: A myriad of "pollutants" enter freshwater
from innumerable sources, and their effects on aquatic life are
exhibited from the cellular to ecosystem levels. Much research has
been published in these areas. This paper views some of the
published research on the effects of chemicals on freshwater
organisms.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

435. Effects of Pollution on Saltwater
Organisms.


Reish, D. J.; Oshida, P. S.;
Mearns, A. J.; and Ginn, T. C.


Water Environment
Research
65 (6): 573-585.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47

Descriptors:  
Literature review/ Marine fisheries/
Marine life/ Marine pollution/ Oil pollution/ Reviews/ Toxicity/
Water pollution effects/ Bioassay/ Heavy metals/ Monitoring/
Organic compounds/ Organotin compounds/ Pesticides/ Polychlorinated
biphenyls/ Shellfish/ Toxicology/ Wastewater disposal/ Effects of
pollution


Abstract: The concentrations of metals, other
elements, and organic compounds (including pesticides and
polychlorinated biphenyls) in marine organisms were tabulated.
Marine debris, mostly in the form of plastic, has caused the death
of manatees off the Florida coast. Contamination of marine
sediments by pollutants has in turn caused an increase in the
incidence of tumors in marine fish. Abnormalities in mollusks
caused by tributyltin continue to be reported. Culture techniques
and early-life-stage (ELS) tests have been developed for the
topsmelt, Atherinops affinis. Comparative ELS tests indicate that
for 11 toxic chemicals, the topsmelt were equal to or more
sensitive than the commonly used east coast inland silversides. A
chemical toxicity and teratogenicity protocol was developed using
silverside embryos to determine the effects of microbial pest
control agents on fish eggs and larvae. Levels of heavy metals were
studied in fish near ocean wastewater discharge outfalls. Chlorine,
commonly used to disinfect wastewater and powerplant discharges,
was toxic to various stages of northern anchovy eggs and larvae at
concentrations well below recommended treatment doses. The effects
of oil pollution were studied in Antarctic and North Sea fish and
in Norway seal pups. New monitoring and assessment techniques for
marine pollution are reviewed. Several surveys of marine life and
communities showed the effects of marine sediment pollution and
water pollution in different parts of the world. Toxicity studies
were also performed in fish, shellfish, and microalgae exposed to
such pollutants as pesticides, wastewater sludge, mineral oil-based
drilling mud, Hibernia crude oil, arsenate, copper, cadmium,
mercury, lead, zinc, DDT, Arochlor 1254, and the water-soluble
fraction of diesel fuel. (Geiger-PTT) 35 050508002


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

436. Effects of prescribed burning on ecosystem
processes and attributes in pine/hardwood forests of the southern
Appalachians.


Vose, J. M.

Proceedings - Hardwood
Symposium of the Hardwood Research Council
(22): 81-90. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
SD397.H3H37;

ISSN: 0193-8495.

Notes: Paper presented at the symposium on
Opportunities for the Hardwood Industry to Address Environmental
Challenges held May 12-15, 1994, Cashiers, North Carolina. Includes
references.


Descriptors:  
mixed forests/ ecosystems/ pinus/
hardwoods/ silvicultural systems/ prescribed burning/ revegetation/
species diversity/ nitrogen cycle/ nitrogen content/ losses from
soil/ water erosion/ streams/ water quality/ stand density/ forest
litter/ literature reviews/ North Carolina/ Appalachian states of
USA/ South Carolina/ fell and burn/ nitrogen pool/ nitrogen
loss


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

437. Effects of Rock Fragments on Soil Erosion
by Water at Different Spatial Scales: A Review.


Poesen, J. W.; Torri, D.; and
Bunte, K.


Catena 23 (1-2): 141-166. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
GB400.C3;

ISSN: 0341-8162.

Notes: Special issue: Rock fragments in soil: Surface
dynamics


Descriptors:  
soil erosion/ rocks/ sediment yield/
soil properties/ rill erosion/ soil conservation/ Erosion and
sedimentation


Abstract: This paper reviews the various effects of
rock fragments on soil erosion by water. Since these effects are
scale dependent, they are investigated at three different nested
spatial scales: the microplot (4 x 10 super(-6)-10 super(0) m
super(2)), the mesoplot (10 super(-2)-10 super(2) m super(2)) and
the macroplot (10 super(1)-10 super(4) m super(2). For each scale
the corresponding process mechanisms are discussed. Particular
attention is paid to the effects of rock fragment cover on the
intensity of soil erosion processes. At the mesoplot scale, i.e. on
interrill areas, rock fragments at the soil surface can have
negative as well as positive effects on sediment yield. These
ambivalent effects are conditioned by the type of fine earth
porosity, soil surface slope, vertical position and size of rock
fragments and by the occurrence of horseshoe vortex erosion. At the
microplot scale, i.e. the soil surface area which is covered by a
single rock fragment, and at the macroplot scale, i.e. upland areas
where both interrill and rill erosion takes place, rock fragments
at the soil surface have a negative effect on sediment yield. In
these two scales rock fragments can thus be considered as natural
soil surface stabilizers. At the macroplot scale the mean decrease
of relative interrill and rill sediment yield with rock fragment
cover can be expressed by an exponential decay function. The
scatter of the data indicates that a given rock fragment cover can
have different efficiencies in reducing interrill and rill sediment
yield depending on the varying intensities of the hydrological and
erosion subprocesses. These findings have implications for erosion
modelling and soil conservation.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

438. Effects of Sedimentation and Turbidity on
Lotic Food Webs: A Concise Review for Natural Resource
Managers.


Henley, W. F.; Patterson, M. A.;
Neves, R. J.; and Lemly, A. D.


Reviews in Fisheries
Science
8 (2): 125-139.
(2000);


ISSN: 1064-1262

Descriptors:  
Sediment load/ Nephelometers/
Trophic levels/ Environmental impact/ Ecosystem disturbance/ Water
quality control/ Population dynamics/ Food chains/ Turbidity/
Environment management/ Zooplankton/ Sedimentation/ Mollusks/ Fish/
Insects/ Watersheds/ Suspended Sediments/ Monitoring/ Streams/
Habitat community studies/ Mechanical and natural changes/ Erosion
and sedimentation


Abstract: Sedimentation and turbidity are
significant contributors to declines in populations of North
American aquatic organisms. Impacts to lotic fauna may be expressed
through pervasive alterations in local food chains beginning at the
primary trophic level. Decreases in primary production are
associated with increases in sedimentation and turbidity and
produce negative cascading effects through depleted food
availability to zooplankton, insects, freshwater mollusks, and
fish. Direct effects at each trophic level are mortality, reduced
physiological function, and avoidance; however, decreases in
available food at trophic levels also result in depressed rates of
growth, reproduction, and recruitment. Impacts of turbidity to
aquatic organisms often seem inconsistent among watersheds and
experiments, but this apparent difference is actually due to the
lack of correlation between suspended sediment concentrations
(mg/L) and units of measure (Nephelometric Turbidity Units, NTU).
The use of NTU as a surrogate measurement of suspended sediment to
predict biotic effects within watersheds is dubious. Similar NTU
measurements from different watersheds may be correlated with
different concentrations of suspended sediment. For monitoring the
effects of turbidity within local watersheds, we recommend that the
correlation between suspended sediment and NTUs be examined over a
range of discharge recordings, and that this be used as a baseline
to examine local effects. We recommend that riparian buffer strips
and livestock fencing be used to reduce sediment input to
streams.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

439. Effects of soil abiotic processes on the
bioavailability of anthropogenic organic residues.


Ruggiero, P.; Pizzigallo, M. D. R.;
and Crecchio, C.


In: Ecological significance of the
interactions among clay minerals, organic matter and soil biota:
3rd Symposium on Soil Mineral-Organic Matter-Microorganism
Interactions and Ecosystem Health.
(Held 22 May 2000-26 May 2000 at Naples-Capri,
Italy.) Violante, A.; Huang, P. M.; Bollag, J. M.; and Gianfreda,
L. (eds.); pp. 95-133; 2002.  


ISBN: 0-444-51039-7

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

440. Effects of soil solution on the dynamics of
N2O emissions: A review.


Heincke, M. and Kaupenjohann,
M.


Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems
55 (2):
133-157. (Oct. 1999)


NAL Call #:  
S631.F422;

ISSN: 1385-1314 [NCAGFC]

Descriptors:  
soil solution/ nitrous oxide/
emission/ soil air/ solubility/ nitrogen/ nutrient balance/
leaching/ mathematical models/ soil water content/ soil
temperature/ movement in soil/ literature reviews


Abstract: In this review, which consists of two
parts, major interactions between nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil
solution are described. In the first part, as an introduction,
concentrations of dissolved N2O in different aqueous systems are
summarized. An inventory of data on maximal N2O concentrations in
soil solution (up to 9984 micrograms N2O-N l-1 and in soil air up
to 8300 ppm) from literature is presented. The peak N2O
concentrations represent a N2O supersaturation in the soil solution
up to 30000 times with respect to ambient air and a soil air N2O
concentration about 25000 times higher than in the atmosphere. The
main physicochemical parameters (solubility, diffusion) controlling
N2O distribution between soil solution and soil air are outlined.
The influences of cultivation practice, nitrogen turnover, water
content and temperature on N2O accumulation in soil solution and
soil air are reviewed. In the second part some models of N2O
dynamics in soils are discussed with emphasis on N2O transport
processes. A simple qualitative scheme is developed to categorize
the effects of the soil solution on N2O dynamics in soils. In this
scheme the temporary, intensive N2O oversaturation of the soil
solution is interpreted as a result of gas diffusion inhibition by
water (barrier function of soil solution) resulting in an
accumulation of N2O. In addition, N2O supersaturation is an
indication that transitory much N2O can be stored in the soil
solution (storage function of soil solution). Where the soil
solution flows up-, down- or sidewards it can act as a relevant
transport medium for dissolved N2O (transport function of soil
solution). This scheme is applied to examples from the
literature.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

441. Effects of timber management on the
hydrology of wetland forests in the southern United
States.


Sun, G.; Mcnulty, S. G.; Shepard,
J. P.; Amatya, D. M.; Riekerk, H.; Comerford, N. B.; Skaggs, W.;
and Swift, L. Jr.


Forest Ecology and
Management
143 (1/3):
227-236. (Apr. 2001)


NAL Call #:  
SD1.F73;

ISSN: 0378-1127 [FECMDW].

Notes: Special issue: The science of managing forests
to sustain water resources / edited by R.T. Brooks and N. Lust.
Paper presented at a conference held November 8-11, 1998,
Sturbridge, Massachusetts. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
forests/ wetlands/ forest
management/ hydrology/ logging/ site preparation/ drainage/
simulation models/ geographical information systems/ water table/
groundwater level/ storms/ runoff/ spatial variation/ temporal
variation/ evapotranspiration/ literature reviews/ Alabama/
Georgia/ South Carolina/ Texas/ Virginia/ North Carolina/
Florida


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

442. The Effects of Uv-B Radiation and
Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals (Edcs) on the Biology of
Amphibians.


Crump, D.

Environmental Reviews
9 (2): 61-80. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
GE140.E59;

ISSN: 1208-6053

Descriptors:  
Toxicity / Xenobiotics/ Chemical
pollution/ Pollution effects/ Ultraviolet radiation/ Polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons/ Pesticides/ endocrine disruptors/ population
decline/ metamorphosis/ Breeding success/ Survival/ Mortality/
Population dynamics/ Water Pollution Effects/ Ecological Effects/
Animal Populations/ Amphibians/ Growth/ Sexual Reproduction/
Reviews/ Amphibia/ Amphibians/ endocrine disrupting chemicals/
endocrine disrupters/ Freshwater pollution/ Effects on organisms/
Effects of pollution


Abstract: Statistical meta-analysis of large and
diverse data sets has indicated that amphibians have been declining
worldwide since the 1960s. Exposure to UV-B radiation (280-320 nm)
and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been considered as
possible hypotheses to explain the observed declines. Equivocal
conclusions have been reached with respect to the effects of UV-B
on amphibian populations. Field and laboratory studies employing
both ecologically relevant and enhanced UV-B levels have been
conducted using a variety of amphibian species and reports differ
with respect to the most sensitive developmental stage and the
ultimate implications. UV-B radiation has also been shown to
interact with other stressors (e.g., pesticides, polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons, low pH) resulting in decreased survivorship
for several amphibian species. Limited evidence of reproductive
toxicity of xenobiotics in amphibians exist; however, early
exposure to EDCs could cause abnormal development of the amphibian
reproductive system, inhibit vital hormone messages that drive
metamorphosis, and ultimately contribute to the decline of some
amphibian populations. The available evidence suggests that more
than one agent is contributing to amphibian population declines and
the following review narrows the focus to address the existing data
on the effects of UV-B, alone and in combination with other
stressors, and EDCs on amphibian survivorship and
development.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

443. Effects of windbreaks on airflow,
microclimates and crops yields.


Cleugh, H. A.

Agroforestry Systems
41 (1): 55-84. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
SD387.M8A3;

ISSN: 0167-4366 [AGSYE6].

Notes: Special issue: Windbreaks in support of
agricultural production in Australia / edited by R. Prinsley.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
shelterbelts/ microclimate/ crop
yield/ crops/ air flow/ evaporation/ mathematical


models/ turbulence/ permeability/
air


temperature/ relative humidity/
heat/ shade/ lodging/ water use efficiency/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

444. Efficiency and uniformity of the LEPA and
spray sprinkler methods: A review.


Schneider, A. D.

Transactions of the
ASAE
43 (4): 937-944. (July
2000-Aug. 2000)


NAL Call #:  
290.9-Am32T;

ISSN: 0001-2351 [TAAEAJ]

Descriptors:  
sprinkler irrigation/ application
methods/ runoff/ evaporation/ drift/ efficiency/ low energy
precision application/ uniformity coefficient


Abstract: Application efficiencies and uniformity
coefficients reported for the low energy precision application
(LEPA) and spray sprinkler irrigation methods are reviewed and
summarized. The relative sizes of the water loss pathways for the
two sprinkler methods are also summarized. With negligible runoff
and deep percolation, reported application efficiencies for LEPA
are typically in the 95 to 98% range. Measurements such as chemical
tracers, weighing lysimeter catches, and energy balance modeling
are believed to be more accurate than small collector measurements
for estimating spray application efficiency. Spray application
efficiencies based on these other measurements exceed 90% when
runoff and deep percolation are negligible. Because of the start
and stop nature of mechanical move irrigation systems, uniformity
coefficients for LEPA and spray are measured both along the
irrigation system mainline and in the direction of travel. Along
the mainline, reported uniformity coefficients are generally in the
0.94 to 0.97 range for LEPA and in the 0.75 to 0.85 range for
spray. In the direction of travel, the uniformity coefficients are
generally in the 0.75 to 0.85 range for LEPA with furrow diking and
in the 0.75 to 0.90 range for spray. On start and stop sprinkler
systems, basin tillage on a 2 to 4 m spacing is critical for
uniform LEPA irrigation because the basins prevent runoff and
average the applications during several unequal start and stop
times. Runoff is the largest potential water loss pathway for both
LEPA and spray irrigation. For the spray method, runoff can exceed
either droplet evaporation and drift or non-beneficial canopy
evaporation.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




445. Efficiency of nutrient utilization and
sustaining soil fertility with particular reference to
phosphorus.


Helyar, K. R.

Field Crops Research
56 (1/2): 187-195. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
SB183.F5;

ISSN: 0378-4290 [FCREDZ].

Notes: Special issue: Nutrient use efficiency in rice
cropping systems / edited by K.G. Cassman and H.R. Lafitte.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
phosphorus/ nutrition physiology/
soil fertility/ use efficiency/ sustainability/ phosphorus
fertilizers/ crop management/ economic analysis/ cultivars/
nutrient availability/ application rates/ runoff/ erosion/
leachates/ crop yield/ roots/ rotations/ surface area/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

446. Efficient feed nutrient utilization to
reduce pollutants in poultry and swine manure.


Nahm, K H

Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology
32 (1): 1-16. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1C7;

ISSN: 1064-3389

Descriptors:  
amino acids: feed additive,
synthetic/ ammonia: emissions/ enzymes: feed supplement/ growth
promoting substances/ nitrogen: environmental contaminant,
nutrient/ phosphorus: environmental contaminant, nutrient/ phytase:
feed supplement/ protein: reduced feed content/ chicken
(Galliformes): broiler, chick, commercial species, layer,
livestock/ pig (Suidae): commercial species, finishing, livestock,
piglet/ Animals / Artiodactyls/ Birds/ Chordates/ Mammals/ Nonhuman
Mammals/ Nonhuman Vertebrates/ Vertebrates/ diet modification/
efficient feed nutrient utilization/ feed manufacturing technique
modification/ highly digestible raw feed materials/ manure dry
matter weight [manure DM weight]/ odor/ pollutant reduction/
poultry manure: environmental contaminant/ swine manure:
environmental contaminant


© Thomson

447. Effluent treatment: Options for treating
pig slurry.


Kilgallen P and O'Shea
J.


In: Concepts in pig science 2001:
The 3rd annual Turtle Lake Pig Science Conference.


Lyons TP and Cole DJ
(eds.)


Nottingham, UK: Nottingham
University Press; pp. 97-105; 2001.


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

448. Efforts by industry to improve the
environmental safety of pesticides.


James, J. R.; Tweedy, B. G.; and
Newby, L. C.


Annual Review of
Phytopathology
31: 423-439.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
464.8-An72;

ISSN: 0066-4286 [APPYAG]

Descriptors:  
pesticides/ agricultural chemicals/
environmental impact/ product development/ environmental
protection/ toxicology/ safety/ health hazards/ trends/ plant
disease control/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

449. El Nino as a window of opportunity for the
restoration of degraded arid ecosystems.


Holmgren, Milena and Scheffer,
Marten


Ecosystems 4 (2): 151-159. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
QH540.E3645;

ISSN: 1432-9840

Descriptors:  
El Nino Southern Oscillation [ENSO]/
agriculture/ alternative stable states/ arid ecosystems:
degradation, restoration/ biomass depletion/ climatic oscillation/
desertification/ graphic models/ overexploitation/ overgrazing/
rangelands/ soil erosion/ vegetation shifts/ wood
harvesting


Abstract: Most arid ecosystems have suffered from
severe overexploitation by excessive wood harvesting, overgrazing,
and agriculture, resulting in depletion of vegetation biomass and
soil erosion. These changes are often difficult to reverse due to
positive feedbacks that tend to stabilize the new situation. In
this paper, we briefly review evidence for the idea that different
states in these ecosystems might represent alternative equilibria
and present a graphic model that summarizes the implications for
their response to changing environmental conditions. We show how,
in the light of this theoretical framework, climatic oscillations
such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) could be used in
combination with grazer control to restore degraded and ecosystems.
We also present evidence that, depending on grazing pressure, ENSO
episodes can trigger structural and long-lasting changes in these
ecosystems.


© Thomson

450. Electrical conductivity methods for
measuring and mapping soil salinity.


Rhoades, J. D.

Advances in Agronomy 49:
201-251.
(1993)

NAL Call #:  
30-Ad9;

ISSN: 0065-2113 [ADAGA7]

Descriptors:  
soil salinity/ mapping/ measurement/
methodology/ sensors/ site factors/ electrical conductivity/
irrigated soils/ literature reviews/ mathematical models/ soil
physical properties


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

451. Eliminating waste: Strategies for
sustainable manure management: Review.


Richard, T. L. and Choi, H.
L.


Asian Australasian Journal
of Animal Sciences
12 (7):
1162-1169. (1999)


NAL Call #:  
SF55.A78A7;

ISSN: 1011-2367

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

452. Emerging Pathogens: Viruses, Protozoa, and
Algal Toxins.


AWWA Research Division
Microbiological Contaminants Research Committee


Journal of the American
Water Works Association
91
(9): 110-121. (1999);


ISSN: 0003-150X.

Notes: Title: Committee Report

Descriptors:  
Reviews/ Water borne diseases/ Water
supplies/ Drinking water/ Water treatment/ Pathogens/ Protozoa/
Algae/ Toxins/ Viruses/ Water Quality/ Bacteria/ Data Collections/
Calicivirus/ Enterovirus/ Hepatitis D virus/ Norwalk virus/
Cyanophyta/ Microsporidia/ Toxoplasma gondii/ Cyclospora/ viruses/
Epidemiology/ Other water systems/ Protozoa: human/ Water treatment
and distribution/ Plants


Abstract: The list of constituents of concern in
drinking water now includes viruses, protozoa, and algal toxins as
well as more widely known bacteria. Information about these less
well known constituents can be difficult to gather, a difficulty
this AWWA committee report helps to alleviate. The report reviews
six increasingly important viral and protozoan organisms and an
algal toxin, all of which are documented in water and have been
linked to disease: the caliciviruses, particularly Norwalk virus,
enteroviruses, and hepatitis virus; the protozoans Cyclospora,
microsporidia, and Toxoplasma gondii; and cyanobacterial toxins.
The good news is that none of these constituents is considered of
great concern in drinking water treatment. Norwalk virus and other
caliciviruses, Cyclospora, microsporidia, and algal toxins are
rated as of moderate concern, largely because waterborne outbreaks
are documented for most, but little is known about their occurrence
or how to control them. This report will serve as a convenient
first source of information for water suppliers.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

453. Emission of nitrous oxide from salts used
for agriculture.


Freney, J. R.

Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems
49 (1/3): 1-6.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
S631.F422;

ISSN: 1385-1314 [NCAGFC].

Notes: Paper presented at the International Symposium
on "Soil-Source and Sink of Greenhouse Gases" held September 18-21,
1995, Nanjing, China. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
agricultural soils/ nitrous oxide/
emission/ losses from soil/ sources/ biomass/ prescribed burning/
nitrification/ denitrification/ nitrogen fertilizers/ nitrogen
fixing bacteria/ anaerobiosis/ flooding/ soil management/ nitrogen/
use efficiency/ reviews/ greenhouse gases


Abstract: Nitrous oxide is emitted into the
atmosphere as a result of biomass burning, and biological processes
in soils. Biomass burning is not only an instantaneous source of
nitrous oxide, but it results in a longer term enhancement of the
biogenic production of this gas. Measurements of nitrous oxide
emissions from soils before and after a controlled burn showed that
significantly more nitrous oxide was exhaled after the burn. The
current belief is that 90% of the emissions come from soils.
Nitrous oxide is formed in soils during the microbiological
processes nitrification and denitrification. Because nitrous oxide
is a gas it can escape from soil during these transformations.
Nitrous oxide production is controlled by temperature, pH, water
holding capacity of the soil, irrigation practices, fertilizer
rate, tillage practice, soil type, oxygen concentration,
availability of carbon, vegetation, land use practices and use of
chemicals. Nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils are
increased by the addition of fertilizer nitrogen and by the growth
of legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen. A recent analysis suggests
that emissions of nitrous oxide from fertilized soils are not
related to the type of fertilizer nitrogen applied and emissions
can be calculated from the amount of nitrogen applied. Legumes also
contribute to nitrous oxide emission in a number of ways, viz.
atmospheric nitrogen fixed by legumes can be nitrified and
denitrified in the same way as fertilizer nitrogen, thus providing
a source of nitrous oxide, and symbiotically living Rhizobia in
root nodules are able to denitrify and produce nitrous oxide.
Conversion of tropical forests to crop production and pasture has a
significant effect on the emission of nitrous oxide. Emissions of
nitrous oxide increased by about a factor of two when a forest in
central Brazil was clear cut, and pasture soils in the same area
produced three times as much nitrous oxide as adjacent forest
soils. Studies on temperate and tropical rice fields show that less
than 0.1% of the applied nitrogen is emitted as nitrous oxide if
the soils are flooded for a number of days before fertilizer
application. However, if mineral nitrogen is present in the soil
before flooding it will serve as a source of nitrous oxide during
wetting and drying cycles before permanent flooding. Thus dry
seeded rice can be a source of considerable nitrous oxide. There
are also indirect contributions to nitrous oxide emission through
volatilization of ammonia and emission of nitric oxides into the
atmosphere, and their redistribution over the landscape through wet
and dry deposition. In general nitrous oxide emissions can be
decreased by management practices which optimize the crop's natural
ability to compete with processes whereby plant available nitrogen
is lost from the soil-plant system. If these options
were


implemented they would also result
in increased productivity and reduced inputs.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




454. Emission of pesticides into the
air.


Berg, F. van den; Kubiak, R.;
Benjey, W. G.; Majewski, M. S.; Yates, S. R.; Reeves, G. L.; Smelt,
J. H.; and Linden, A. M. A. van der.


Water, Air and Soil
Pollution
115 (1/4): 195-218.
(Oct. 1999)


NAL Call #:  
TD172.W36;

ISSN: 0049-6979 [WAPLAC].

Notes: Special section: Fate of pesticides in the
atmosphere: Implications for environmental risk assessment.
Proceedings of a workshop held April 22-24, 1998, Driebergen, The
Netherlands. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
pesticides/ pesticide residues/
emission/ air/ air pollution/ air pollutants/ volatilization/
drift/ agricultural soils/ polluted soils/ greenhouses/ simulation
models/ mathematical models/ literature reviews/ regional
emissions


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

455. Emissions of aerial pollutants in livestock
buildings in northern Europe: Overview of a multinational
project.


Wathes, C. M.; Phillips, V. R.;
Holden, M. R.; Sneath, R. W.; Short, J. L.; White, R. P.; Hartung,
J.; Seedorf, J.; Schroder, M.; and Linkert, K. H.


Journal of Agricultural
Engineering Research
70 (1):
3-9. (May 1998)


NAL Call #:  
58.8-J82;

ISSN: 0021-8634 [JAERA2].

Notes: Special issue: Emissions of aerial pollutants in
livestock buildings in Northern Europe / edited by D. White, C. M.
Wathes and V. R. Phillips. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
air pollution/ animal housing/
emission/ research projects/ organization of research/ methodology/
international cooperation/ environmental protection/ England/
Netherlands/ Denmark/ Germany


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

456. Emissions of N2O and NO associated with
nitrogen fertilization in intensive agriculture, and the potential
for mitigation.


Smith, K A; McTaggart, I P; and
Tsuruta, H


Soil Use and
Management
13 (4
[supplement]): 296-304. (1997)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S68;

ISSN: 0266-0032

Descriptors:  
nitric oxide: emission, greenhouse
gas/ nitrogen: fertilizer/ nitrous oxide: emission, greenhouse gas/
greenhouse gas emission mitigation potential/ intensive
agriculture


Abstract: Increases in the atmospheric
concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) contribute to global warming
and to ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Nitric oxide (NO) is a
cause of acid rain and tropospheric ozone. The use of N fertilizers
in agriculture has direct and indirect effects on the emissions of
both these gases, which are the result of microbial nitrification
and denitrification in the soil, and which are controlled
principally by soil water and mineral N contents, temperature and
labile organic matter. The global emission of N2O from cultivated
land is now estimated at 3.5 Tg N annually, of which 1.5 Tg has
been directly attributed to synthetic N fertilizers, out of a total
quantity applied in 1990 of about 77Tg N. This amount was 150%
above the 1970 figure. The total fertilizer-induced emissions of NO
are somewhere in the range 0.5-5 Tg N. Mineral N fertilizers can
also be indirect as well as direct sources of N2O and NO emissions,
via deposition of volatilized NH3 on natural ecosystems and
denitrification of leached nitrate in subsoils, waters and
sediments. IPCC currently assume an N2O emission factor of 1.25 +-
1.0% of fertilizer N applied. No allowance is made for different
fertilizer types, on the basis that soil management and cropping
systems, and unpredictable rainfall inputs, are more important
variables. However, recent results show substantial reductions in
emissions from grassland by matching fertilizer type to
environmental conditions, and in arable systems by using controlled
release fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors. Also, better
timing and placement of N, application of the minimum amount of N
to achieve satisfactory yield, and optimization of soil physical
conditions, particularly avoidance of excessive wetness and
compaction, would be expected to reduce the average emission factor
for N2O. Some of these adjustments would also reduce NO emissions.
However, increasing global fertilizer use is likely to cause an
upward trend in total emissions even if these mitigating practices
become widely adopted.


© Thomson

457. Emissions of organic air toxics from open
burning: A comprehensive review.


Lemieux, P. M.; Lutes, C. C.; and
Santoianni, D. A.


Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science
30 (1):
1-32. (2004);


ISSN: 0360-1285.

Notes: Number of References: 93; Publisher:
Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd


Descriptors:  
Environmental Engineering &
Energy/ uncontrolled combustion/ open burning/ HAPS/ air toxics/
emissions/ polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/ dibenzo p dioxins/
Kuwaiti oil fires/ molecular tracers/ landfill fires/ aerosols/
waste/ identification/ combustion/ particle


Abstract: Emissions from open burning, on a mass
pollutant per mass fuel (emission factor) basis, are greater than
those from well-controlled combustion sources. Some types of open
burning (e.g. biomass) are large sources on a global scale in
comparison to other broad classes of sources (e.g. mobile and
industrial sources). A detailed literature search was performed to
collect and collate available data reporting emissions of organic
air toxics from open burning sources. The sources that were
included in this paper are: Accidental Fires, Agricultural Burning
of Crop Residue, Agricultural Plastic Film, Animal Carcasses,
Automobile Shredder Fluff Fires, Camp Fires, Car-Boat-Train (the
vehicle not cargo) Fires, Construction Debris Fires, Copper Wire
Reclamation, Crude Oil and Oil Spill Fires, Electronics Waste,
Fiberglass, Fireworks, Grain Silo Fires, Household Waste, Land
Clearing Debris (biomass), Landfills/Dumps, Prescribed Burning and
Savanna/Forest Fires, Structural Fires, Tire Fires, and Yard Waste
Fires. Availability of data varied according to the source and the
class of air toxics of interest. Volatile organic compound (VOC)
and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data were available for
many of the sources. Non-PAH semi-volatile organic compound (SVOC)
data were available for several sources. Carbonyl and
polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran
(PCDD/F) data were available for only a few sources. There were
several known sources for which no emissions data were available at
all. It is desirable that emissions from those sources be tested so
that the relative degree of hazard they pose can be assessed.
Several observations were made including: Biomass open burning
sources typically emitted less VOCs than open burning sources with
anthropogenic fuels on a mass emitted per mass burned basis,
particularly those where polymers were concerned. Biomass open
burning sources typically emitted less SVOCs and PAHs than
anthropogenic sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis.
Burning pools of crude oil and diesel fuel produced significant
amounts of PAHs relative to other types of open burning. PAH
emissions were highest when combustion of polymers was taking
place. Based on very limited data, biomass open burning sources
typically produced higher levels of carbonyls than anthropogenic
sources on a mass emitted per mass burned basis, probably due to
oxygenated structures resulting from thermal decomposition of
cellulose. It must be noted that local bum conditions could
significantly change these relative levels. Based on very limited
data, PCDD/F and other persistent bioaccumulative toxic (PBT)
emissions varied greatly from source to source and exhibited
significant variations within source categories. This high degree
of variation is likely due to a combination of factors, including
fuel composition, fuel heating value, bulk density, oxygen
transport, and combustion conditions. This highlights the
importance of having acceptable test data for PCDD/F and PBT
emissions from open burning so that contributions of sources to the
overall PCDD/F and PBT emissions inventory can be better
quantified. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


© Thomson ISI

458. Encyclopedia of pest management.

Pimentel, D.: Marcel Dekker; 903 p.
(2002);
ISBN:
0824708474

Descriptors:  
disease and pest management/
integrated pest management/ pests/ pest control/ laws and
regulations/ semiochemicals/ pesticides/ pesticide application/
human health/ cost analysis




459. Encyclopedia of soil science.

Lal, R.: Marcel Dekker; 1450 p.
(2002);
ISBN:
0824708466

Descriptors:  
soil science/ agriculture/ soil
productivity/ sustainable agriculture/ environmental
quality

460. Encyclopedia of water science.

Stewart, B. A. and Howell, T.
A.


New York: Marcel Dekker.
(2003);
ISBN:
0824709489

Descriptors:  
Agricultural water supply/ Water in
agriculture/ Irrigation efficiency

461. Endangered species and irrigated
agriculture: Water resource competition in western river
systems.


Moore, Michael R.; Mulville,
Aimee.; Weinberg, Marca.; and United States. Dept. of Agriculture.
Economic Research Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Economic Research Service; iv, 20 p.: ill., maps;
Series: Agriculture information bulletin no. 720 (An Economic
Research Service report). (1995)


Notes: Cover title. Distributed to depository libraries
in microfiche. Shipping list no.: 97-0500-M. "November 1995"--P.
[i]. Includes bibliographical references (p. 18-19). SUDOCS: A
1.75:720.


NAL Call #:  Fiche--S-133-A-1.75:720-

Descriptors:  
Endangered species---West---United
States/ Water resources development---West---United States/
Irrigation farming---West---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

462. Engineering systems to enhance irrigation
performance.


Hoffman, G. J. and Martin, D.
L.


Irrigation Science
14 (2): 53-63. (1993)

NAL Call #:  
S612.I756;

ISSN: 0342-7188 [IRSCD2].

Notes: Paper presented at the First Volcani
International Symposium on The Limits of Water Use Efficiency in
Agriculture, October 1992, Bet Dagan, Israel. Includes
references.


Descriptors:  
irrigation systems/ water use
efficiency/ irrigation water/ engineering/ surface irrigation/
sprinkler irrigation/ irrigation scheduling/ performance/
microirrigation


Abstract: The desirable irrigation system applies
water at a rate that allows all water to infiltrate and distributes
the water in space and time to match crop requirements in each
parcel of the field. Various types of irrigation systems and
management strategies have been developed in attempts to achieve
the "desired" system. Our objective is to review various methods of
enhancing irrigation performance. Although the "desired" system has
not been attained, considerable improvements have been made based
upon selection and management technologies which generate profits
within the constraints of environmental prudence. Each irrigation
system has inherent opportunities for enhancing irrigation
performance. Likewise, each has limitations in achieving maximum
crop productivity per unit of applied water. Methods to improve the
performance or surface irrigation can be grouped into those that
increase the uniformity of water intake, reduce runoff losses, or
decrease spatial variability. Two surface irrigation systems that
enhance performance are surge-flow and level-basin. The uniformity
and efficiency of sprinkler systems can be enhanced by
computer-based design procedures and, in some cases, by applying
low-energy, precision application concepts. Advantages of
microirrigation are less surface area wetted, which minimizes
evaporation and weed growth, and improved application uniformity
which is specifically designed into the distribution network. An
appropriate management strategy is necessary to attain the
potential of an irrigation system engineered to match crop water
requirements, and soil and environmental conditions. The best
irrigation method applies the amount of water desired at the
appropriate time while providing for leaching requirements,
agronomic operations, and environmental considerations. With
enhanced engineering and computer capabilities and improved
knowledge of the soil-plant-water continuum, irrigators will adopt
"prescription" irrigation. Prescription systems apply precisely the
prescribed amounts of water, nutrients. and pesticides to match the
production capacity of each parcel of land.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




463. Enhancing riparian habitat for fish,
wildlife, and timber in managed forests.


Newton, Michael; Willis, Ruth;
Walsh, Jennifer; Cole, Elizabeth; and Chan, Samuel


Weed Technology 10 (2): 429-438. (1996)

NAL Call #:  
SB610.W39;

ISSN: 0890-037X

Descriptors:  
conifer (Coniferopsida)/ fish
(Pisces Unspecified) / Pisces (Pisces Unspecified)/ animals/
chordates/ fish/ gymnosperms/ nonhuman vertebrates/ plants/
spermatophytes/ vascular plants/ vertebrates/ conservation/
forestry/ riparian habitat


Abstract: The productivity of riparian sites in
managed forests can be focused to provide productive fish and
wildlife habitat while yielding most of its productive capacity for
other than amenity values. Establishment of habitat protection
goals and measures of achievement permit flexible approaches for
meeting them. Once the protection standards are set, intensive
management of the woody cover is logically dependent on minimum
disturbance methods, in general, for both vegetation management and
harvest. Several currently registered chemical products and
non-chemical methods are helpful and safe in achieving both yield
and protection goals.


© Thomson

464. Enhancing the carbon sink in European
agricultural soils: Including trace gas fluxes in estimates of
carbon mitigation potential.


Smith, P.; Goulding, K. W.; Smith,
K. A.; Powlson, D. S.; Smith, J. U.; Falloon, P.; and Coleman,
K.


Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems
60 (1/3):
237-252. (2001)


NAL Call #:  
S631 .F422;

ISSN: 1385-1314 [NCAGFC]

Descriptors:  
agricultural soils/ carbon/ efflux/
climatic change/ methane/ gases/ forestry/ land use/ animal
manures/ sewage sludge/ no-tillage/ rotations/ woodlands/
bioenergy/ agricultural land/ ecosystems/ environmental impact/
literature reviews/ Europe


Abstract: The possibility that the carbon sink in
agricultural soils can be enhanced has taken on great political
significance since the Kyoto Protocol was finalised in December
1997. The Kyoto Protocol allows carbon emissions to be offset by
demonstrable removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, forestry
activities (Article 3.3) and changes in the use of agricultural
soils (Article 3.4) that are shown to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels
may be included in the Kyoto emission reduction targets. The
European Union is committed to a reduction in CO2 emissions to 92%
of baseline (1990) levels during the first commitment period
(2008-2012). We have shown recently that there are a number of
agricultural land-management changes that show some potential to
increase the carbon sink in agricultural soils and others that
allow alternative forms of carbon mitigation (i.e. through fossil
fuel substitution), but the options differ greatly in their
potential for carbon mitigation. The changes examined were, (a)
switching all animal manure use to arable land, (b) applying all
sewage sludge to arable land, (c) incorporating all surplus cereal
straw, (d) conversion to no-till agriculture, (e) use of surplus
arable land to de-intensify 1/3 of current intensive crop
production (through use of 1/3 grass/arable rotations), (f) use of
surplus arable land to allow natural woodland regeneration, and (g)
use of surplus arable land for bioenergy crop production. In this
paper, we attempt for the first time to assess other (non-CO2)
effects of these land-management changes on (a) the emission of the
other important agricultural greenhouse gases, methane and nitrous
oxide, and (b) other aspects of the ecology of the agroecosystems.
We find that the relative importance of trace gas fluxes varies
enormously among the scenarios. In some such as the sewage sludge,
woodland regeneration and bioenergy production scenarios, the
inclusion of trace gases makes only a small (<10%) difference to
the CO2-C mitigation potential. In other cases, for example the
no-till, animal manure and agricultural de-intensification
scenarios, trace gases have a large impact, sometimes halving or
more than doubling the CO2-C mitigation potential. The scenarios
showing the greatest increase when including trace gases are those
in which manure management changes significantly. In the one
scenario (no-till) where the carbon mitigation potential was
reduced greatly, a small increase in methane oxidation was
outweighed by a sharp increase in N2O emissions. When these
land-management options are combined to examine the whole
agricultural land area of Europe, most of the changes in mitigation
potential are small, but depending upon assumptions for the animal
manure scenario, the total mitigation potential either increases by
about 20% or decreases by about 10%, shifting the mitigation
potential of the scenario from just above the EU's 8% Kyoto
emission reduction target (98.9 Tg C y(-1)) to just below it. Our
results suggest that (a) trace gas fluxes may change the mitigation
potential of a land management option significantly and should
always be considered alongside CO2-C mitigation potentials and (b)
agricultural management options show considerable potential for
carbon mitigation even after accounting for trace gas
fluxes.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

465. Enhancing water use efficiency in irrigated
agriculture.


Howell, T. A.

Agronomy Journal
93 (2): 281-289. (Mar. 2001-Apr.
2001)


NAL Call #:  
4-AM34P;

ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT].

Notes: Paper presented at the symposium "Improving crop
water use efficiency and yield: Management influences" held
November 2, 1999, Salt Lake City, Utah.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
agriculture/ water use efficiency/
irrigation/ irrigation systems/ trends/ rain/ surface water/
environmental degradation/ crops/ literature reviews/
sustainability


Abstract: Irrigated agriculture is a vital component
of total agriculture and supplies many of the fruits, vegetables,
and cereal foods consumed by humans; the grains fed to animals that
are used as human food; and the feed to sustain animals for work in
many parts of the world. Irrigation worldwide was practiced on
about 263 Mha in 1996, and about 49% of the world's irrigation
occurred in India, China, and the USA. The objectives of this paper
are to (i) review irrigation worldwide in its ability to meet our
growing needs for food production, (ii) review irrigation trends in
the USA, (iii) discuss various concepts that define water use
efficiency (WUE) in irrigated agriculture from both engineering and
agronomic viewpoints, and (iv) discuss the impacts of enhanced WUE
on water conservation. Scarcely one-third of our rainfall, surface
water, or ground water is used to produce plants that are useful to
mankind. Without appropriate management, irrigated agriculture can
be detrimental to the environment and endanger sustainability.
Irrigated agriculture is facing growing competition for low-cost,
high-quality water. In irrigated agriculture, WUE is broader in
scope than most agronomic applications and must be considered on a
watershed, basin, irrigation district, or catchment scale. The main
pathways for enhancing WUE in irrigated agriculture are to increase
the output per unit of water (engineering and agronomic management
aspects), reduce losses of water to unusable sinks, reduce water
degradation (environmental aspects), and reallocate water to higher
priority uses (societal aspects).


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

466. Entomology and nature
conservation.


New, T. R.

European Journal of
Entomology
96 (1): 11-17.
(1999);


ISSN: 1210-5759

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

467. Environment-friendly swine feed formulation
to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus excretion.


Honeyman MS

American Journal of
Alternative Agriculture
8
(3): 128-132; 28 ref. (1993)


NAL Call #:  
S605.5.A43

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

468. Environmental activation of
pesticides.


Wolfe, Martha F and Seiber, James
N


Occupational Medicine
8 (3): 561-574. (1993);

ISSN: 0885-114X

Descriptors:  
Hominidae (Hominidae)/ animals/
chordates/ humans/ mammals/ primates/ vertebrates/ human
exposure


© Thomson



469. Environmental analysis of volatile organic
compounds in water and sediment by gas chromatography.


Kuran, P and Sojak, L

Journal of Chromatography
A
733 (1-2): 119-141.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
QD272.C4J68;

ISSN: 0021-9673

Descriptors:  
analytical method/ environmental
surveillance


Abstract: Considerable attention is still devoted to
the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) owing to their
occurrence in various fields and also harmful effects on health.
The techniques used for their analysis are also manifold. The use
of headspace techniques in the analysis of VOCs in various matrices
has been well reviewed several times, but other techniques have
been discussed only very briefly. The aim of this review is to give
a brief survey of all techniques used in the environmental analysis
of volatiles in water and sediment with emphasis on new trends and
the applicability of these techniques in the analysis of water and
sediment samples.


© Thomson

470. Environmental and Economic Costs of Soil
Erosion and Conservation Benefits.


Pimentel, David; Harvey, C;
Resosudarmo, P; Sinclair, K; Kurz, D; Ncnair, M; Crist, S; Shpritz,
L; Fitton, L; Saffouri, R; and Blair, R


Science 267 (5201): 1117-1123. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
470 Sci2;

ISSN: 0036-8075

Descriptors:  
agriculture sustainability/
cropland/ food productivity/ pasture


Abstract: Soil erosion is a major environmental
threat to the sustainability and productive capacity of
agriculture. During the last 40 years, nearly one-third of the
world's arable land has been lost by erosion and continues to be
lost at a rate of more than 10 million hectares per year. With the
addition of a quarter of a million people each day, the world
population's food demand is increasing at a time when per capita
food productivity is beginning to decline.


© Thomson



471. Environmental behavior and analysis of
veterinary and human drugs in soils, sediments and
sludge.


Diaz Cruz, M Silvia; Lopez de Alda,
Maria J; and Barcelo, Damia


Trends in Analytical
Chemistry
22 (6): 340-351.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
QD71.T7;

ISSN: 0165-9936

Descriptors:  
human drugs: detection,
environmental fate, extraction, pharmaceutical, pollutant, sediment
content, sludge content, soil content, soil pollutant/ veterinary
drugs: detection, environmental fate, extraction, pharmaceutical,
pollutant, sediment content, sludge content, soil content, soil
pollutant/ environmental contamination


Abstract: Human and veterinary drugs are continually
being released in the environment mainly as a result of
manufacturing processes, disposal of unused or expired products,
and excreta. Because of their physical and chemical properties,
many of these substances or their bioactive metabolites end up in
soils and sediments, where they can accumulate and induce adverse
effects in terrestrial or aquatic organisms. Among these effects,
bacterial resistance is increasingly observed and is caused by the
extensive use of antibiotics in animal and fish farming and the
growing practice of adding manure and sewage sludge to agricultural
fields, which is of particular concern. Literature on the
environmental analysis and occurrence of drugs has addressed a very
small percentage of these compounds, so very little information is
available about the fate and the potential effects of drugs in the
environment. This article presents an overview of recent
developments in the determination of veterinary and human drugs in
solid environmental matrices, including soil, sediment and sludge.
The analysis of pharmaceuticals in the such samples has always been
carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to
ultraviolet detection, and, to a lesser extent, to mass
spectrometry and fluorescence detection. In most cases, sample
pretreatment includes extraction of the solid sample and further
purification of the extract by solid phase extraction with C18
sorbents. In addition to analytical articles, this overview
includes papers concerning usage of drugs, as well as sources,
fate, persistence, and effects of pharmaceuticals in solid
environmental matrices.


© Thomson

472. The environmental benefits and costs of
conservation tillage.


Uri, N D; Atwood, J D; and
Sanabria, J


Environmental Geology
38 (2): 111-140. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
QE1.E5;

ISSN: 0943-0105

Descriptors:  
conservation tillage/ environmental
benefits


Abstract: Every production practice, including
conservation tillage, has positive or negative environmental
consequences that may involve air, land, water, and/or the health
and ecological status of wildlife. The negative impacts associated
with agricultural production, and the use of conventional tillage
systems in particular, include soil erosion, energy use, leaching
and runoff of agricultural chemicals, and carbon emissions. Several
of these impacts are quantified. The conclusions suggest that the
use of conservation tillage does result in less of an adverse
impact on the environment from agricultural production than does
conventional tillage by reducing surface water runoff and wind
erosion. Additionally, wildlife habitat will be enhanced to some
extent with the adoption of conservation tillage and the benefits
to be gained from carbon sequestration will depend on the soil
remaining undisturbed. Finally, further expansion of conservation
tillage on highly erodible land will unquestionably result in an
increase in social benefits, but the expected gains will be
modest.


© Thomson

473. Environmental benefits of genetically
modified crops: Global and European perspectives on their ability
to reduce pesticide use.


Phipps, R H and Park, J
R


Journal of Animal and Feed
Sciences
11 (1): 1-18.
(2002);
ISSN:
1230-1388

Descriptors:  
carbon dioxide/ pesticide/ cotton
(Malvaceae): fiber crop/ maize (Gramineae): grain crop/ oil seed
rape (Cruciferae): oil crop/ soyabean (Leguminosae): oil crop/
sugar beet (Chenopodiaceae): sugar crop/ Angiosperms/ Dicots/
Monocots/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants/ European Union/
Green Revolution/ diesel/ environment/ genetically modified crops/
public health


Abstract: The Green Revolution, which brought
together improved varieties, increased use of fertilizer,
irrigation and synthetic pesticides, is credited with helping to
feed the current global population of 6 billion. While this paper
recognizes the ability of pesticides to reduce crop losses, it also
discusses their potential negative effects on public health, with
particular emphasis in developing countries, and the environment.
The response of the agricultural industry in bringing forward new
technology such as reduced application rates of targeted pesticides
with lower toxicity and persistency is noted. However, with
increasing world population, a slowing of the rate of crop
improvement through conventional breeding and a declining area of
land available for food production there is a need for new
technologies to produce more food of improved nutritional value in
an environmentally acceptable and sustainable manner. Whilst the
authors recognize that the introduction of genetically modified
(GM) crops is controversial, the benefits of these crops, including
their effect on pesticide use is only now beginning to be
documented. Published data are used to estimate what effect GM
crops have had on pesticide use first on a global basis, and then
to predict what effect they would have if widely grown in the
European Union (EU). On a global basis GM technology has reduced
pesticide use, with the size of the reduction varying between crops
and the introduced trait. It is estimated that the use of GM
soyabean, oil seed rape, cotton and maize varieties modified for
herbicide tolerance and insect protected GM varieties of cotton
reduced pesticide use by a total of 22.3 million kg of formulated
product in the year 2000. Estimates indicate that if 50% of the
maize, oil seed rape, sugar beet, and cotton grown in the EU were
GM varieties, pesticide used in the EU/annum would decrease by 14.5
million kg of formulated product (4.4 million kg active
ingredient). In addition there would be a reduction of 7.5 million
ha sprayed which would save 20.5 million litres of diesel and
result in a reduction of approximately 73,000 t of carbon dioxide
being released into the


atmosphere. The paper also points
to areas where GM technology may make further marked reductions in
global pesticide use.


© Thomson

474. Environmental consequences of alternative
practices for intensifying crop production.


Gregory, P. J.; Ingram, J. S. I.;
Andersson, R.; Betts, R. A.; Brovkin, V.; Chase, T. N.; Grace, P.
R.; Gray, A. J.; Hamilton, N.; and Hardy, T. B.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
88 (3): 279-290.
(Mar. 2002)


NAL Call #:  
S601 .A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO]

Descriptors:  
crop production/ intensive farming/
intensification/ environmental impact/ crop yield/ seasonal
variation/ site preparation/ germplasm/ irrigation/ fertilizers/
pest control/ efficiency/ farm inputs/ climatic change/ water
quality/ soil/ genetic engineering/ literature reviews


Abstract: Summary: The increasing global demand for
food will be met chiefly by increased intensification of
production. For crops, this will be achieved largely by increased
yields per area with a smaller contribution from an increased
number of crops grown in a seasonal cycle. Production systems show
a spectrum of intensification practices characterised by varying
methods of site preparation and pest control, and inputs of
germplasm, nutrients and water. This paper highlights three main
types of intensification (based largely on the quantity and
efficiency of use of external inputs) and examines both the on- and
off-site environmental consequences of each for soils, water
quantity and quality, and climate forcing and regional climate
change. The use of low amounts of external inputs is generally
regarded as being the most environmentally-benign although this
advantage over systems with higher inputs may disappear if the
consequences are expressed per unit of product rather than per unit
area. The adverse effects of production systems with high external
inputs, especially losses of nutrients from fertilisers and manures
to water courses and contributions of gases to climate forcing,
have been quantified. Future intensification, including the use of
improved germplasm via genetic modification, will seek to increase
the efficiency of use of added inputs while minimising adverse
effects on the environment. However, reducing the loss of nutrients
from fertilisers and manures, and increasing the efficiency of
water utilisation in crop production, remain considerable
challenges.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

475. Environmental consequences of increasing
production: Some current perspectives.


Bennett, A. J.

Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
82 (1/3): 89-95.
(Dec. 2000)


NAL Call #:  
S601.A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO].

Notes: Special issue: Food and forestry: Global change
and global challenges / edited by P.J. Gregory and J.S.I. Ingram.
Paper presented at a conference held September 1999, Reading, UK.
Includes references.


Descriptors:  
food production/ environmental
impact/ prediction/ environmental degradation/ climatic change/
population growth/ demand/ supply balance/ land use/ soil/ water
availability/ literature reviews


Abstract: Thomas Malthus, in his 'Essay on
Population' in 1798, argued that food production would not be able
to keep pace with our capacity to produce. Contrary to this
prediction there seems to be no evidence that our ability to
produce food has been a lasting break on population growth. There
are, however, several major areas of concern regarding
environmental degradation associated with production having kept
pace with demand. This paper examines some of the current drivers
of development and environmental change. It identifies some of the
impacts of growth and development on land use, soils, water
availability and the possible consequences of climate change.
Finally the paper returns to the question--will Malthus be proved
right.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

476. Environmental consequences of soil
sodicity.


Fitzpatrick, R W; Boucher, S C;
Naidu, R; and Fritsch, E


Australian Journal of Soil
Research
32 (5): 1069-1093.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 Au7;

ISSN: 0004-9573

Descriptors:  
agricultural productivity/ dryland
salinity/ management strategies/ water erosion/ water quality/
waterlogging


© Thomson

477. Environmental conservation and locust
control: Possible conflicts and solutions.


Peveling, R.

Journal of Orthoptera
Research
10 (2): 171-187.
(2001);


ISSN: 1082-6467.

Notes: Publisher: Orthopterists' Society

Descriptors:  
Pest control/ Insecticides/ Habitat
preferences/ Acrididae/ Orthoptera/ Grasshoppers/ Agricultural
& general applied entomology


Abstract: In contrast to pests developing in close
association with a particular host crop, locusts and grasshoppers
are often controlled in natural or semi-natural landscapes,
exposing structurally and functionally diverse communities to
agrochemicals, chemicals to which they are not adapted. This
suggests that insecticide-induced perturbations may be severe. On
the other hand, with acridids being highly mobile, exposure of
non-target biota at any one location tends to be rare, and
insecticides might be seen as yet another component in a canon of
stochastic and deterministic, natural or human-induced
environmental catastrophes and selective forces, shaping
communities and ecosystems. Moreover, habitat loss is by far the
most important single threat to biodiversity, so why should doubt
be cast on the potential and resilience of populations to recover
from occasional insecticide stress? This paper reviews the
environmental impact, as well as ecological and conceptual
characteristics of acridid pest control. It concludes that
ecologically significant risks may arise, in particular in
ecosystems exposed to multiple stressors. Four priorities in
ecological risk assessment and acridid pest management are
proposed: 1) delimitation and characterization of sensitive areas
within locust and grasshopper habitats, 2) ecosystem-specific,
long-term field studies and operational monitoring, 3) real-time
stewardship of control campaigns, with adequate participation of
stakeholders, and 4) incorporation of the precautionary principle
into decision-making and risk management.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

478. Environmental control of dormancy in weed
seed banks in soil.


Benech Arnold, R. L.; Sanchez, R.
A.; Forcella, F.; Kruk, B. C.; and Ghersa, C. M.


Field Crops Research
67 (2): 105-122. (2000)

NAL Call #:  
SB183.F5;

ISSN: 0378-4290 [FCREDZ].

Notes: Special issue: Plant phenology and the
management of crop-weed interactions / edited by C.M. Ghersa. Paper
presented at a workshop held October 13-15, 1997, Buenos Aires,
Argentina. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
weeds/ seed banks/ weed biology/
seed dormancy/ seedling emergence/ dormancy breaking/ prediction /
soil temperature/ soil water content/ light/ nitrate/ nutrient
availability/ seed germination/ carbon dioxide/ ethylene/ tillage/
flooding/ crop residues/ prescribed burning/ fertilizers/
application rates/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

479. The environmental effects of genetically
modified crops resistant to insects.


Fontes, E. M. G.; Pires, C. S. S.;
Sujii, E. R.; and Panizzi, A. R.


Neotropical
Entomology
31 (4): 497-513.
(Oct. 2002-Dec. 2002)


NAL Call #:  
QL461-.S64;

ISSN: 1519-566X [NEENDV]

Descriptors:  
environmental impact/ transgenic
plants/ crops/ pest resistance/ insect pests/ cultivars/ risk/ risk
assessment/ ecology/ commercial hybrids/ biosafety/ agricultural
adjustment/ pest management/ world markets/ insecticide resistance/
transgenics/ plant protection/ bacterial toxins/ endotoxins/
bacillus thuringiensis/ nontarget organisms/ gene flow/ insecticide
residues/ weeds/ wild plants/ ecosystems/ literature reviews/
insecticidal action/ gene expression/ enzyme inhibitors/ proteinase
inhibitors/ amylases/ transgenic crops


Abstract: Transgenic crops are currently being
cultivated on a commercial scale in many countries. The area
devoted to transgenic pest resistant varieties worldwide reached 13
million hectares in 2001. These varieties offer valuable benefits
but also pose potential risks. Assessments of their impact on the
environment are conducted before they are approved for commercial
use, as required by the regulatory biosafety frameworks. In this
review, we discuss the potential ecological consequences of the
commercial use in agriculture of genetically modified insect
resistant crops. We also discuss the impacts caused by the change
in agricultural practices, and attempt to identify gaps and
possible opportunities for research, considering this new
technological tool. We based our analysis and comments on the
current knowledge of the risks and benefits of these genetically
modified insect resistant crops, within the context of traditional
insect management strategies.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

480. The environmental fate of phthalate esters:
A literature review.


Staples, Charles A; Peterson,
Dennis R; Parkerton, Thomas F; and Adams, William J


Chemosphere 35 (4): 667-749. (1997)

NAL Call #:  
TD172.C54;

ISSN: 0045-6535

Descriptors:  
abiotic transformations/ aquatic
foodchain/ bioaccumulation processes/ biotic transformations/
partitioning behavior/ phthalate esters/ physicochemical
properties/ pollution/ sediment/ soil/ surface waters/ terrestrial
foodchain/ toxicology


Abstract: A comprehensive and critical review was
performed on the environmental fate of eighteen commercial
phthalate esters with alkyl chains ranging from 1 to 13 carbons. A
synthesis of the extensive literature data on physicochemical
properties, partitioning behavior, abiotic and biotic
transformations and bioaccumulation processes of these chemicals is
presented. This chemical class exhibits an eight order of magnitude
increase in octanol-water partition coefficients (K-ow) and a four
order of magnitude decrease in vapor pressure (VP) as alkyl chain
length increases from 1 to 13 carbons. A critical review of water
solubility measurements for higher molecular weight phthalate
esters (i.e. alkyl chains gtoreq 6 carbons) reveals that most
published values exceed true water solubilities due to experimental
difficulties associated with solubility determinations for these
hydrophobic organic liquids. Laboratory and field studies show that
partitioning to suspended solids, soils, sediments and aerosols
increase as K-ow increases and VP decreases. Photodegradation via
free radical attack is expected to be the dominant degradation
pathway in the atmosphere with predicted half-lives of ca. 1 day
for most of the phthalate esters investigated. Numerous studies
indicate that phthalate esters are degraded by a wide range of
bacteria and actinomycetes under both aerobic and anaerobic
conditions. Standardized aerobic biodegradation tests with sewage
sludge inocula show that phthalate esters undergo gtoreq 50%
ultimate degradation within 28 days. Biodegradation is expected to
be the dominant loss mechanism in surface soils and sediments.
Primary degradation half-lives in surface and marine waters range
from lt 1 day to 2 weeks and in soils from lt 1 week to several
months. Longer half-lives may occur in anaerobic, oligotrophic, or
cold environments. Numerous experiments have shown that the
bioaccumulation of phthalate esters in the aquatic and terrestrial
food-chain is limited by biotransformation, which increases with
increasing trophic level. Consequently, models that ignore
biotransformation grossly exaggerate bioaccumulation potential of
higher molecular weight phthalate esters. This review provides the
logical first step in elucidating multimedia exposure to phthalate
esters.


© Thomson

481. Environmental impact assessment of
conventional and organic milk production.


Boer, I. J. M. de

Livestock Production
Science
80 (1/2): 69-77.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
SF1.L5;

ISSN: 0301-6226

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

482. Environmental impact assessment of
irrigation and drainage projects.


Dougherty, T. C.; Hall, A. W.; and
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.


Rome: Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations; x, 74 p.: ill.; Series: FAO
irrigation and drainage paper 0254-5284 53. (1995)


Notes: "M-56"--T.p. verso. Includes bibliographical
references (p. 68-71).


NAL Call #:  S612.I754--no.53;

ISBN: 9251037310

Descriptors:  
Irrigation farming---Environmental
aspects---Developing countries/ Drainage---Environmental
aspects---Developing countries/ Environmental impact
analysis---Developing countries/ Agriculture---Environmental
aspects---Developing countries


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

483. Environmental impact of fertilizing soils
by using sewage and animal wastes.


Benckiser, G. and Simarmata,
T.


Fertilizer Research
37 (1):  1-22.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
S631.F422;

ISSN: 0167-1731 [FRESDF]

Descriptors:  
organic wastes/ sewage sludge/
animal wastes/ animal manures/ slurries/ application to land/
environmental impact/ macronutrients/ carbon/ nitrogen/ phosphorus/
cycling/ heavy metals/ soil pollution/ pathogens/ contamination/
soil flora/ biological activity in soil/ Germany


Abstract: The European Community is producing
annually about 300 X 10(6) tons of sewage sludges as well as about
150, 950, 160 and 200 tons of domestic, agricultural, industrial
and other wastes (street litter, dead leaves etc.). About 20-25% of
the German sewage sludges, which contain in average about 3.8,1.6,
0.4, 0.6, 5.3% DM-1 N, P, K, Mg and Ca, 202, 5, 131, 349, 53, 3 and
1446 mg kg-1 DM Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Hg, Zn as well as ca. 37 and 5
mg kg-1 Dm polychlorinated hydrocarbons and biphenyls, are recycled
annually as fertilizer. In addition environmental impacts on the
arable land of Germany may derive from 76, 19.2, 64.7, 33.6, 7.8
and 0.1 kg ha-1 a-1 of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Cu added as animal
manures. Besides heavy metals and hazardous organics pathogens are
disseminated with organic wastes. Crop production and soil
fertility generally profit from the considerable amounts of plant
nutrients and carbon in sewage sludges, animal slurries and
manures, but the physicochemical soil properties, the composition
of microbial, faunal and plant communities as well as the metabolic
processes in the soil-, rhizo- and phyllosphere are changed by
organic manuring. Consequences for the soil carbon-, nitrogen and
phosphorus-cycle are discussed. Impacts of heavy metals and
hazardous organics on the soil biomass and its habitat as well as
on transport mechanisms and survival times of disseminated
pathogens in soils are reviewed with emphasis on the German
situation. A proposal for future strategies (landscape recycling)
is made.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

484. Environmental impacts of forest
monocultures: Water use, acidification, wildlife conservation, and
carbon storage.


Cannell, M. G. R.

New Forests 17/18 (1/3/1): 239-262. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
SD409.N48;

ISSN: 0169-4286.

Notes: Special issue: Planted forests: Contributions to
the quest for sustainable societies / edited by J. R. Boyle, J.
Winjum, K. Kavanagh and E. Jensen. Paper presented at a symposium
held June 1995, Portland, Oregon. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
forest plantations/ monoculture/
sustainability/ water use/ species diversity/ wildlife/ habitats/
wildlife conservation/ carbon/ carbon cycle/ evapotranspiration/
plant height/ pollutants/ surface water/ water pollution/ forest
management/ volume/ yields/ plant succession/ botanical
composition/ stand structure/ literature reviews


Abstract: A broad assessment is given of the
contentions that plantation forests are high consumers of water,
increase acidification, sustain a low diversity of wildlife, and
store more carbon than do unmanaged forests. The following
conclusions are drawn: (1) Evapotranspiration from planted forest
monocultures is greater than from short vegetation, as a result of
greater interception loss. Water loss from conifer forests is
usually greater than from deciduous hardwoods, but
evapotranspiration from Eucalyptus in the dry tropics is often no
greater than from native hardwoods. (2) Compared to short
vegetation, forests can significantly increase the transfer of
acidifying pollutants from the air to the soil and surface waters,
and conifers are more likely to enhance acidification than are
hardwoods. (3) There are normally sufficient plantation management
options available to make most plantation landscapes the homes of a
rich diversity of flora and fauna. (4) An area covered with a
plantation managed for maximum volume yield will normally contain
substantially less carbon than the same area of unmanaged
forest.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

485. Environmental impacts of livestock on U.S.
grazing lands.


Krueger, W. C. and Sanderson, M. A.
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST); Issue Paper
Number 22, 2002. 16 p.


http://www.heartland.org/pdf/11131.pdf

Descriptors:  
land management/ range management/
grazing/ soil quality/ water quality/ riparian areas/ invasive
species

486. Environmental impacts of nitrogen and
phosphorus cycling in grassland systems.


Watson CJ and Foy RH

Outlook on
Agriculture
30 (2): 117-127;
61 ref. (2001)


NAL Call #:  
10 Ou8

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

487. Environmental implications of excessive
selenium: A review.


Lemly, A Dennis

Biomedical and Environmental
Sciences
10 (4): 415-435.
(1997);


ISSN: 0895-3988

Descriptors:  
selenium: trace metals/ agricultural
irrigation/ fossil fuel waste disposal/ human activities/ land
management/ public health/ water management


Abstract: Selenium is a naturally occurring trace
element that is nutritionally required in small amounts but it can
become toxic at concentrations only twice those required. The
narrow margin between beneficial and harmful levels has important
implications for human activities that increase the amount of
selenium in the environment. Two of these activities, disposal of
fossil fuel wastes and agricultural irrigation of arid,
seleniferous soils, have poisoned fish and wildlife, and threatened
public health at several locations in the United States. Research
studies of these episodes have generated a data base that clearly
illustrates the environmental hazard of excessive selenium, It is
strongly bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and even slight
increases in waterborne concentrations can quickly result in toxic
effects such as deformed embryos and reproductive failure in
wildlife. The selenium data base has been very beneficial in
developing hazard assessment procedures and establishing
environmentally sound water quality criteria. The two faces of
selenium, required nutrient and potent toxin, make it a
particularly important trace element in the health of both animals
and man. Because of this paradox, environmental selenium in
relation to agriculture, fisheries, and wildlife will continue to
raise important land and water-management issues for decades to
come. If these issues are dealt with using prudence and the
available environmental selenium data base, adverse impacts to
natural resources and public health can be avoided.


© Thomson

488. Environmental implications of wood
production in intensively managed plantations.


Bowyer, J. L.

Wood and Fiber
Science
33 (3): 318-333.
(July 2001)


NAL Call #:  
TA419.W6;

ISSN: 0735-6161 [WFSCD4]

Descriptors:  
forest plantations/ forest
management/ intensive silviculture/ environmental impact/
environmental protection/ forest trees/ biomass production/
forests/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

489. Environmental indicators of pesticide
leaching and runoff from farm fields.


Kellogg, Robert L. and United
States. Natural Resources Conservation Service.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service.
(2000)


Notes: Title from web page. "February 2000." "Presented
at a Conference on "Agricultural Productivity: Data, Methods, and
Measures," Description based on content viewed May 15, 2003.
Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  aTD196.P38-E48-2000

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/land/pubs/eip_pap.html

Descriptors:  
Pesticides---Environmental
aspects---United States---Measurement/ Pesticides---Risk
assessment---United States/ Pesticides degradation---United States/
Runoff---United States/ Indicators---Biology---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

490. Environmental management best practice
guidelines for the nursery industry.


South Perth, WA: Dept. of
Agriculture, Water and Rivers Commission, Government of Western
Australia; ii, 44 p.: ill.; Series: Miscellaneous publication
(Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture) 2002/2. (2002)


Notes: "April 2002"--Cover. Includes bibliographical
references (p. 39).


NAL Call #:  S397-.M57-no.-2002/2

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

491. Environmental performance reviews: United
States.


Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development.


Paris: Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development; 274 p.: col. ill., maps.
(1996)


Notes: OECD environmental performance reviews; Includes
bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  GE180.E586--1996; ISBN: 9264147713

Descriptors:  
Ecology---United States/
Environmental policy---United States/ Environmental
protection---United States/ Environmental monitoring---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

492. An Environmental Planning Model for the
Design of Buffer Zones.


Cacho, M.; Radke, J. D.; and
Kondolf, G. M.


In: Buffer Zones: Their Processes
and Potential in Water Protection Conference Handbook.

(Held 2 Aug 1930-2 Sep 1996 at
Oxfordshire, UK.)


Cardigan, UK: Samara Publishing
Limited; pp. 31-32; 1996.


Notes: Conference: Int. Conf. Buffer Zones: Their
Processes and Potential in Water Protection, Woodstock, Oxfordshire
(UK), 30 Aug-2 Sep 1996


Descriptors:  
planning / zones/ model studies/
decision making/ environmental policy/ information systems/ design
criteria/ literature review/ buffer zones/ Water quality control/
Techniques of planning


Abstract:  Even after an exhaustive review of
the scientific literature on buffer zones (with compilation and
annotation of over 230 publications on the topic) we must still
conclude that the design of buffer zones is difficult and its
implementation conflictive. The difficulty of buffer zone design
lies in its own nature, one dominated by variability. This
variability stems from its natural composition, its geomorphic and
geographic locations, and its functions. We identify the main
problem in the designing of the buffer zones in the lack of a sound
planning model which integrates its principal components: science,
decision makers and land ownership. An environmental planning model
is proposed for the design of buffer zones. This model is intended
to be used by decision makers (e.g. watershed managers). It
provides the decision makers with the framework to design the
buffer zone under different conditions, for specific problems and
objectives. This model systematically integrates existing
(historical) and current research of buffer zones within a decision
making process. It provides a feedback mechanism which sustains the
application of specific formulas and models for the calculation of
the buffer zone. It has two components: 1. A conceptual component
which defines an environmental planning approach where a framework
is established to integrate science into the planning process not
as the solution to the problem but as a component of the problem
resolution. It brings together scientific work done in the field
and establishes a framework where future work can be incorporated.
2. An operative component which establishes a Geographic
Information System (GIS), a Library and a Graphic User Interface
(GUI). This component helps the decision maker to build the
necessary infrastructure to accommodate the planning
process.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

493. Environmental policy: The other global
pollutant: Nitrogen proves tough to curb.


Kaiser, J.

Science 294 (5545): 1268-1269. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
470 Sci2;

ISSN: 0036-8075.

Notes: Publisher: American Association for the
Advancement of Science


Descriptors:  
Reviews/ Nitrogen/ Air pollution/
Environmental policy / International cooperation/ Ozone/ Greenhouse
gases/ Chlorofluorocarbons/ Nitrogen cycle/ Fertilizers/
Environmental impact / Ecosystem disturbance/ Pollution effects/
Pollution control/ Air pollution control/ Human Population
Atmosphere Interactions/ Mechanical and natural changes/
Environmental action/ General Environmental Engineering


Abstract: Experts call for international cooperation
to slash nitrogen pollution, which they say ranks with greenhouse
gases as an environmental threat. Nitrogen is an essential element
for the crops that feed the world's 6 billion people. But a surfeit
of nitrogen, from fertilizers and the burning of fossil fuels, is
harming ecosystems and threatening public health. Although the
disruption of the nitrogen cycle has largely failed to attract the
sweeping public attention accorded to other global pollutants, such
as chlorofluorocarbons that fray the Antarctic ozone layer and
carbon dioxide that spurs global warming, ecologists say that
nitrogen's impacts are at least as great.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

494. Environmental properties and effects of
nonionic surfactant adjuvants in pesticides: A review.


Krogh, K. A.; Halling-Soerensen,
B.; Mogensen, B. B.; and Vejrup, K. V.


Chemosphere 50 (7): 871-901. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
TD172.C54;

ISSN: 0045-6535

Descriptors:  
Surfactants/ Pesticides/
Agricultural pollution/ Fate/ Leaching/ Agricultural runoff/
Degradation/ Pollution dispersion/ Chemical pollutants/ Pollution
effects/ Aquatic environment/ Reviews/ Chemical pollution/
adjuvants/ Characteristics, behavior and fate/ Pollution
Environment/ Freshwater pollution/ Water Pollution: Monitoring,
Control & Remediation


Abstract: Little is known about the environmental
fate of adjuvants after application on the agricultural land.
Adjuvants constitute a broad range of substances, of which solvents
and surfactants are the major types. Nonionic surfactants such as
alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) and alkylamine ethoxylates (ANEOs) are
typically examples of pesticide adjuvants. In view of their
chemical structure this paper outlines present knowledge on
occurrence, fate and effect on the aquatic and terrestrial
environment of the two adjuvants: AEOs and ANEOs. Both AEOs and
ANEOs are used as technical mixtures. This implies that they are
not one single compound but a whole range of compounds present in
different ratios. Structurally both groups of substances have a
mutual core with side chains of varying lengths. Each of these
compounds besides having the overall ability to distribute between
different phases also possesses some single compound behaviour.
This is reflected in the parameters describing the fate e.g.
distribution coefficient, leaching, run-off, adsorption to soil,
degradation and effects of these substances. The adsorption
behaviour of ANEOs in contrast to AEOs is particularly variable and
matrix dependent due to the ability of the compound to ionise at
environmentally relevant pH. Probably because the compounds exceeds
high soil adsorption and are easily degradable which is reflected
in the low environmental concentrations generally found in
monitoring studies. The compounds generally possess low potency to
both terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The major environmental
problem related to these compounds is the ability to enhance the
mobility of other pollutants in the soil column.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

495. The Environmental Protection Agency's white
paper on Bacillus thuringiensis plant-pesticide resistance
management.         

United States. Environmental
Protection Agency. Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic
Substances.
Washington, DC:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Prevention, Pesticides and
Toxic Substances; ii, 86 p.: ill. (1998)


Notes: Cover title. "May 1998." "EPA 739-S-98-001."
"PB98-153133." Includes bibliographical references (p.
82-86).


NAL Call #:  SB976.M55-E58-1998

Descriptors:  
Microbial pesticides/ Bacillus
thuringiensis/ Plant parasites---Control


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

496. Environmental regulations and technology:
Control of pathogens and vector attraction in sewage
sludge.


Center for Environmental Research
Information (U.S.) and United States. Environmental Protection
Agency. Office of Research and Development.


Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Office of Research Development.
(1999)


Notes: Original title: Environmental regulations and
technology: Control of pathogens and vector attraction in sewage
sludge (including domestic septage) under 40 CFR part 503. Rev.
Oct. 1999: Control of pathogens and vector attraction in sewage
sludge. "EPA/625/R-92/013." Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  TD768-.E57-1999

http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/1992/625R92013.pdf

Descriptors:  
Sewage
sludge---Disinfection---United States/ Sewage disposal---United
States/ Waste management


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

497. Environmental science in the coastal zone:
Issues for further research.


National Research Council.
Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources


Washington DC: National Academies
Press; 184 p. (1994);


ISBN: 0-309-04980-6

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309049806/html/

Descriptors:  
coastal plains/ ecosystem
management/ wetlands/ pollution/ waste management

498. Environmental significance of ice to
streamflow in cold regions.


Prowse, T D

Freshwater Biology
32 (2): 241-259. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
QH96.F6;

ISSN: 0046-5070

Descriptors:  
arctic nival/ ice effects/ moisture
source/ proglacial/ runoff pathway/ spring fed/ subarctic nival/
wetland


Abstract: 1. The five major hydrologic regimes of
cold regions are typically classified as proglacial, wetland,
spring-fed, arctic nival and subarctic nival. Each has a
distinctive hydrograph determined by the source and timing of
runoff. 2. The hydrologic response of streams in cold regions is
influenced significantly by the source and pathways of moisture
from the landscape to the stream channel. Snow and ice masses, such
as snow cover, permafrost and icings, play principal and unique
roles as major moisture sources, and in affecting runoff pathways.
3. Once flow has been routed from the landscape into a channel
system, the effects of floating ice begin to control the flow
system. Notably, many of the most significant hydrologic events in
cold regions, such as floods and low flows, are more the result of
in-channel ice effects than of landscape runoff processes. This has
not been adequately recognized in general assessments of
cold-regions water resources. 4. Only recently have the broader
environmental effects of river ice been addressed in any concerted
fashion. This paper reviews the various stages of ice formation,
growth and break-up, and summarizes the major hydrologic and
ecological effects associated with each. Priority research topics
are also identified.


© Thomson

499. Environmental soil testing for
phosphorus.


Sims, J T

Journal of Production
Agriculture
6 (4): 501-507.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
S539.5.J68;

ISSN: 0890-8524

Descriptors:  
phosphorus/ agriculture/
fertilizers/ management/ manure/ nonpoint source pollution
potential/ surface waters


Abstract: Many soils in the USA have extremely high
soil test P levels from long-term fertilization and manuring.
Sediment-bound and soluble P in runoff from these soils may
contribute to eutrophication of surface waters. A field rating
system, the 'P index,' has been developed to assess the potential
for soil P to contribute to nonpoint source pollution. A critical
component in this index is soil test P. The primary objective of
this paper is to discuss the roles soil testing programs can play
in the development of nutrient management strategies, such as the P
index, that are needed to minimize nonpoint source pollution by
soil P. A survey of soil testing labs participating in four
regional soil testing committees (North Central, Northeast,
Mid-Atlantic, Southeast) was conducted in 1991-1992 to determine
current approaches to soil P testing, the percentage of soils
testing in the high or excessive range, and major concerns with
high P soils. Results indicated a need for more consistency in
defining and identifying soils that are excessive in P, from an
environmental standpoint, and that P management in animal
waste-amended soils was the major environmental issue for most
states. Soil P testing for environmental purposes will require a
careful re-evaluation of the sampling, analytical, interpretive,
and educational roles of soil testing programs. Alternatives
considered in this paper include integration of soil testing
databases with land-use planning information via geographic
information systems, the use of special soil tests for biologically
available P, or to estimate P sorption/desorption, and expanded
educational efforts focused not only on farmers, but on advisory
and regulatory agencies and the general public.


© Thomson

500. Environmental threats and environmental
future of estuaries.


Kennish, M. J.

Environmental
Conservation
29 (1): 78-107.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.E55;

ISSN: 0376-8929

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

501. Environmentally degradable polymeric
materials (EDPM) in agricultural applications: An
overview.


Chiellini, E. M. O.; Cinelli,
Patrizia; D'Antone, Salvatore; and Ilieva, Vassilka
Ivanova


Polimery / Polymers
47 (7-8): 538-544.
(2002);


ISSN: 0032-2725.

Notes: Published: Warszawa (Warsaw, Poland), Instytut
Tworzyw Sztucznych


Descriptors:  
Glass/ Waste disposal/ Packaging/
Biodegradation/ Recycling/ Environmental impact/ Environmentally
degradable polymeric materials (EDPM)/ Plastics Products/ Glass/
Industrial Wastes Treatment/ Packaging/ Biotechnology/
Biochemistry


Abstract: Owing to their low production cost, good
physical properties and lightweight, plastic objects have slowly
substituted glass, paper and metals in several fields of
application including agriculture. At the same time, the current
huge global production of plastics (200 million tons/year) has
generated an enormous environmental concerns, mainly related to the
waste generation by plastic packaging, which are responsible for
35-40% share of annual plastics consumption. Where recovery of
plastics is not economically feasible, viable, controllable or
attractive, plastics often remain as litter. This is the case in
most of agricultural applications of polymeric materials. The
market for biodegradable polymers is at this moment focusing on
products in which biodegradability provides beneficial effects
(e.g. waste-disposal, recycling) and a number of biodegradable
materials are already being marketed or are close to market
introduction and customer acceptance. This overview is meant to
provide an outline on the history and recent developments in
biodegradable polymeric materials applied in agricultural practices
with particular reference to the mulching segment. Special
attention has been devoted to material based on renewable resources
or utilization of waste products from the agroindustrial sector,
thus suggesting cost-effective and environmentally sound solutions
to specific social needs.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

502. The environmentally-sound management of
agricultural phosphorus.


Sharpley, Andrew N and Withers,
Paul J A


Fertilizer Research
39 (2): 133-146. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
S631.F422;

ISSN: 0167-1731

Descriptors:  
phosphorus/ plant (Plantae
Unspecified)/ Angiospermae (Angiospermae)/ angiosperms/ plants/
spermatophytes/ vascular plants/ agriculture/ fertilizer use/
manure/ runoff/ water pollution


Abstract: Freshwater eutrophication is often
accelerated by increased phosphorus (P) inputs, a greater share of
which now come from agricultural nonpoint sources than two decades
ago. Maintenance of soil P at levels sufficient for crop needs is
an essential part of sustainable agriculture. However, in areas of
intensive crop and livestock production in Europe and the U.S.A., P
has accumulated in soils to levels that are a long-term
eutrophication rather than agronomic concern. Also, changes in land
management in Europe and the U.S.A. have increased the potential
for P loss in surface runoff and drainage. There is, thus, a need
for information on how these factors influence the loss of P in
agricultural runoff. The processes controlling the build-up of P in
soil, its transport in surface and subsurface drainage in dissolved
and particulate forms, and their biological availability in
freshwater systems, are discussed in terms of environmentally sound
P management. Such management will involve identifying P sources
within watersheds; targeting cost-effective remedial measures to
minimize P losses; and accounting for different water quality
objectives within watersheds. The means by which this can be
achieved are identified and include developing soil tests to
determine the relative potential for P enrichment of agricultural
runoff to occur; establishing threshold soil P levels which are of
environmental concern; finding alternative uses for animal manures
to decrease land area limitations for application; and adopting
management systems integrating measures to reduce P sources as well
as runoff and erosion potential.


© Thomson

503. Envisioning the agenda for water resources
research in the twenty-first century.


National Research
Council


Washington DC: National Academy
Press; 61 p. (2001)


Notes: Biblipgraphy: p. 50;

ISBN: 0309075661

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309075661/html/

Descriptors:  
water supply/ water quality/
hydrologic data/ water use/ laws and regulations

504. Epistemology of environmental
microbiology.


Madsen, Eugene L

Environmental Science and
Technology
32 (4): 429-439.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
TD420.A1E5;

ISSN: 0013-936X

Descriptors:  
human (Hominidae)/ microorganisms
(Microorganisms)/ Animals/ Chordates/ Humans/ Mammals/
Microorganisms/ Primates/ Vertebrates/ environmental microbiology/
epistemology/ molecular biology/ sediments/ soils


Abstract: Despite critical geochemical roles of
microorganisms in biosphere maintenance, knowledge of
microorganisms as they function in soils, sediments, and waters is
limited. Constraints on knowledge are caused largely by
methodologies that do not contend well with the complexity of field
sites, with the scale differential between microorganisms and
humans, and with artifacts that may arise in characterizing
microorganisms using laboratory-based physiological, biochemical,
genetic, and molecular biological assays. A paradigm describing how
knowledge is obtained in environmental microbiology suggests that
the constraints on knowledge will yield to relationships developing
between methodological innovations and their iterative application
to naturally occurring microorganisms in field sites.


© Thomson

505. Equipment technologies for precision
agriculture.


Stombaugh, T. S. and Shearer,
S.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
55 (1): 6-11.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

506. Eradication and pest management.

Myers, J. H.; Savoie, A.; and
Randen, E. van


Annual Review of
Entomology
43: 471-491.
(1998);


ISSN: 0066-4170

Descriptors:  
Eradication/ Pest control/ Insecta/
Agricultural & general applied entomology


Abstract: Eradication is the elimination of every
single individual of a species from an area to which recolonization
is unlikely to occur. Cost-benefit analyses of eradication programs
involve biases that tend to underestimate the costs and
overestimate the benefits. In this review, we (a) highlight
limitations of current cost-benefit analyses, (b) assess
eradication strategies from biological and sociological
perspectives by discussing particular cases of successful and
failed eradication efforts, and (c) briefly contrast eradication
and ongoing area-wide control as pest management strategies. Two
successful eradication programs involve the screwworm and cattle
ticks. Gypsy moth and medfly eradication programs have not been
successful, and subsequent captures of insects recur in eradication
areas. In situations where heterogeneity of land use patterns make
it difficult to prevent reinvasion of the pest, education and
area-wide suppression are probably more realistic goals than
eradication.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

507. Erosion and sedimentation as multiscale,
fractal processes: Implications for models, experiments and the
real world.


Noordwijk, M. van; Roode, M. van;
McCallie, E. L.; and Lusiana, B.


In: Soil erosion at multiple
scales: Principles and methods for assessing causes and impacts/
Penning de Vries, F. W. T.; Agus, F.; and Kerr, J.


Wallingford, UK: CAB International,
1998; pp. 223-253.


ISBN: 0-85199-290-0

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

508. Erosion and sedimentation processes on
irrigated fields.


Trout, T. J. and Neibling, W.
H.


Journal of Irrigation and
Drainage Engineering
119 (6):
947-963. (1993)


NAL Call #:  
290.9 AM3Ps (IR);

ISSN: 0733-9437

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

509. Erosion control research update.

Biocycle 43 (4): 78-79. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
57.8-C734;

ISSN: 0276-5055

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

510. Erosion models: Quality of spatial
predictions.


Jetten, V.; Govers, G.; and Hessel,
R.


Hydrological
Processes
17 (5): 887-900.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
GB651.H93;

ISSN: 0885-6087.

Notes: Issue editors: Ritchie, J. C.; Walling, D. E.;
Peters, N. E.


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

511. Esterases as Markers of Exposure to
Organophosphates and Carbamates.


Thompson, H. M.

Ecotoxicology 8 (5): 369-384. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
RA565.A1 E27;

ISSN: 0963-9292.

Notes: Special Issue: Biomarkers

Descriptors:  
Organophosphates/ Carbamate
compounds/ Agrochemicals/ Bioindicators/ Enzymes/ Esters/ Wildlife/
Toxicity/ Biochemistry/ Pesticides (carbamates)/ Pesticides
(organophosphorus) / Reviews/ Pollution indicators/ Chemical
pollution/ esterase/ Literature reviews/ Pesticides/ Biomarkers/
Pollution effects/ Biological sampling/ Sample storage/ Analytical
techniques/ Agricultural pollution/ wildlife/ esterases/ Toxicology
and health/ Analytical procedures/ Methods and
instruments


Abstract: Esterases have been widely used over the
last 20 years initially to assess the exposure of spray operators
and then wildlife to organophosphorus and carbamate agricultural
pesticides. They have also been used to determine whether these
chemicals have been the cause of wildlife casualties. Given the
correct assay techniques and control data a significant amount of
information can be derived from inhibition of esterase activity.
This chapter aims to provide detailed guidance on the collection of
samples, storage, assay (including reactivation techniques) and the
problems associated with the interpretation of collected data
together with a brief review of how esterases have been used in
assessing the exposure of wildlife to agricultural
insecticides.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

512. Estimates of minimum viable population
sizes for vertebrates and factors influencing those
estimates.


Reed, D. H.; O'Grady, J. J.; Brook,
B. W.; Ballou, J. D.; and Frankham, R.


Biological
Conservation
113 (1): 23-34.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
S900.B5;

ISSN: 0006-3207.

Notes: Number of References: 92; Publisher: Elsevier
Sci Ltd


Descriptors:  
Environment/ Ecology/ demographic
stochasticity/ endangered species/ extinction/ minimum viable
population size/ population variability/ population viability
analysis/ spatial pva models/ inbreeding depression/ density
dependence/ conservation biology/ viability analysis/ extinction
risk/ butterfly metapopulation/ orb spiders/ variability/
dynamics


Abstract: Population size is a major determinant of
extinction risk. However, controversy remains as to how large
populations need to be to ensure persistence. It is generally
believed that minimum viable population sizes (MVPs) would be
highly specific, depending on the environmental and life history
characteristics of the species. We used population viability
analysis to estimate MVPs for 102 species. We define a minimum
viable population size as one with a 99% probability of persistence
for 40 generations. The models are comprehensive and include
age-structure, catastrophes, demographic stochasticity,
environmental stochasticity, and inbreeding depression. The mean
and median estimates of MVP were 7316 and 5816 adults,
respectively. This is slightly larger than, but in general
agreement with, previous estimates of MVP. MVPs did not differ
significantly among major taxa, or with latitude or trophic level,
but were negatively correlated with population growth rate and
positively correlated with the length of the study used to
parameterize the model. A doubling of study duration increased the
estimated MVP by approximately 67%. The increase in extinction risk
is associated with greater temporal variation in population size
for models built from longer data sets. Short-term studies
consistently underestimate the true variances for demographic
parameters in populations. Thus, the lack of long-term studies for
endangered species leads to widespread underestimation of
extinction risk. The results of our simulations suggest that
conservation programs, for wild populations, need to be designed to
conserve habitat capable of supporting approximately 7000 adult
vertebrates in order to ensure long-term persistence. (C) 2003
Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.


© Thomson ISI

513. European perspective of compost
co-utilization for horticulture.


Szmidt, Robin

In: Beneficial co-utilization of
agricultural, municipal and industrial by-products/ Brown, S.;
Angle, J. S.; and Jacobs, L.


Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic, 1998;
pp. 55-68.


ISBN: 0792351894; Proceedings of the Beltsville
Symposium XXII, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, May 4-8, 1997;
Conference Sponsors: Beltsville Agricultural Research Center,
Agricultural Research Service, US Dept. of Agriculture with the
cooperation of Friends of Agriculture Research - Beltsville
(FAR-B)


NAL Call #:  TD796.5.B45 1998

Descriptors:  
Horticulture (Agriculture)/ Waste
Management (Sanitation)/ compost co-utilization/ waste treatment
methods


© Thomson

514. Evaluating Extension-Based Water Resource
Outreach Programs: Are We Meeting the Challenge?


Shepard, R.

Journal of Extension [Also
available as:
Journal
of Extension
, February 2002,
Volume 40 Number 1;


ISSN 1077-5315], 2002
(text/html)


NAL Call #: LC45.4 J682

http://www.joe.org/joe/2002february/a3.html

Descriptors:  
program evaluation/ program
planning/ water quality/ water resources/ watershed management/
surveys/ agricultural education/ extension education/ United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

515. Evaluation and demonstration of deads
composting as an option for dead animal management in
Saskatchewan.


University of Saskatchewan.
Agriculture and Bioresource Engineering. Saskatchewan. Agriculture
Development Fund.


Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan
Agriculture Development Fund; 1 v. (various pagings): ill.
(2001)


Notes: "March 2001." "101-05424"--Mounted on label.
Includes bibliographical references. ADF Project
98000245.


NAL Call #:  QL87.5-.E92-2001

Descriptors:  
Dead animals---Saskatchewan/ Dead
animal disposal---Saskatchewan/ Compost---Saskatchewan


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

516. Evaluation of seven sampling techniques for
wireworms (Coleoptera : Elateridae).


Simmons, C. L.; Pedigo, L. P.; and
Rice, M. E.


Environmental
Entomology
27 (5): 1062-1068.
(Oct. 1998)


NAL Call #:  
QL461.E532;

ISSN: 0046-225X [EVETBX]

Descriptors:  
elateridae/ sampling/ population
density/ conservation areas/ costs/ Iowa/ Conservation Reserve
Program


Abstract: During 1995 and 1996, 7 sampling
techniques were examined to develop a farmer or consultant-oriented
system of sampling for wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to
determine field populations. In an intensive sampling program, the
soil core (absolute) sampling technique was compared with 6
relative sampling techniques [corn (Zea mays L.)/wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.) bait, melon (Cucumis melo L.) bait, potato (Solanum
tuberosum L.) bait, wire-mesh bait, pheromone trap, and pitfall
trap]. In an extensive sampling program, the corn/wheat bait was
examined for its utility in Conservation Reserve Program habitats.
Each relative method was evaluated for its precision and accuracy
in determining populations of Elateridae. The corn/wheat bait
showed the highest level of precision and accuracy in the intensive
sampling program. Acceptable levels of precision for the corn/wheat
baits were also found in the extensive sampling program. In terms
of cost, the corn/wheat bait was a cost-effective method for a
sampling program. When examining relative net precision, the
corn/wheat bait was the most efficient and effective sampling
technique for determining wireworm populations in agricultural
habitats and in conservation land returning to
production.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

517. Evaluation of soil organic carbon under
forests, cool-season and warm-season grasses in the northeastern
US.


Corre, M. D.; Schnabel, R. R.; and
Shaffer, J. A.


Soil Biology and
Biochemistry
31 (11):
1531-1539. (Oct. 1999);


ISSN: 0038-0717

Descriptors:  
Organic matter/ Soil nutrients/
Forests/ Grasslands/ Northeast/ soil organic carbon/ Soil/
Temperate grasslands/ Temperate forests/ United States


Abstract: There is insufficient information on
whether or not soil organic carbon (SOC) under forest and grass
vegetation differs, and such information is needed by conservation
programs targeted for C sequestration. When these contrasting types
of vegetation are used for restoration of degraded riparian areas,
evaluation of water-extractable and bioavailable dissolved organic
carbon (WEOC and BDOC, respectively) is also important for
assessing their potential in supplying available SOC for microbial
degradation of nonpoint-source pollutants (e.g. nitrate removal by
denitrification). Our objective was to compare the total SOC, WEOC
and BDOC under forests, cool-season (C sub(3)) and warm-season (C
sub(4)) grasses in the northeastern U S. Six locations were
selected which had mature stands of forests, C sub(3) and C sub(4)
grasses. The total SOC, WEOC and BDOC were measured to a depth of 1
m. Analysis based on pooled data from all locations showed no
difference in total SOC under forest (averages between 17-48 Mg C
ha super(-1) at 0-5 cm depth), C sub(3) (19-35 mg C ha super(-1))
and C sub(4) grasses (13-39 mg C ha super(-1)). However, analysis
conducted at each location indicated that total SOC was, in part,
influenced by vegetation age. When vegetation age is the same,
temperature was also implicated to influence changes in SOC.
Neither forests nor C sub(3) and C sub(4) grasses consistently
supported the highest amounts of WEOC, BDOC and the proportion of
BDOC to WEOC (%BDOC) across locations. The %BDOC ranged from 2 to
84% and averages were 47% under forest, 49% under C sub(3) grass,
39% under C sub(4) grass, 41% above 60 cm depth, 47% below 60 cm
depth. The uniform %BDOC with depth suggested similar amounts of
available C resource for denitrifiers under these vegetation types.
Conversion of C sub(3) grass to C sub(4) grass resulted to a loss
of SOC during the early years of C sub(4) grass establishment. It
took 16 to 18 y after planting for the total SOC under C sub(4)
grass to approach that under the original C sub(3) grass. Under
16-y and 18-y C sub(4) grasses, the contribution of C
sub(4)-derived SOC ranged from 53% to 72% of the total SOC under
the original C sub(3) grass. The slow accumulation of C
sub(4)-derived SOC is an important consideration for its use in
restoring riparian and conservation areas in the northeastern
US.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

518. Evaluation of the environmental impact of
agriculture at the farm level: A comparison and analysis of 12
indicator-based methods.


Werf, H. M. G. van der. and Petit,
J.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
93 (1/3):
131-145. (Dec. 2002)


NAL Call #:  
S601 .A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO]

Descriptors:  
farms/ agriculture/ environmental
impact/ estimation/ techniques/ evaluation/ indicators/ guidelines/
erosion/ water quality/ farm management/ data collection


Abstract: An increasing variety of evaluation
methods is being proposed to address the question of the
environmental impacts of agriculture. This paper compares and
analyses 12 indicator-based approaches to assessing environmental
impact at the farm level, in order to propose a set of guidelines
for the evaluation or development of such methods. These methods
take into account a number of environmental objectives (e.g. soil
erosion, water quality). A set of indicators is used to quantify
the degree to which these objectives are attained. A total of 26
objectives were taken into account by one or several of the
methods. A great diversity in breadth of analysis exists: the
number of objectives considered per method varies from 2 to 13.
Indicator-based methods for environmental evaluation at the farm
level should take into account a range of objectives covering both
local and global effects. Indicators based on the environmental
effects of farmer practices are preferable to indicators based on
farmer practices as the link with the objective is direct and the
choice of means is left to the farmer. Indicators based on farmer
practices cost less in data collection but do not allow an actual
evaluation of environmental impact. Indicators allowing expression
of impacts both per unit surface and per unit product are
preferable. Indicators producing output in the form of values are
preferred to indicators producing scores. If possible,
science-based threshold values should be defined for indicators.
The method should be validated with respect to (a) the
appropriateness of its set of objectives relative to its purpose
and (b) its indicators.

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

519. Evaluation of the RUSLE soil erosion
model.


Yoder, D. C.; Foster, G. R.;
Weesies, G. A.; Renard, K. G.; McCool, D. K.; and Lown, J.
B.


In: ASAE Annual International
Meeting.
(Held 12 Jul
1998-16 Jul 1998 at Orlando, Florida.)


St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society
of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE);


9 p.; 1998.

Notes: ASAE Paper no. 982197

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




520. An evaluation of vernal pool creation
projects in New England: Project documentation from
1991-2000.


Lichko, L. E. and Calhoun,
AJK.


Environmental
Management
32 (1): 141-151.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
HC79.E5E5;

ISSN: 0364-152X.

Notes: Number of References: 55; Publisher:
Springer-Verlag


Descriptors:  
Environment/ Ecology/ vernal pool/
wetland creation/ compensatory mitigation/ wetland monitoring/
reference wetlands/ New England/ metapopulation dynamics/ amphibian
conservation/ temporary wetlands/ self design/ mitigation/
landscape/ declines/ biodiversity/ populations/
hydroperiod


Abstract: Vernal pools are vulnerable to loss
through development and agricultural and forestry practices owing
to their isolation from open water bodies and their small size.
Some vernal pool-dependent species are already listed in New
England as Endangered, Threatened, or Species of Special Concern.
Vernal pool creation is becoming more common in compensatory
mitigation as open water ponds, in general, may be easier to create
than wooded wetlands. However, research on vernal pool creation is
limited, A recent National Research Council study (2001) cites
vernal pools as "challenging to recreate." We reviewed
documentation on 15 vernal pool creation projects in New England
that were required by federal regulatory action. Our purpose was to
determine whether vernal pool creation for compensatory mitigation
in New England replaced key vernal pool functions by assessing
project goals and documentation (including mitigation plans, pool
design criteria, monitoring protocols, and performance standards).
Our results indicate that creation attempts often fail to replicate
lost pool functions. Pool design specifications are often based on
conjecture rather than on reference wetlands or created pools that
function successfully. Project monitoring lacks consistency and
reliability, and record keeping by regulatory agencies is
inadequate. Strengthening of protection of isolated wetlands in
general, and standardization across all aspects of vernal pool
creation, is needed to ensure success and to promote conservation
of the long-term landscape functions of vernal pools.


© Thomson ISI

521. Evaluation of water quality projects in the
Lake Tahoe basin.


Schuster, S. and Grismer, M.
E.


Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment
90 (1-3): 225-242.
(2004)


NAL Call #:  
TD194.E5;

ISSN: 0167-6369.

Notes: Number of References: 61; Publisher: Kluwer
Academic Publ


Descriptors:  
Environment/ Ecology/ best
management practices/ erosion/ eutrophication/ nutrient loadings/
water quality/ California Nevada/ detention ponds/ constructed
wetlands/ nutrient transport/ surface runoff/ Sierra Nevada/
removal/ improvement/ enrichment/ Washington


Abstract: Lake Tahoe is a large sub alpine lake
located in the Sierra Nevada Range in the states of California and
Nevada. The Lake Tahoe watershed is relatively small (800 km(2))
and is made up of soils with a very low nutrient content and when
combined with the Lake's enormous volume (156 km(3)) produces water
of unparalleled clarity. However, urbanization around the Lake
during the past 50 yr has greatly increased nutrient flux into the
Lake resulting in increased algae production and rapidly declining
water clarity. Lake transition from nitrogen limiting to
phosphorous limiting during the last 30 yr suggests the onset of
cultural eutrophication of Lake Tahoe. Protecting Lake Tahoe's
water quality has become a major public concern and much time,
effort, and money has been, and will be, spent on this undertaking.
The effectiveness of remedial actions is the subject of some
debate. Local regulatory agencies have mandated implementation of
best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate the effects of
development, sometimes at great additional expense for developers
and homeowners who question their effectiveness. Conclusive studies
on the BMP effectiveness are also expensive and can be difficult to
accomplish such that very few such studies have been completed.
However, several project evaluations have been completed and more
are underway. Such study usually demonstrates support of the
project's effectiveness in decreasing nutrient flux to Lake Tahoe.
Here, we review the existing state of knowledge of nutrient loading
to the Lake and to highlight the need for further evaluative
investigations of BMPs in order to improve their performance in
present and future regulatory actions.


© Thomson ISI

522. Evapotranspiration parameters for
variably-sized wetlands.


Allen, R. G.; Hill, R. W.; and
Srikanth, V.


In: 1994 International Summer
Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural
Engineers.
(Held 19 Jun
1994-22 Jun 1994 at Kansas City, Missouri.)


St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society
of Agricultural Engineers; 24 p.; 1994.


Notes: Paper numbers: 94-2120/94-2155;

ISSN: 0149-9890

NAL Call #:  290.9-Am32P

Descriptors:  
wetlands / evapotranspiration/ arid
regions/ water use/ vegetation/ plant height/ plant density/ open
water/ algorithms/ equations/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

523. Evapotranspiration responses of plants and
crops to carbon dioxide and temperature.


Allen, L. H. Jr.

Journal of Crop
Production
2 (2): 37-70.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
SB1.J683;

ISSN: 1092-678X [JCPRF8].

Notes: Special issue: Water use in crop production /
edited by M.B. Kirkham. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
plants/ crops/ evapotranspiration/
carbon dioxide/ environmental temperature/ carbon dioxide
enrichment/ climatic change/ prediction/ air temperature/ water use
efficiency/ leaf conductance/ stomatal resistance/ water vapor/
temperature/ leaves/ leaf area/ crop yield/ seed output/ biomass
production/ mathematical models/ glycine max/ zea mays/ irrigation/
precipitation/ water use/ literature reviews/ leaf
temperature


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

524. Examination of the wetland hydrologic
criterion and its application in the determination of wetland
hydrologic status.


Hunt, W. F.; Water Resources
Research Institute of the University of North Carolina; Geological
Survey (U.S.); and North Carolina Agricultural Research
Service


Raleigh, NC: Water Resources
Research Institute of the University of North Carolina; Series:
Report (Water Resources Research Institute of the University of
North Carolina) no. 333; xxii, 119 p.: ill., map. (2001)


Notes: "June 2001." "UNC-WRRI-2001-333." "The research
on which this report is based was supported in part by the United
States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, the Water
Resources Research Institute of the University of North Carolina
and by the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service." Includes
bibliographical references (p. 61-63). Water Resources Research
Institute. Number 70137.


NAL Call #:  TD201-.N6-no.-333

Descriptors:  
Wetland hydrology/ Water
quality---Standards


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

525. Expected Climate Change Impacts on Soil
Erosion Rates: A Review.


Nearing, M. A.; Pruski, F. F.; and
O'Neal, M. R.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
59 (1): 43-50.
(Jan. 2004-Feb. 2004)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  
Climate Change/ Runoff/ Sediment/
Soil Erosion/ Soil Loss/ Midwestern United States/ Greenhouse Gas/
Model/ Precipitation/ Simulation/ Circulation/ Variability/
Yields


Abstract: Global warming is expected to lead to a
more vigorous hydrological cycle, including more total rainfall and
more frequent high intensity rainfall events. Rainfall amounts and
intensities increased on average in the United States during the
20th century, and according to climate change models they are
expected to continue to increase during the 21st century. These
rainfall changes, along with expected changes in temperature, solar
radiation, and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, will have
significant impacts on soil erosion rates. The processes involved
in the impact of climate change on soil erosion by water are
complex, involving changes in rainfall amounts and intensities,
number of days of precipitation, ratio of rain to snow, plant
biomass production, plant residue decomposition rates, soil
microbial activity, evapo-transpiration rates, and shifts in land
use necessary to accommodate a new climatic regime. This paper
reviews several recent studies conducted by the authors that
address the potential effects of climate change on soil erosion
rates. The results show cause for concern. Rainfall erosivity
levels may be on the rise across much of the United States. Where
rainfall amounts increase, erosion and runoff will increase at an
even greater rate: the ratio of erosion increase to annual rainfall
increase is on the order of 1.7. Even in cases where annual
rainfall would decrease, system feedbacks related to decreased
biomass production could lead to greater susceptibility of the soil
to erode. Results also show how farmers' response to climate change
can potentially exacerbate, or ameliorate, the changes in erosion
rates expected.

© Thomson ISI

526. Experimental basin studies: An
international and historical perspective of forest
impacts.


Whitehead, P. G. and Robinson,
M.


Journal of Hydrology
145 (3/4): 217-230. (May
1993)


NAL Call #:  
292.8-J82;

ISSN: 0022-1694 [JHYDA].

Notes: Special Issue: The Balquhidder Catchment and
Process Studies / edited by P.G. Whitehead and I.R. Calder.
Literature review. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
watersheds/ forests/ catchment
hydrology/ forest influences/ stream flow/ precipitation/ site
factors/ land use/ forestry practices/ research/ literature
reviews


Abstract: The long tradition of catchment studies in
hydrology results from the need to understand the water balance
operating in basins, the processes controlling water movements and
the impacts of land-use change on water quantity and quality. The
interactions between physical, chemical and biological behaviour
have become an increasingly dominant theme in recent years, and
this has been boosted by global environmental problems such as acid
rain and climatic change. After a historical summary of catchment
studies, a brief review is given of some of the most influential
experiments and their underlying objectives and results,
concentrating on those concerned with one land-use change in
particular--to/from forestry. In interpreting the effects of a
change in forest cover, it is necessary also to consider impacts of
the associated site disturbance, including possible soil compaction
and road construction as a result of logging and any artificial
drainage before tree planting. The recent tendency to link basin
studies into networks is discussed, with examples of currently
active networks.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

527. Experimental evidence of transport of
pesticides through field soils: A review.


Flury, M.

Journal of Environmental
Quality
25 (1): 24-45. (Jan.
1996-Feb. 1996)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.J6;

ISSN: 0047-2425 [JEVQAA]

Abstract: Much information is available in the
literature about pesticide transport through soils at the field
scale. The purpose of this study is to review the literature with a
focus on pesticide leaching to groundwater. The literature was
compiled and discussed with respect to different factors that
influence pesticide leaching. Pesticide leaching below the root
zone has been demonstrated in sandy as well as in loamy soils.
Particularly in loamy soils, there is evidence that even strongly
adsorbing chemicals can move along preferential flow pathways and
that the travel times of pesticides are comparable to those of
conservative solutes. The amounts of pesticides leached below the
root zone by worst case rainfall events depend on the chemical
properties and can reach up to 5% of the applied mass. When there
is no heavy rainfall shortly following application of chemicals,
the mass annually leached below the root zone is in the range of
< 0.1 to 1%, occasionally it can reach up to 4%. Although a
direct comparison cannot be made, the mass lost by leaching seems
generally to be smaller than that lost by runoff, depending of
course on the slope of the fields. Several factors that affect
pesticide leaching, such as surface preparation, soil structure,
soil water content, type of irrigation, pesticide formulation, time
of application and rainfall events, are discussed with support of
experimental evidence. While some factors showed inconsistent
effects, others show promise in controlling leaching mechanisms.
These latter factors include initial water content, surface
preparation, and time of pesticide application. Based on the
reviewed literature, recommendations were made for future research
activities.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

528. Expert system applications in irrigation
management: An overview.


Mohan, S and Arumugam, N

Computers and Electronics in
Agriculture
17 (3): 263-280.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
S494.5.D3C652;

ISSN: 0168-1699

Descriptors:  
bioprocess engineering/ computer
language/ computerized technique/ expert system applications/
irrigation management/ reservoir operation/ soil science/ user
interface


Abstract: Due to the complexity of irrigation
management problems, reliance on experience and experts is
necessary for effective decision-making in this domain. Expert
systems (ES) are efficient means for providing decision support to
tasks that primarily require experience based knowledge. This paper
reviews the adoptability and suitability of ES applications in the
domain of irrigation management. Core concepts of ES are briefly
discussed. A detailed review of the existing applications of ES is
presented under three classes of ES applications: (a) expert
systems proper, (b) intelligent front-ends, and (c) hybrid systems.
This review of literature shows that the ES approach is applied
more recently to broader domain areas in contrast to the earlier
systems that were focused on narrower domain problems. Additional
research on ES application to domains such as real-time irrigation
scheduling, reservoir operation involving stochastic nature of
inflows and evapotranspiration demand, and integrated operation of
irrigation system components is needed to evolve guidelines for
optimal water use. The problem of handling multiple experts to
evolve decisions that are less biased than an individual expert
needs to be addressed. A methodology that. takes into account the
uncertainty of the ES decisions is also warranted. Further, there
is a need for practical evaluation of the quality of
recommendations made by the ES which would result in the successful
implementation of the ES.


© Thomson

529. Exploitation of composting management for
either reclamation of organic wastes or solid-phase treatment of
contaminated environmental matrices.


Vallini, Giovanni; Di Gregorio,
Simona; Pera, Antonio; Queda, A; and Cunha, Cristina F


Environmental Reviews
10 (4): 195-207. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
GE140.E59;

ISSN: 1181-8700

Descriptors:  
bioremediation/ contaminated
sediments/ contaminated soils


© Thomson

530. Exploring the opportunities for
agroforestry in changing rural landscapes: Selected papers from the
5th Biennial Conference on Agroforestry in North America, August
3-6, 1997.


Lassoie, J. P. and Buck, L.
E.


Agroforestry Systems
44 (2/3): 106-357. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
SD387.M8A3;

ISSN: 0167-4366.

Notes: Special issue.

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

531. Extraction and purification of microbial
DNA from soil and sediment samples.


Roose, Amsaleg C L; Garnier, Sillam
E; and Harry, M


Applied Soil Ecology
18 (1): 47-60. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
QH541.5.S6A67;

ISSN: 0929-1393

Descriptors:  
microbial DNA: extraction,
purification, sediment, soil/ microbes (Microorganisms): diversity/
Microorganisms/ cell fragment removal/ contaminant extraction/
extraction/ purification efficiency: environmental sample
dependent


Abstract: Knowledge of the microbial diversity in
natural ecosystems has long been limited because only a minority of
naturally occurring microbes can be cultured using standard
techniques. Several protocols for the extraction of nucleic acids
directly from the environmental matrix have been recently developed
to circumvent this problem and this review covers the major
extraction procedures currently used to obtain microbial DNA from
environmental samples. DNA extraction procedures can involve cell
extraction or direct lysis, depending on whether or not the
microbial cells are isolated from their matrix. An extraction
protocol generally comprises three steps: cell lysis that can be
chemical, mechanical and enzymatic, removal of cell fragments and
nucleic acid precipitation and purification. Direct lysis methods
are more often used than cell extraction ones because they are less
time consuming and give a better recovery, resulting in an
extracted DNA more representative of the whole microbial community
present in the sample. However, with direct lysis, contaminants are
also extracted which interfere with the DNA extract. As a
consequence, a more extensive purification step is required. At
least four types of purification are commonly used: cesium chloride
density gradient ultracentrifugation, chromatography,
electrophoresis and dialysis and filtration. To remove all
contaminants, it could be recommended that several purification
procedures be combined, depending on the environmental matrix. The
efficiency of extraction/purification depends on the properties of
the environmental sample, and each step of the extraction procedure
must be adjusted for each sample. Moreover, each step of the
procedure suffers from shortcomings, and each additional step
inevitably induces a DNA loss. Thus, the choice of a protocol must
be a compromise between the recovery of DNA that will be the most
representative of the microbial community and the quality of the
DNA obtained that is imposed by the objectives of the work, such as
detection of specific organisms or assessment of the total
microbial community structure. Nevertheless, molecular techniques,
that could be used in combination with cultivation techniques, are
powerful methods for surveying the microbial diversity in
environmental samples, although investigators must be aware that
such techniques are not exempt of methodological biases.


© Thomson

532. Factors affecting the performance of
stormwater treatment wetlands.


Carleton, J N; Grizzard, T J;
Godrej, A N; and Post, H E


Water Research 35 (6): 1552-1562. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
TD420.W3;

ISSN: 0043-1354

Descriptors:  
ammonia: pollutant/ nitrate:
pollutant/ phosphorus: pollutant/ hydraulic loading rate/ pollutant
input/ pollutant removal/ stormwater runoff/ stormwater treatment
wetlands/ wastewater treatment


Abstract: Data from 35 studies on 49 wetland systems
used to treat stormwater runoff or runoff-impacted surface waters
were examined and compared in order to identify any obvious trends
that may aid future stormwater treatment wetland design efforts.
Despite the intermittent nature of hydrologic and pollutant inputs
from stormwater runoff, our analysis demonstrates that steady-state
first-order plug-flow models commonly used to analyze wastewater
treatment wetlands can be adapted for use with stormwater wetlands.
Long-term pollutant removals are analyzed as functions of long-term
mean hydraulic loading rate and nominal detention time. First-order
removal rate constants for total phosphorus, ammonia, and nitrate
generated in this fashion are demonstrated to be similar to values
reported in the literature for wastewater treatment wetlands.
Constituent removals are also demonstrated via regression analyses
to be functions of the ratio of wetland area to watershed area.
Resulting equations between these variables can be used as
preliminary design tools in the absence of more site-specific
details, with the understanding that they should be employed
cautiously.


© Thomson

533. Factors determining the effects of
pesticides upon butterflies inhabiting arable farmland.


Longley, M. and Sotherton, N.
W.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
61 (1): 1-12.
(Jan. 1997)


NAL Call #:  
S601.A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO]

Descriptors:  
agricultural land/ pesticides/
exposure/ nontarget effects/ lepidoptera/ sublethal effects/
mortality/ fecundity/ longevity/ toxicity/ environmental factors/
farm management/ reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

534. Factors of variation of the fate of
nitrogen from cattle ejections on forage surfaces.


Simon JC; Decau ML; and Morvan
T.


In: Cinquiemes rencontres autour
des recherches sur les ruminants:
Rencontres-Recherches-Ruminants.
(Held 2 Dec 1998-3 Dec 1998 at Paris, France.);
Vol. 5.; pp. 193-200; 1998.


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

535. Farm scale composting: Biocycle.

Emmaus, Pa.: JG Press; 80 p.: ill.
(some col.). (1995)


Notes: Cover title. "A Biocycle
publication."


NAL Call #:  S661.F37--1995

Descriptors:  
Compost---Management/
Compost---Economic aspects


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

536. Farming for a better environment: A white
paper.


Soil and Water Conservation Society
(U.S.).


Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water
Conservation Society; vii, 67 p. (1995)


NAL Call #:  S604.F28--1995;

ISBN: 0935734376

Descriptors:  
Conservation tillage/ Soil
conservation/ Soil erosion


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

537. Farming systems and conservation needs in
the Northwest Wheat Region.


Papendick, R. I.

American Journal of
Alternative Agriculture
11
(2/3): 52-57. (1996)


NAL Call #:  
S605.5.A43;

ISSN: 0889-1893

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

538. Farmland biodiversity: Is habitat
heterogeneity the key?


Benton, T. G.; Vickery, J. A.; and
Wilson, J. D.


Trends in Ecology and
Evolution


18 (4): 182-188. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
QH540.T742;

ISSN: 0169-5347

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

539. Faster, better data for burned watersheds
needing emergency rehab.


Lachowski, H.; Hardwick, P.;
Griffith, R.; Parsons, A.; and Warbington, R.


Journal of Forestry
95 (6): 4-8. (1997);

ISSN: 0022-1201

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




540. The fate and transport of phosphorus in
agricultural systems.


Hansen, N. C.; Daniel, T. C.;
Sharpley, A. N.; and Lemunyon, J. L.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
57 (6): 408-417.
(Nov. 2002-Dec. 2002)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  
nitrogen / losses from soil/
nitrogen fertilizers/ animal manures/ nitrogen cycle/ soil flora/
biological activity in soil/ nitrous oxide/ emission/ nitrate/
leaching/ simulation models/ use efficiency/ water pollution/ soil
biology/ water erosion


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

541. Fate and transport of surface water
pathogens in watersheds.


Ferguson, C.; Husman, A. M. de R.;
Altavilla, N.; Deere, D.; and Ashbolt, N.


Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology
33 (3): 299-361. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1C7;

ISSN: 1064-3389

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

542. Fate, Dissipation and Environmental Effects
of Pesticides in Southern Forests: A Review of a Decade of Research
Progress.


Neary, D. G.; Bush, P. B.; and
Michael, J. L.


Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry
12 (3): 411-428.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E58 [ETOCDK]

Descriptors:  
Descriptors: Dissipation/ Fate of
pollutants/ Leaching/ Literature review/ Path of pollutants/
Pesticides/ CREAMS Model/ Carbofuran/ Environmental effects/
Fenvalerate/ GLEAMS Model/ Hexazinone/ Infiltration/ Lindane/
Malathion/ Model studies/ Nitrates/ PRZM Model/ Picloram/ Sediment
yield/ Sulfometuron methyl/ Surface runoff/ Triclopyr/ Water
pollution effects/ Sources and fate of pollution/ Ultimate disposal
of wastes


Abstract: Ten years of watershed-scale research has
been conducted on the fate of forestry-use pesticides in forested
catchments under mainly operational conditions throughout the
southern U.S. Studies have evaluated chemicals such as hexazinone,
picloram, sulfometuron methyl, met-sulfuron methyl, azinphosmethyl,
triclopyr, carbofuran, lindane, malathion, fenvalerate,
copper-chromium-arsenic, and pentachlorophenol. Model verifications
of pesticide fate and dissipation and risk analyses have been
conducted using simulation models such as GLEAMS, CREAMS, and PRZM.
Field study data indicate that movement is controlled by the main
hydrologic pathways (e.g., surface runoff, infiltration, interflow,
and leaching below the root zone). Peak residue concentrations tend
to be low (<500 microgm/L), except where direct applications are
made to perennial streams or to ephemeral channels, and where
buffer strips are not used and do not persist for extended periods
of time. Indirect effects noted from the use of pesticides in
forested watersheds include temporarily increased nitrate nitrogen
losses, reduced sediment yields, temporal changes in terrestrial
invertebrate abundance, reduced plant diversity, and changes in
particulate organic matter transport in streams. Analyses conducted
in regional environmental impact statements indicate that the low
concentrations and short persistence of forestry pesticides in
surface water and groundwater do not post a significant risk to
water quality, aquatic biota, or human health. (Author's
abstract)


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

543. Fate of Applied Fertilizer Nitrogen in
Rainfed and Irrigated Rice Soils Under Green Manuring Condition: A
Review.


Mohanty, S. and Mandal, S.
R.


Environment and
Ecology
17 (1): 157-163.
(1999);


ISSN: 0970-0420

Descriptors:  
Fertilizers/ Nitrogen/ Rice/
Irrigation/ Hydrology/ Fate of Pollutants/ Sources and fate of
pollution


Abstract: Basic studies to quantify the fate of
added fertilizer nitrogen in rice soil previously enriched with
green manures under irrigated and rainfed condition has summarily
been presented here. Results suggest that with similar N-use
efficiency, green manure-N is less prone to loss mechanisms that
mineral-N fertilizers and may therefore contribute to long term
residual effects on productivity. The various channels through
which applied fertilizer nitrogen gets distributed after
application under different hydrologic conditions and subsequently
the effect of green manuring modifying the trends have been
elucidated.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

544. Fate of Environmental
Pollutants.


Davis, J. F. and Kratzer, T.
W.


Water Environment
Research
69 (4): 861-869.
(June 1997)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
literature review/ fate of
pollutants/ surface water/ surveys/ contamination/ water pollution
sources/ kinetics/ ecosystems/ acidification/ metals/ nutrients/
pathogens/ organic compounds/ literature reviews/ pollution
dispersion/ chemical kinetics/ literature review/ Sources and fate
of pollution/ Behavior and fate characteristics/ Freshwater
pollution


Abstract: This review covers studies related to the
fate of pollutants in natural surface waters including surveys of
contamination, assessment of pollutant sources, measurement of
reaction kinetics, and modeling and analysis of aquatic ecosystems.
Sections are provided on acidification and humic substances,
metals, nutrients, pathogens, and xenobiotic organics.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

545. Fate of poultry manure estrogens in soils:
A review.


Hanselman, T. A.; Graetz, D. A.;
and Wilkie, A. C.


Soil and Crop Science
Society of Florida: Proceedings
62: 8-12. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
56.9 So32;

ISSN: 0096-4522

Descriptors:  
Agriculture/ Agronomy/ pka values/
17 beta estradiol / estrone/ litter/ estradiol/ hormones/ runoff/
testosterone/ persistence/ exposure


Abstract: Agricultural drainage waters may become
contaminated with natural steroidal estrogen hormones, i.e.
estradiol and estrone, when poultry wastes are land-applied at
agronomic rates. Estrogen contamination of waterways is a concern
because low concentrations (ng L-1) of these chemicals in water can
adversely affect the reproductive biology of aquatic vertebrates
(fish, turtles, frogs, etc.) by disrupting the normal function of
their endocrine systems. This review provides some information
about the physicochemical properties of estradiol and estrone and
summarizes current knowledge of estrogen fate and transport in
soils. Estradiol and estrone are nonionic (pKa 10.3 to 10.8),
slightly hydrophobic (log K-ow 3.1 to 4.0) compounds that have low
solubility in water (0.8 to 13.0 mg L-1). The fate of manure-borne
estrogens in soils is not well-established. Laboratory studies
suggest that estrogens should be rapidly dissipated in soils due to
sorption and transformation, but field studies have demonstrated
that estrogens are sufficiently mobile and persistent to impact
surface and ground water quality. More information is needed about
the types and amounts of estrogens that occur in various poultry
wastes, e.g. broiler litter vs. layer manure. More information is
also needed about the sorption, biodegradation, and leaching
potential of estradiol and estrone in soils.


© Thomson ISI

546. Feasibility of prescription pesticide use
in the United States.


Coble, Harold D.

Ames, IA: Council for Agricultural
Science and Technology; Series: CAST issue paper no. 9.
(1998)


Notes: Caption title. "August 1998."

NAL Call #:  S441-.I87-no.-9

Descriptors:  
Pesticides---Government
policy---United States/ Pesticide regulations


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

547. Feeding and management system to reduce
environmental pollution in swine production.


Han IK; Lee JH; Piao XS; Li DeFa;
and Li DF


Asian Australasian Journal
of Animal Sciences
14 (3):
432-444; 81 ref. (2001)


NAL Call #:  
SF55.A78A7

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

548. Fertilizer and Manure Application
Equipment.


Bartok, J. W.

Ithaca, NY: Natural Resource,
Agriculture, and Engineering Service NRAES-57; 22 p.
(1994)


Descriptors:  
animal manures/ fertilizer
application/ application equipment/ manure storage


Abstract:  This publication discusses types of
fertilizer and manure nutrient values and provides guidance on
equipment selection. Procedures for calibrating fertilizer and
manure application equipment are reviewed. The publication includes
over thirty illustrations, six tables, a plan for a fertilizer
storage shed, and a glossary of terms.


© Natural Resource, Agriculture and
Engineering Service (NRAES)

549. Fertilizer recommendations for intensively
managed grassland.


Unwin RJ and Vellinga
TH.


In: Grassland and society:
Proceedings of the 15th General Meeting of the European Grassland
Federation.
(Held 6 Jun
1994-9 Jun 1994 at Wageningen, The Netherlands.) Mannetje, L. and
Frame, J. (eds.)


Wageningen, The Netherlands:
Wageningen Pers; pp. 590-602; 1994.


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

550. Fertilizers and manures.

Hall, Daniel and Smith, A.
M.


Delhi: Biotech Books; xvii, 333 p.:
ill. (2002)


Notes: 5th ed. (Rev.); Includes bibliographical
references and index.


NAL Call #:  S654-.H362-2002;

ISBN: 8176220663

Descriptors:  
Fertilizers/ Manures
 


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

551. Fertilizers and the environment.

Ayoub, A. T.

Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems
55 (2):
117-121. (Oct. 1999)


NAL Call #:  
S631.F422;

ISSN: 1385-1314 [NCAGFC]

Descriptors:  
fertilizers/ soil fertility/ soil
degradation/ cultivation/ deforestation/ land clearance/ erosion/
ecosystems/ pollutants/ socioeconomics/ technology transfer/
sustainability/ eutrophication/ global warming/ ozone/ acid rain/
algae/ environmental impact/ literature reviews/ water
pollution


Abstract: Soil fertility decline is occurring over
large parts of the world, particularly the developing world. It
occurs mainly through intensive cultivation and the inadequate
application of replacement nutrients, and through deforestation and
clearance of vegetation on sandy soils. Large amounts of soil
nutrients are also lost to the terrestrial ecosystems through wind
and water erosion. Low soil fertility is considered as one of the
most important constraints on improved agricultural production. To
sustain the future world population more fertilizers are required,
which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical
and socio-economic measures are taken. It is estimated that, by the
year 2020 at a global level, 70% of plant nutrients will have to
come from fertilizers. Fertilizers are thus indispensable for
sustained food production, but excessive use of mineral fertilizers
has roused environmental concerns. Chief among these concerns are
eutrophication of fresh water bodies, global warming and
stratospheric ozone depletion, proliferation of algal blooms in
coastal waters and contribution towards acid rain.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

552. Fertilizers in agroforestry
systems.


Szott, L T and Kass, D C
L


Agroforestry Systems
23 (2-3): 157-176. (1993)

NAL Call #:  
SD387.M8A3;

ISSN: 0167-4366

Descriptors:  
plant (Plantae Unspecified)/ tree
(Spermatophyta)/ Plantae (Plantae Unspecified)/ plants/
spermatophytes/ vascular plants/ agriculture/ alley cropping/
ecology/ forestry/ home gardens/ nutrient cycling/ organic
fertilizer/ shaded perennial


Abstract: This review encompasses results of
fertilization experiments on several agroforestry systems - alley
cropping, perennial shade systems, home gardens - in which
fertilizer use is a likely management alternative. Fertilizer
response was found to be most common in alley cropping, variable in
perennial shade systems, and rarely reported in home gardens. Level
of nutrient removal in harvested products is probably the
overriding factor in determining fertilizer response; greater
accumulation of organic residues, slower growth under shade, and
longer periods of nutrient uptake probably also contribute to the
relatively smaller fertilizer response of the perennial shade
systems and home gardens. Considerable knowledge gaps exist
regarding the breakdown of organic residues, and interactions
between mineral and organic amendments. Systems based on annual
crops (e.g., alley cropping) are likely to be less
nutrient-efficient and sustainable than systems based on perennial
crops, due to reduced fixation and transfer of N to the crops, the
tendency of the trees to compete for and sequester nutrients,
relatively high P requirements of the crops, and the high labor
cost of tree management. The possible benefits of fertilization of
specific components in home gardens, and relative advantages of
including low-value tree legumes, high-value shade trees, and
fertilization in shaded perennial systems are only beginning to
receive research attention.


© Thomson

553. Field effects of simazine at lower trophic
levels: A review.


Strandberg, Morten T and Scott
Fordsmand, Janeck J


Science of the Total
Environment
296 (1-3):
117-137. (2002)


NAL Call #:  
RA565.S365;

ISSN: 0048-9697

Descriptors:  
simazine: aerial fallout rain
concentrations, application rate, bioaccumulation, disappearance
time, dissipation, fate, field effects, fresh water concentrations,
herbicide, lower trophic level effects, phytotoxicity, pollutant,
sediment decomposition, toxicity/ algae (Algae)/ aquatic
invertebrate (Invertebrata)/ bacteria (Bacteria)/ fungi (Fungi)/
plant (Plantae)/ terrestrial invertebrate (Invertebrata)/ Algae/
Animals/ Bacteria/ Eubacteria/ Fungi/ Invertebrates/
Microorganisms/ Nonvascular Plants/ Plants/ dissipation pathways/
drought/ field studies/ laboratory studies/ low
temperatures


Abstract: Simazine is a triazine herbicide used in
agriculture, pot-plant and tree production. The total
concentrations (dissolved + adsorbed) in soil depend on the
application rate, for example an application rate of 1500 g
simazine/ha will result in approximately 4 mg simazine/kg in the
top 1 cm. It may be spread to adjacent areas due to drift, runoff
or evaporation. In fresh water concentrations approximately 4 mug
simazine/l has been recorded. In aerial fallout-rain-concentrations
of 0.680 mug simazine/l has been recorded. In both soil and water,
degradation studies have in most cases shown DT50 times that vary
between a few days and 150 days, indicating that total or near
total disappearance time may be at least three times longer. Low
temperatures and drought may prolong the dissipation time by a
factor of two or more. Laboratory studies indicate that the primary
site of decomposition in the aquatic environment is the sediment.
Field studies showed deleterious effects of simazine on terrestrial
invertebrates at application rates below 2 kg simazine/ha. The
direct toxicity was not confirmed by laboratory results, however,
these were sparse and did not cover a broad range of soil
organisms. No field studies were found dealing with invertebrates,
but laboratory studies have shown deleterious effects of simazine
on aquatic invertebrates at concentrations above 20 mug simazine/l.
Simazine is phytotoxic to many non-target species at rates below
the recommended rate. At least under some environmental conditions,
simazine can remain for a long time in the active layer and still
be toxic to sensitive plants 1 year after application. Despite its
phytotoxicity many plant species become more and more tolerant in
cases of repeated use for many years and some have become
resistant. Simazine is not highly toxic to soil microflora and
algae, although some species definitely are affected both in an
inhibitory and a stimulatory way. Most investigations predict no
long-term consequences to soil and aquatic microflora in
association with recommended and appropriate use giving rise to
maximum expected environmental concentrations of 5 mg simazine/kg
in soil and 4 mug simazine/l in water.


© Thomson

554. A field guide for the assessment of
erosion, sediment transport, and deposition in incised channels of
the southwestern United States.


Parker, John T. C.; United States.
Bureau of Indian Affairs; and Geological Survey (U.S.).


Tucson, Ariz.: U.S. Dept. of the
Interior, U.S. Geological Survey; vi, 34 p.: col. ill.; Series:
Water-resources investigations report 99-4227. (2000)


Notes: Shipping list no.: 2000-0371-P. Includes
bibliographical references


(p 34).

NAL Call #:  GB701 .W375 no. 99-4227

Descriptors:  
Erosion---Southwestern States/
Sedimentation and deposition---Southwestern States/ Sediment
transport---Southwestern States/ River channels---Southwestern
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

555. Field guide to coastal wetland plants of
the southeastern United States.


Tiner, Ralph W.

Amherst: University of
Massachusetts Press; xiii, 328 p.: ill. (1993)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. 311-313)
and index.


NAL Call #:  QK125.T55--1993;

ISBN: 0870238329 (cloth: alk. paper); 0870238337
(pbk.: alk. paper)


Descriptors:  
Wetland plants---Southern
States---Identification/ Coastal plants---Southern
States---Identification/ Wetland plants---Southern
States---Pictorial works/ Coastal plants---Southern
States---Pictorial works


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

556. Field guide to compost use.

Composting Council.

Alexandria, Va.: Composting
Council; 128 p.: col. ill. (1996)


Notes: Cover title. Includes bibliographical references
(p. 124).


NAL Call #:  S661-.F54-1996

Descriptors:  
Compost  

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

557. Field guide to on-farm
composting.


Dougherty, Mark and Natural
Resource, Agriculture and Engineering Service. Cooperative
Extension.


Ithaca, N.Y.: Natural Resource,
Agriculture, and Engineering Service, Cooperative Extension; x, 118
p.: ill. (some col.); Series: NRAES 114. (1999)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.
115-118).


NAL Call #:  S675-.N72-no.-114; ISBN: 0935817395 (pbk.)

Descriptors:  
Compost---Handbooks, manuals,
etc


Abstract:  Topics discussed in the book
include: operations and equipment; raw materials and recipe making;
process control and evaluation; site considerations, environmental
management, and safety; composting livestock and poultry
mortalities; and compost utilization on the farm. Highlights of the
guide include an equipment identification table, diagrams showing
windrow formation and shapes, examples and equations for recipe
making and compost use estimation, a troubleshooting guide, and 24
full-color photos.


© Natural Resource, Agriculture and
Engineering Service (NRAES)

558. Field measurement of soil surface hydraulic
properties by disc and ring infiltrometers a review and recent
developments.


Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Vandervaere,
J. P.; Roulier, S.; Thony, J. L.; Gaudet, J. P.; and Vauclin,
M.


Soil and Tillage
Research
55 (1/2): 1-29.
(2000)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S48;

ISSN: 0167-1987

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

559. Field methods for measurement of fluvial
sediment.


Edwards, Thomas K.; Glysson, G.
Douglas.; and Geological Survey (U.S.).


Reston, Va.: U.S. Geological
Survey: Denver, Co.: Information Services; viii, 89 p.: ill.;
Series: Techniques of water-resources investigations of the United
States Geological Survey. Book 3, Applications of hydraulics, ch.
C2. (1999)


Notes: Revised edition; "U.S. Department of the
Interior, U.S. Geological Survey"--Verso t.p. Includes
bibliographical references (p. 87-89).


NAL Call #:  TC409 .U5 Book 3, ch. C2;
ISBN: 0607897384

Descriptors:  
Alluvium---Measurement/ Sediment
transport---Measurement


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

560. Field studies on pesticides and birds:
Unexpected and unique relations.


Blus, Lawrence J and Henny, Charles
J


Ecological
Applications
7 (4):
1125-1132. (1997)


NAL Call #:  
QH540.E23;

ISSN: 1051-0761

Descriptors:  
dicofol: pesticide/ famphur:
pesticide/ pesticide/ DDE: pesticide/ DDT: pesticide/ bird (Aves)/
Animals/ Birds/ Chordates/ Nonhuman Vertebrates/ Vertebrates/
eggshell thickness/ population stability/ productivity/
reproductive success/ survival/ trophic level
bioaccumulation


Abstract: We review the advantages and disadvantages
of experimental and field studies for determining effects of
pesticides on birds. Important problems or principles initially
discovered in the field include effects of DDT (through its
metabolite DDE) on eggshell thickness, reproductive success, and
population stability; trophic-level bioaccumulation of the
lipid-soluble organochlorine pesticides; indirect effects on
productivity and survival through reductions in the food supply and
cover by herbicides and insecticides; unexpected toxic effects and
routes of exposure of organophosphorus compounds such as famphur
and dimethoate; effects related to simultaneous application at full
strength of several pesticides of different classes; and others.
Also, potentially serious bird problems with dicofol, based on
laboratory studies, later proved negligible in the field. In
refining field tests of pesticides, the selection of a species or
group of species to study is important, because exposure routes may
vary greatly, and 10-fold interspecific differences in sensitivity
to pesticides are relatively common. Although there are limitations
with field investigations, particularly uncontrollable variables
that must be addressed, the value of a well-designed field study
far outweighs its shortcomings.


© Thomson

561. Fields of change: A new crop of American
farmers finds alternatives to pesticides.


Curtis, Jennifer. and Natural
Resources Defense Council.


New York, NY: Natural Resources
Defense Council; ix, 230 p.: ill., map. (1998)


Notes: "July, 1998." Includes bibliographical
references (p. 223-228).


NAL Call #:  S494.5.A65-C78-1998

Descriptors:  
Alternative agriculture---United
States/ Agricultural chemicals---Environmental aspects---United
States/ Pesticides---Environmental aspects---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

562. Fifty years of crop evapotranspiration
studies in Puerto Rico.


Harmsen, E. W.

Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
58 (4): 214-223.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  
crops/ water use/
evapotranspiration/ water resources/ Puerto Rico

563. Fifty years of entomological research in
orchard and vegetable crops in British Columbia.


Vernon, R. S.

Journal of the Entomological
Society of British Columbia
98: 143-151. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
420-B77;

ISSN: 0071-0733 [JEBCA4]

Descriptors:  
tree fruits/ vegetables/ arthropod
pests/ insect pests/ mites/ aphidoidea/ pest management/
pesticides/ entomology/ research/ literature reviews/ British
Columbia/ root maggots/ flea beetles


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

564. Final report of the Riparian Forest Buffer
Panel.


Riparian Forest Buffer Panel.
Chesapeake Bay Program (U.S.) and Chesapeake Executive
Council.


Philadelphia, Pa.: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Region III; 8 p.; Series: CBP/TRS
96/158. (1996)


Notes: "October 1996." "Printed by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency for the Chesapeake Bay Program"--P.
[2] of cover. "EPA 903-R-96-015."


NAL Call #:  QH541.5.R52-R58-1996

Descriptors:  
Riparian forests---Chesapeake
Bay---Md and Va/ Water quality management---Chesapeake Bay
Watershed---Md and Va/ Natural resources---Chesapeake Bay
Watershed---Md and Va/ Chesapeake Bay Watershed---Md and
Va


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

565. Fire and Aquatic Ecosystems in Forested
Biomes of North America.


Gresswell, R. E.

Transactions of the American
Fisheries Society
2: 193-221.
(1999);


ISSN: 0002-8487.

Notes: Publisher: American Fisheries Society

Descriptors:  
Aquatic ecosystems/ Forests/ Fires/
Vegetation patterns/ North America/ Ecosystem disturbance/ Fire/
Environmental protection/ Freshwater fish/ Ecosystem resilience/
Zoobenthos/ Nature conservation/ Aquatic communities/ Forest Fires/
Ecosystems/ Watersheds/ Fish/ Benthos/ Literature Review/ Habitats/
Aquatic environment/ Vegetation/ Weather/ Habitat/ Biota/ Wildlife/
Pisces/ Bacillariophyceae/ Invertebrata/ North America/ Freshwater/
Habitat community studies/ Mechanical and natural changes/
Watershed protection/ Environmental action


Abstract: Synthesis of the literature suggests that
physical, chemical, and biological elements of a watershed interact
with long-term climate to influence fire regime, and that these
factors, in concordance with the postfire vegetation mosaic,
combine with local-scale weather to govern the trajectory and
magnitude of change following a fire event. Perturbation associated
with hydrological processes is probably the primary factor
influencing postfire persistence of fishes, benthic
macroinvertebrates, and diatoms in fluvial systems. It is apparent
that salmonids have evolved strategies to survive perturbations
occurring at the frequency of wildland fires (100-102 years), but
local populations of a species may be more ephemeral. Habitat
alteration probably has the greatest impact on individual organisms
and local populations that are the least mobile, and reinvasion
will be most rapid by aquatic organisms with high mobility. It is
becoming increasingly apparent that during the past century fire
suppression has altered fire regimes in some vegetation types, and
consequently, the probability of large stand-replacing fires has
increased in those areas. Current evidence suggests, however, that
even in the case of extensive high-severity fires, local
extirpation of fishes is patchy, and recolonization is rapid.
Lasting detrimental effects on fish populations have been limited
to areas where native populations have declined and become
increasingly isolated because of anthropogenic activities. A
strategy of protecting robust aquatic communities and restoring
aquatic habitat structure and life history complexity in degraded
areas may be the most effective means for insuring the persistence
of native biota where the probability of large-scale fires has
increased.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

566. Fish and land-inland water ecotones:
Overview and synthesis.


Zalewski, M.; Schiemer, F.; and
Thorpe, J.


International journal of
ecohydrology and hydrobiology
1 (1-2): 261-266. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
QH541.15.E19 I58;

ISSN: 1642-3593.

Notes: Special Issue: Catchment Processes Land/Water
Ecotones and Fish Communities


Descriptors:  
Freshwater fish/ Riparian
environments/ Species diversity/ Population number/ Water quality/
Fishery management/ Stock assessment and management/ Conservation,
wildlife management and recreation


Abstract: The dramatic depletion of diversity and
standing crop of freshwater fish has been due mostly to degradation
of their habitats and water quality. To halt and reverse this
negative trend, a new approach is needed urgently toward
sustainability of fish resources. The UNESCO MAB programme on the
role of land-water ecotones has opened a new perspective towards
solving problems in landscape management and conservation.
Land-water ecotones, if restored and managed in a sustainable way,
can buffer and filter impacts on aquatic ecosystems due to
catchment development, by moderating hydrological processes,
improving water quality, and increasing spatial complexity of
habitats. This way, fish resources can be safeguarded, restored and
sustained. The programme of the "Fish and Land-Inland Water
Ecotones" (FLIWE) team has shown strong links between fish life
histories and structures and processes in land-water ecotones. To
be able to sustain freshwater fish populations a good understanding
is needed of the biological linkages and pathways through
land-water ecotones; of biogeochemistry; of modern techniques for
habitat inventories; and of methods of habitat evaluation, planning
and assessment of socio-economic feedback.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

567. Flood control and drainage
engineering.


Ghosh, S. N.

Rotterdam; Brookfield, VT: A.A.
Balkema; xiv, 299 p.: ill. (1997)


Notes: 2nd ed.; Includes bibliographical references and
index.


NAL Call #:  TC530.G56--1997;

ISBN: 9061914817

Descriptors:  
Flood control/ Drainage

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




568. Flood pulsing in wetlands: Restoring the
natural hydrological balance.


Middleton, Beth.

New York: Wiley, c2002. xii, 308
p.: ill., maps. (2002)


NAL Call #:  QH541.5.V3-F46-2002; ISBN: 0471418072 (alk. paper)

Descriptors:  
Floodplain ecology---North America/
Wetland restoration---North America


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

569. Flow Duration Curves 2: A Review of
Applications in Water Resources Planning.


Vogel, R. M. and Fennessey, N.
M.


Water Resources
Bulletin
31 (6): 1029-1039.
(1995);


ISSN: 0043-1370

Descriptors:  
water resources/ hydrology/ stream
flow rate/ river engineering/ flood control/ water resources
planning/ streamflow/ hydraulics/ engineering/ flow duration/
hydroelectric plants/ river regulation/ water allocation/ instream
flow/ Dynamics of lakes and rivers/ Techniques of
planning


Abstract: A streamflow duration curve illustrates
the relationship between the frequency and magnitude of streamflow.
Flow duration curves have a long history in the field of
water-resource engineering and have been used to solve problems in
water-quality management, hydropower, instream flow methodologies,
water-use planning, flood control, and river and reservoir
sedimentation, and for scientific comparisons of streamflow
characteristics across watersheds. This paper reviews traditional
applications and provides extensions to some new applications,
including water allocation, wasteload allocation, river and wetland
inundation mapping, and the economic selection of a water-resource
project.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

570. Fluorimetric analysis of pesticides:
Methods, recent developments and applications.


Coly, Atanasse and Aaron, Jean
Jacques


Talanta 46 (5): 815-843. (1998);

ISSN: 0039-9140

Descriptors:  
pesticides: analysis/ photochemical
reactivity/ photodegradation pathway


Abstract: The fluorimetric analysis of pesticides is
reviewed with emphasis on the description of direct and indirect
fluorimetric methods, including chemical derivatization,
fluorogenic labelling, and photochemically-induced fluorescence.
The use of fluorescence detection in TLC, HPLC and FIA as well as
applications to environmental samples are discussed in
detail.


© Thomson

571. Fluorimetric determination of nitrate and
nitrite.


Viriot, M L; Mahieuxe, B; Carre, M
C; and Andre, J C


Analusis 23 (7): 312-319. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
QD71.A52;

ISSN: 0365-4877

Descriptors:  
nitrate/ nitrite/ analytical method/
environmental chemistry/ fertilizer


© Thomson

572. Forage based farming, manure handling and
farm composting.


Koepf, Herbert H.

East Troy, Wis.: Michael Fields
Agricultural Institute; 48 p.: ill.; Series: Michael Fields
Agricultural Institute bulletin no. 4. (1993)


Notes: "This is a compilation of the proceedings of a
one day conference held on Thursday, March 18, 1993, at Michael
Fields Agricultural Institute, Inc., in East Troy, Wisconsin."
Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  S494.5.S86M53--no.4

Descriptors:  
Forage plants---Congresses/ Manure
handling---Congresses/ Sustainable
agriculture---Congresses


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

573. Forest ecosystem recovery in the southeast
US: Soil ecology as an essential component of ecosystem
management.


Johnston, J. M. and Crossley, D. A.
Jr.


Forest Ecology and
Management
155 (1/3):
187-203. (2002)


NAL Call #:  
SD1.F73;

ISSN: 0378-1127

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

574. Forest harvesting and riparian management
guidelines: A review.


Boothroyd, Ian.; Langer, E. R.; and
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
(N.Z.).


Wellington: NIWA; 53, 5 p.: ill.;
Series: NIWA technical report 1174-2631 (56). (1999)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.
48-53).


NAL Call #:  SD391-.B66-1999;

ISBN: 0478084773

Descriptors:  
Forests and forestry/ Riparian
areas---Management

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

575. Forest health monitoring in the United
States: First four years.


Alexander, S. A. and Palmer, C.
J.


Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment
55 (2): 267-277.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
TD194.E5;

ISSN: 0167-6369

Descriptors:  
Federal programs/ Government
programs/ Environmental monitoring/ Forests/ Research programs/
EPA/ United States/ Land pollution/ Management


Abstract: To address the need for more effective
methods for evaluating and assessing forest ecosystem health, the
USDA-Forest Service and the US Environmental Protection Agency
through its Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program
developed the Forest Health Monitoring program. The program was
initiated in 1990 and by 1994 was present in the major areas of the
United States. This paper presents an overview of the program, the
indicators and methods developed for the program, and some of the
results after four years of monitoring and research.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

576. Forest management and wildlife in forested
wetlands of the southern Appalachians.


Wigley, T Bently and Roberts,
Thomas H


Water Air and Soil
Pollution
77 (3-4): 445-456.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
TD172.W36;

ISSN: 0049-6979

Descriptors:  
animal (Animalia Unspecified)/ plant
(Plantae Unspecified)/ Animalia (Animalia Unspecified)/ Plantae
(Plantae Unspecified)/ animals/ plants/ biodiversity/ ecology/
environmental protection/ forestry/ habitat/ resource
management


Abstract: The southern Appalachian region contains a
variety of forested wetland types. Among the more prevalent types
are riparian and bottomland hardwood forests. In this paper we
discuss the temporal and spatial changes in wildlife diversity and
abundance often associated with forest management practices within
bottomland and riparian forests. Common silvicultural practices
within the southern Appalachians are diameter-limit cutting,
clearcutting, single-tree selection, and group selection. These
practices alter forest composition, structure, and spatial
heterogeneity, thereby changing the composition, abundance, and
diversity of wildlife communities. They also can impact special
habitat features such as snags, den trees, and dead and down woody
material. The value of wetland forests as habitat also is affected
by characteristics of adjacent habitats. More research is needed to
fully understand the impacts of forest management in wetlands of
the southern Appalachians.


© Thomson

577. Forest & Riparian Buffer Conservation:
Local Case Studies From the Chesapeake Bay Program.


Stabenfeldt, L.; Chesapeake Bay
Program, Forestry Workgroup of the Nutrient
Subcommittee.


Chesapeake Bay Program, 1996
(application/pdf)


NAL Call #: aQH104.5.C45 S73 1996

http://www.chesapeakebay.net/pubs/158.pdf

Descriptors:  
riparian areas/ riparian buffers/
riparian forests/ forest ecology/ conservation buffers/ ecological
restoration/ watershed management/ citizen participation/ local
government/ urban areas/ wildlife habitats/ public finance/ case
studies/ Delaware/ District of Columbia/ Maryland/ Pennsylvania/
Virginia/ West Virginia/ Chesapeake Bay/ GIS


Abstract:  A collection of case-studies that
highlight accomplishments of local governments and citizen
organizations to recognize the importance of forests to their
communities and to take action to retain and restore those
forests.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

578. Forested wetlands: Functions, benefits and
the use of best management practices.


Welsch, David J. and United States.
State and Private Forestry. Northeastern Area.


Radnor, PA: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Natural Resources Conservation
Service; S.l.: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife
Service; 62 p.: col. ill., col maps. (1995)


Notes: Cover title. Authors: David J. Welsch ... [et
al.]. "NA-PR-01-95." Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  aQH541.5.M3F67--1995

Descriptors:  
Forest ecology---United States/
Wetland ecology---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

579. Forests planted for ecosystem restoration
or conservation.


Harrington, C. A.

New Forests 17/18 (1/3/1): 175-190. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
SD409.N48;

ISSN: 0169-4286.

Notes: Special issue: Planted forests: Contributions to
the quest for sustainable societies / edited by J. R. Boyle, J.
Winjum, K. Kavanagh and E. Jensen. Paper presented at a symposium
held June 1995, Portland, Oregon. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
forest plantations/ ecosystems/
forest ecology/ nature conservation/ sustainability/ afforestation/
disturbed land/ planting/ land management/ stand establishment/
forest management/ fertilizers/ placement/ liming/ cultivation/
site preparation/ herbivores/ browsing/ vegetation management/
plant competition/ abiotic injuries/ wind/ sun/ species
differences/ growth/ nurse trees/ literature reviews


Abstract: Although the phrase, "planting for
ecosystem restoration," is of recent origin, many of the earliest
large-scale tree plantings were made for what we now refer to as
"restoration" or "conservation" goals. Forest restoration
activities may be needed when ecosystems are disturbed by either
natural or anthropogenic forces. Disturbances can impact (1) basic
components of the system (e.g., plant and animal composition, soil
pools, and atmospheric pools), (2) ecosystem processes, i.e.,
interactions among basic components, or (3) both components and
processes. Early efforts at restoration or site rehabilitation
focused primarily on reducing off-site impacts, such as sediment
introduced into streams from ecosystems that had been severely
disturbed. More recent restoration programs include ecosystems in
which only some of the components are missing or some of the
processes have been impacted. Restoration activities can begin
immediately after the disturbance has ended. Although forest
restoration projects can include many activities, planting is
almost always a key component. When planning an ecosystem
restoration project, land managers need to be aware that commonly
used plant establishment and management procedures may need to be
altered to meet project objectives. Some systems may have been so
severely impacted that ameliorative activities, e.g.,
fertilization, liming, land contouring, and microsite preparation,
will be necessary, prior to planting. Managers may also need to
take special measures to reduce herbivory, control competing
vegetation, or reduce physical damage from wind or sun. Choice of
species needs careful consideration. Desired species may not grow
well on degraded sites, may need a nurse species to become
established, or may not provide an opportunity to harvest a
short-term crop to reduce restoration costs. New methods may need
to be developed for projects that require underplanting or
interplanting. The end result of restoration should be an ecosystem
with the same level of heterogeneity inherent in an undisturbed
system; thus, managers should consider how pre- and postplanting
activities will affect system variability. As our understanding of
ecosystems has increased, so has our expectation that restored
ecosystems have the same components and function in the same manner
as do undisturbed systems. These expectations require that land
managers have more sophisticated information than was considered
necessary previously. In the absence of more pertinent information,
we can prescribe restoration activities based on results from
related ecosystems or on theoretical considerations. Additional
research, careful monitoring, and adaptive management are critical
to our long-term success.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

580. The Fourth no-till Q&A book: Practical
down-to-earth answers to 184 of the most commonly asked questions
about all aspects of no-till farming.


Lessiter, Frank.

Brookfield, WI: Lessiter
Publications; 48 p.: ill. (1993)


Notes: 4th ed.

NAL Call #:  S604.N675--1993

Descriptors:  
No tillage---United States/
Conservation tillage---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

581. Fractionation studies of trace elements in
contaminated soils and sediments: A review of sequential extraction
procedures.


Gleyzes, Christine; Tellier,
Sylvaine; and Astruc, Michel


Trends in Analytical
Chemistry
21 (6-7): 451-467.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
QD71.T7;

ISSN: 0165-9936

Descriptors:  
aluminum hydrous oxides/ anionic
species/ hydrogen peroxide/ hydroxylamine/ iron hydrous oxides /
manganese hydrous oxides/ metals: solid phase forms/ oxalate/
oxalic acid buffered solution/ sodium dithionite/ sodium hydroxide/
sodium hypochlorite/ sodium pyrophosphate/ trace elements/
agricultural soils/ contaminated sediments/ contaminated
soils


Abstract: Sequential selective extraction techniques
are commonly used to fractionate the solid-phase forms of metals in
soils. Many sequential extraction procedures have been developed,
particularly for sediments or agricultural soils, and, despite
numerous criticisms, they remain very useful. This article reviews
the reagents used in the various schemes, with their advantages and
disadvantages. The particular case of elements giving anionic
species is also developed. Finally, there is discussion of the
limits of sequential extraction procedures.


© Thomson

582. A framework for evaluating BMP effects on N
discharges from watersheds.


Shukla S and Mostaghimi
S.


In: ASAE Annual International
Meeting.
(Held 12 Jul
1998-16 Jul 1998 at Orlando, Florida.)


St. Joseph, Mich.: American Society
of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE); 21 p.; 1998.


Notes: ASAE Paper no. 982008

NAL Call #:  S671.3 .A54

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.




583. Framework for wetland systems management:
Earth resources perspective: Final report.


Warne, Andrew G.; Smith, Lawson M.;
United States. Army. Corps of Engineers; U.S. Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station; and Wetlands Research Program
(U.S.).


Vickburg, Miss: U.S. Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station; viii, 143 p.: ill. maps; Series:
Wetlands Research Program technical report WRP-SM-12.
(1995)


Notes: "October 1995." Includes bibliographical
references (p. 131-143).


NAL Call #:  QH541.5.M3W37--1995

Descriptors:  
Wetland ecology---United
States---Management/ Wetlands---United States---Management/
Ecosystems management---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

584. Fremont cottonwood-Goodding willow riparian
forests: A review of their ecology, threats, and recovery
potential.


Stromberg, J. C.

Journal of the
Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science
27 (1): 97-110. (1993)

NAL Call #:  
500-Ar44;

ISSN: 0193-8509 [JAASDM]

Descriptors:  
populus fremontii/ salix/ forest
ecology/ riparian forests/ endangered species/ forest resources/
literature reviews/ nature conservation/ Arizona/ California/ Utah/
salix gooddingii


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

585. Freshwater liming.

Henrikson, L; Hindar, A; and
Thornelof, E


Water Air and Soil
Pollution
85 (1): 131-142.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD172.W36;

ISSN: 0049-6979

Descriptors:  
calcium carbonate/ aluminum/ acid
deposition/ air pollution/ aluminum/ calcium carbonate/ cost
benefit analyses/ environmental contamination/ lake/
neutralization/ organic matter/ stream/ water pollution/
wetlands


Abstract: Operational liming of surface waters is
part of Sweden and Norway's strategy to counteract freshwater
acidification caused by air pollutants. Smaller scale liming
efforts are performed as research or experimental programs in other
countries. Yearly, approx. 300,000 tons of fine-grained limestone
(CaCO-3) is spread in lakes and streams and on wetlands to raise
the Ph in surface water at a cost of approximately 40-50 million
US. The chemical target is set by the biological goals and
objectives. A total of over 11,000 lakes and streams are treated on
a continuing basis. Dose calculations consider pH, inorganic
monomeric Al, dissolved organic matter and the necessary buffering.
Lake liming, limedosers at streams and terrestrial liming are used.
A mix of different liming techniques is often preferred to get an
optimal result. The vast majority of changes are desirable and
expected. Undesirable effects may appear and damaged wetlands are
probably the most serious ones. Cost-benefit analysis show that
liming may be profitable for the society. Recovery of the systems
can take up to 10-20 years. Liming will in the long run restore the
ecosystems but will not make them identical to what may be the
original ones. In some cases, complementary measures, e.g.
facilitation of recolonization, are necessary to enhance recovery.
Reduced emissions of acidifying pollutants according to signed
protocols will decrease the need for liming, but still liming is
needed for several decades in large regions to preserve
biodiversity.


© Thomson

586. Freshwater sediment toxicity tests:
Technical evaluations and responses with receiving water
sediments.


Haley, Richard K. and National
Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement
(U.S.).


Research Triangle Park, NC:
National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
Improvement; iii, 69, 6 p.: ill.; Series: Technical bulletin
(National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream
Improvement (U.S.): 1981) no. 719. (1996)


Notes: Cover title. Prepared by Richard K. Haley. "July
1996." Includes bibliographical references (p. 67-69).


NAL Call #:  TD899.P3N34--no.719

Descriptors:  
Toxicity testing---Methodology/
Sediments---Geology---Toxicology---United States/ Water quality
biological assessment---United States/ Effluent quality---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

587. From laboratory to field: Uses and
limitations of pesticide behaviour models for the soil/plant
system.


Boesten, J. J. T. I.

Weed Research 40 (1): 123-138. (Feb. 2000)

NAL Call #:  
79.8-W412;

ISSN: 0043-1737 [WEREAT]

Descriptors:  
pesticides/ soil/ mathematical
models/ simulation models/ pollution/ contamination/ movement in
soil/ volatilization/ surfaces/ rain/ plants/ persistence/
groundwater/ groundwater pollution/ simulation/ leaching/ water
quality/ validity/ literature reviews/ pesticide
residues


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

588. A functional classification of wetland
plants.


Boutin, C. and Keddy, P.
A.


Journal of Vegetation
Science
4 (5): 591-600.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
QK900.J67;

ISSN: 1100-9233

Descriptors:  
bog plants/ community ecology/ plant
ecology/ wetlands/ literature reviews/ pot experimentation/ North
America/ eastern North America


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

589. Functional ecology of vesicular arbuscular
mycorrhizas as influenced by phosphate fertilization and tillage in
an agricultural ecosystem.


Miller, M. H.; McGonigle, T. P.;
and Addy, H. D.


Critical Reviews in
Biotechnology
15 (3/4):
241-255. (1995)


NAL Call #:  
TP248.13.C74;

ISSN: 0738-8551

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

590. Fungicide resistance. Lessons for herbicide
resistance management?


Peever, Tobin L and Milgroom,
Michael G


Weed Technology 9 (4): 840-849. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
SB610.W39;

ISSN: 0890-037X

Descriptors:  
cross resistance/ fitness/ pathogen
populations


© Thomson



591. Future benefits from biological nitrogen
fixation: An ecological approach to agriculture.


Giller KE and Cadisch G

Plant and Soil 174 (1-2): 255-277. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
450 P696.

Notes: Number of References: 105; Extended versions of
papers presented at Management of biological nitrogen fixation for
the development of more productive and sustainable agricultural
systems: Symposium on biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable
agriculture at the 15th Congress of Soil Science / Acapulco,
Mexico, 1994


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

592. Future directions for biodiversity
conservation in managed forests: Indicator species, impact studies
and monitoring programs.


Lindenmayer, D. B.

Forest Ecology and
Management
115 (2/3):
277-287. (1999)


NAL Call #:  
SD1.F73;

ISSN: 0378-1127

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

593. The future of herbicides in weed control
systems of the Great Plains.


Lyon, D. J.; Miller, S. D.; and
Wicks, G. A.


Journal of Production
Agriculture
9 (2): 209-215.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
S539.5.J68;

ISSN: 0890-8524

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

594. Future of irrigated agriculture.

Vaux, H.

Ames, IA: Council for Agricultural
Science and Technology, 1996. 76 p.


Notes: "August 1996."

Descriptors:  
agriculture/ irrigation/ Western
United States/ agricultural policy/ groundwater/ water
supply


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

595. The future role of biotechnology in
integrated pest management.


Osir, E O and Gould, F

Insect Science and its
Application
15 (6): 621-631.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
QL461.I57;

ISSN: 0191-9040

Descriptors:  
animal (Animalia Unspecified)/
Animalia (Animalia Unspecified)/ animals/ agriculture/ biological
control/ biotechnology/ crop loss/ integrated pest management/
pest/ pest management/ population dynamics


Abstract: Crop losses caused by pests are a major
problem in both developed and developing countries. Increasing
awareness of the environmental consequences of indiscriminate use
of chemical pesticides has provided new impetus for the search for
alternative ways of managing pests. Particular emphasis has been
placed on strategies that cause less pollution to the environment
and those that are affordable, especially for the less developed
countries. One concept that has received a lot of attention is
integrated pest management (IPM), which seeks to manage pests and
minimise crop losses by using methods that are economically viable
and less harmful to the environment. At least three distinct
classes of new biotechnologies can have impacts on integrated pest
management. These include microbial biotechnologies, plant
molecular biology and genetics, and insect molecular biology and
genetics. For example, recent advances in molecular biology have
enabled scientists to overcome species barriers and to genetically
alter plants, animals and microorganisms in ways that were not
possible before. Already, several genetically altered plants which
express genes that confer protection against pests have been
produced. The techniques of biotechnology have also played
important roles in elucidating pest populations and in studying the
population dynamics of biological control agents and other types of
organisms that live in association with crop plants. This article
examines some of the major developments in the areas of molecular
biology, genetics and biotechnology and the potential impacts that
they could have on integrated pest management worldwide.


© Thomson

596. The future role of pesticides in US
agriculture.


National Research Council (U.S.).
Committee on the Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture and
National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Environmental Studies
and Toxicology.


Washington, D.C.: National Academy
Press; xx, 301 p.: ill. (2000)


NAL Call #:  SB950.2.A1-F88-2000; ISBN: 0309065267 (case bound)

http://www.nap.edu/books/0309065267/html/

Descriptors:  
Pesticides---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

597. Fuzzy environmental decision-making:
Applications to air pollution.


Fisher, Bernard

Atmospheric
Environment
37 (14):
1865-1877. (2003)


NAL Call #:  
TD881.A822;

ISSN: 1352-2310

Descriptors:  
air pollution/ air quality
management/ environmental decision making/ fuzzy set theory/ human
health assessment/ integrated pollution prevention/ uncertainty/
urban air quality


Abstract: This paper illustrates ways in which
concepts from fuzzy set theory may be applied to decision-making in
the environmental sciences. Examples of its application to
uncertainty, particularly in air pollution, are illustrated. No one
of a number of methods for dealing with uncertainty is advocated,
but rather a choice from a range of techniques should be made,
appropriate to the application. Use of fuzzy sets formalises the
underlying assumptions regarding uncertainty and therefore leads to
better decision-making. This paper illustrates the flexibility of
the approach, taking examples from air quality management,
integrated pollution prevention and control, and human health
assessment.


© Thomson

598. The General Ecology of Beavers (Castor
Spp.), As Related to Their Influence on Stream Ecosystems and
Riparian Habitats, and the Subsequent Effects on Fish: A
Review.


Collen, P and Gibson, RJ

Reviews in Fish Biology and
Fisheries
10 (4): 439-461.
(2000);


ISSN: 0960-3166

Descriptors:  
Aquatic mammals/ Freshwater ecology/
Habitat selection/ Environmental impact/ Interspecific
relationships/ Sedimentation/ Nature conservation/ Environmental
protection/ Habitat changes/ Water temperature/ Hydrology/ Dams/
Reviews/ Streams/ Riparian environments / Aquatic ecosystems/
Castor/ Salmonidae/ Castor canadensis/ Castor fiber/ Beavers/
Salmonids/ American Beaver/ European Beaver/ Species interactions:
general/ Mammals


Abstract: The Eurasian and North American beavers
are similar in their ecological requirements, and require water
deep enough to cover the entrance to their lodge or burrow. A food
cache is often built next to the lodge or burrow, except in some
southern areas. On small streams (up to fourth order) dams are
frequently built to create an impoundment, generally on low
gradient streams, although at high population densities dams may be
built on steeper gradient streams. On large rivers or in lakes,
simply a lodge with its food cache may be built. The beaver is a
keystone riparian species in that the landscape can be considerably
altered by its activities and a new ecosystem created. The stream
above a dam changes from lotic to lentic conditions. There are
hydrological, temperature and chemical changes, depending on types
of dams and locations. Although the invertebrates may be fewer per
unit area, total number of organisms increases, and diversity
increases as the pond ages. In cool, small order streams, the
impoundments provide better habitat for large trout, possibly
creating angling opportunities. However, at sites where water
temperatures rise above their optimum preferenda, salmonids may be
replaced by other species, such as cyprinids, catostomids, percids
or centrarchids. As the habitat is altered, interactions amongst
co-habiting species may change. For example, brown trout or brook
trout (charr) may become dominant over Atlantic salmon. In warm
water streams there may be a shift from faster water dwellers to
pond dwellers. Larger bodied fish, such as centrarchids and esocids
may displace smaller bodied fish such as cyprinids, providing
better angling. Refugia from high or low water flows, low oxygen or
high temperatures, may be provided in adverse conditions in winter
or summer. However, in some cases dams are obstructions to upstream
migration, and sediment may be deposited in former spawning areas.
The practicality and benefits of introducing or restoring beaver
populations will vary according to location, and should be
considered in conjunction with a management plan to control their
densities.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

599. Genetically modified crops and the
environment.


Barton, J. E. and Dracup,
M.


Agronomy Journal
92 (4): 797-803. (July 2000-Aug.
2000)


NAL Call #:  
4-AM34P;

ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT]

Descriptors:  
crops/ genetic engineering/
environmental protection/ nature conservation/ crop management/
risk assessment/ gene flow/ ecosystems/ environmental impact/
temporal variation/ spatial variation/ decision making/ monitoring/
sustainability/ literature reviews/ transgenic plants


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

600. Geochemical processes and nutrient uptake
by plants in hydric soils.


McKee, W. H. Jr. and McKevlin, M.
R.


Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry
12 (12): 2197-2207.
(Dec. 1993)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E58;

ISSN: 0730-7268 [ETOCDK].

Notes: Annual Review Issue: Wetland Ecotoxicology and
Chemistry. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
wetland soils/ flooding/ biological
production/ plant water relations/ plant nutrition/ metabolism/
mineral nutrition/ nutrient uptake/ soil physical properties/
reduction


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

601. Geographically isolated wetlands: A
preliminary assessment of their characteristics and status in
selected areas of the United States.


Tiner, Ralph W. and U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service. Region 5.


Hadley, Mass.: U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, Northeast Region. (2002)


Notes: Title from web page. "June 2002." Description
based on content viewed July 3, 2003. Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  QH87.3-.G64-2002

http://wetlands.fws.gov/Pubs%5FReports/isolated/report.htm

Descriptors:  
Wetlands---United States/ Wetland
ecology---United States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

602. Geology, climate, land, and water
quality.


Fox, D. G.; Jemison, R.; Potter, D.
U.; Valett, H. M.; and Watts, R.


In: Ecology, diversity, and
sustainability of the Middle Rio Grande Basin; Fort Collins, Colo.:
U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest
and Range Experiment Station, 1995. pp. 52-79.


NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42-no.268

Descriptors:  
pollutants/ geology/ climate/ water
quality/ rivers/ ecosystems/ topography/ hydrology/ river valleys/
drainage/ watersheds/ history/ human activity/ dams/ contamination/
water pollution/ organic compounds/ biocides/ radionuclides/ heavy
metals/ nutrients/ water availability/ water resources/ carbon
cycle/ sediment/ literature reviews/ New Mexico


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.




603. Geomorphic thresholds in riverine
landscapes.


Church, Michael

Freshwater Biology
47 (4): 541-557. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
QH96.F6;

ISSN: 0046-5070

Descriptors:  
alluvial deposits/ drainage basins/
flow regimes/ fluvial competence/ fluvial geomorphology/ geomorphic
thresholds/ habitat types/ human activity/ river channels: form,
processes/ river organization/ riverine landscapes/ sediment
caliber/ sediment quality/ sediment transport/
topography


Abstract: 1. Rivers are subject to thresholds of
several types that define significant changes in processes and
morphology and delimit distinctive riverine landscapes and
habitats. Thresholds are set by the conditions that govern river
channel process and form, amongst which the most important are the
flow regime, the quantity and calibre of sediment delivered to the
channel, and the topographic setting (which determines the gradient
of the channel). These factors determine the sediment transport
regime and the character of alluvial deposits along the channel. 2.
Changes occur systematically along the drainage system as flow,
gradient and sediment character change, so a characteristic
sequence of morphological and habitat types - hence of riverine
landscapes - can be described from uplands to distal channels. The
sequence is closely associated with stream competence to move
sediment and with bank stability. 3. The paper proposes a first
order classification of river channel and landscape types based on
these factors. The riverine landscape is affected seasonally by
flow thresholds, and further seasonal thresholds in northern rivers
are conditioned by the ice regime. 4. It is important to understand
geomorphic thresholds in rivers not only for the way they determine
morphology and habitat, but because human activity can precipitate
threshold crossings which change these features significantly,
through either planned or inadvertent actions. Hence, human actions
frequently dictate the character of the riverine
landscape.


© Thomson

604. Global estimates of potential mitigation of
greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture.


Cole, C. V.; Duxbury, J.; Freney,
J.; Heinemeyer, O.; Minami, K.; Mosier, A.; Paustian, K.;
Rosenberg, N.; Sampson, N.; Sauerbeck, D.; and Zhao, Q.


Nutrient Cycling in
Agroecosystems
49 (1/3):
221-228. (1997)


NAL Call #:  
S631 .F422

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

605. Global patterns of dissolved N, P and Si in
large rivers.


Turner, R. E.; Rabalais, N. N.;
Justic, D.; and Dortch, Q.


Biogeochemistry 64 (3):  297-317. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
QH345.B564;

ISSN: 0168-2563

Descriptors:  
Environment/ Ecology/ coastal
waters/ estuaries/ large rivers/ limnology/ nitrogen/ nutrient
ratios/ phosphate/ silicate/ stoichiometry/ Mississippi River/
coastal eutrophication/ Brest, France/ food webs/ nitrogen/
silicate/ phytoplankton/ nutrient/ waters/ ocean


Abstract: The concentration of dissolved inorganic
nitrogen (DIN), dissolved nitrate-N, Total-N (TN), dissolved
inorganic phosphate (DIP), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved
silicate-Si (DSi) and their ratios in the world's largest rivers
are examined using a global data base that includes 37% of the
earth's watershed area and half its population. These data were
compared to water quality in 42 subbasins of the relatively
well-monitored Mississippi River basin (MRB) and of 82 small
watersheds of the United States. The average total nitrogen
concentration varies over three orders of magnitude among both
world river watersheds and the MRB, and is primarily dependent on
variations in dissolved nitrate concentration, rather than
particulate or dissolved organic matter or ammonium. There is also
a direct relationship between the DIN: DIP ratio and nitrate
concentration. When nitrate-N exceeds 100 mug-at l(-1), the DIN:
DIP ratio is generally above the Redfield ratio (16:1), which
implies phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth. Compared to
nitrate, the among river variation in the DSi concentration is
relatively small so that the DSi loading (mass/area/time) is
largely controlled by runoff volume. The well-documented influence
of human activities on dissolved inorganic nitrogen loading thus
exceeds the influences arising from the great variability in soil
types, climate and geography among these watersheds. The DSi:
nitrate-N ratio is controlled primarily by nitrogen loading and is
shown to be inversely correlated with an index of landscape
development-the "City Lights" nighttime imagery. Increased nitrogen
loading is thus driving the world's largest rivers towards a higher
DIN: DIP ratio and a lower DSi: DIN ratio. About 7.3 and 21% of the
world's population lives in watersheds with a DSi: nitrate-N ratio
near a 1:1 and 2:1 ratio, respectively. The empirical evidence is
that this percentage will increase with further economic
development. When the DSi: nitrate-N atomic ratio is near 1:1,
aquatic food webs leading from diatoms (which require silicate) to
fish may be compromised and the frequency or size of harmful or
noxious algal blooms may increase. Used together, the DSi:
nitrate-N ratio and nitrate-N concentration are useful and robust
comparative indicators of eutrophication in large rivers. Finally,
we estimate the riverine loading to the ocean for nitrate-N, TN,
DIP, TP and DSi to be 16.2, 21, 2.6, 3.7 to 5.6, and 194 Tg yr(-1),
respectively.


© Thomson ISI

606. Glyphosate-resistant soybean as a weed
management tool: Opportunities and challenges.


Reddy, K. N.

Weed Biology and
Management
1 (4): 193-202.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
SB610-.W447;

ISSN: 1444-6162

Descriptors:  
glycine max/ glyphosate/ herbicide
resistance/ weed control/ transgenic plants/ weeds/ costs/
innovation adoption/ integrated pest management/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

607. Grass roots range management education with
a high-tech twist.


Surber, G. and Porter,
S.


In: People and rangelands: Building
the future: Proceedings of the VI International Rangeland
Congress.
(Held 19 Jul
1999-23 Jul 1999 at Townsville, Queensland, Australia.) Eldridge,
D. and Freudenberger, D. (eds.); Vol. 1-2.


Aitkenvale, Australia:
International Rangeland Congress; pp. 358-362; 1999.  

ISBN: 0-9577394-0-0

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

608. Grass versus trees: Managing riparian areas
to benefit streams of central North America.


Lyons, J.; Trimble, S. W.; and
Paine, L. K.


Journal of the American
Water Resources Association
36 (4): 919-930. (Aug. 2000)

NAL Call #:  
GB651.W315;

ISSN: 1093-474X [JWRAF5]

Abstract: Forestation of riparian areas has long
been promoted to restore stream ecosystems degraded by agriculture
in central North America. Although trees and shrubs in the riparian
zone can provide many benefits to streams, grassy or herbaceous
riparian vegetation can also provide benefits and may be more
appropriate in some situations. Here we review some of the positive
and negative implications of grassy versus wooded riparian zones
and discuss potential management outcomes. Compared to wooded
areas, grassy riparian areas result in stream reaches with
different patterns of bank stability, erosion, channel morphology,
cover for fish, terrestrial runoff, hydrology, water temperature,
organic matter inputs, primary production, aquatic
macroinvertebrates, and fish. Of particular relevance in
agricultural regions, grassy riparian areas may be more effective
in reducing bank erosion and trapping suspended sediments than
wooded areas. Maintenance of grassy riparian vegetation usually
requires active management (e.g., mowing, burning, herbicide
treatments, and grazing), as successional processes will tend
ultimately to favor woody vegetation. Riparian agricultural
practices that promote a dense, healthy, grassy turf, such as
certain types of intensively managed livestock grazing, have
potential to restore degraded stream ecosystems.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

609. Grazing animals as weed control
agents.


Popay, I. and Field, R.

Weed Technology 10 (1): 217-231. (Mar. 1996)

NAL Call #:  
SB610.W39;

ISSN: 0890-037X

Descriptors:  
weed control/ grazing/ reviews/
cattle/ goats/ sheep/ Control


Abstract: Literature on the effectiveness of grazing
animals (especially cattle, goats, and sheep) in controlling weeds
is reviewed. Availability of animals and the ability to fence them
onto or off weed infestations are essential. Weeds of pastures are
the most suitable subjects for control, although weeds of arable
crops, forestry, and waste places are sometimes amenable to control
by grazing animals. Although grazing animals themselves often cause
weed problems in pasture, adjusting grazing timing or intensity or
both can sometimes redress the balance. Increasing sheep or cattle
stocking rates prevents animals from grazing selectively and can
help control some weeds. Adjusting grazing pressure can also
improve the growth of desirable pasture species so that these are
more competitive and able to resist invasion of annual or biennial
weeds. Introducing a different class of stock, like sheep into a
cattle system or goats into a sheep system can control many weeds.
Goats are capable of browsing on and controlling spiny or poisonous
brush weeds, including gorse and poison ivy, without suffering
adverse effects. Examples are given of the use of grazing animals
for weed control in crops and forestry.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

610. Grazing management for riparian wetland
areas.


Leonard, S. G.; National Applied
Resource Sciences Center (U.S.); and United States. Forest
Service.


Denver, CO: U.S. Dept. of the
Interior, Bureau of Land Management, National Applied Resource
Sciences Center; viii, 63 p.: ill.; Series: Riparian area
management. Technical reference (United States. Bureau of Land
Management) 1737-14. (1997)


Notes: "U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service"--Cover. Shipping list no.: 98-0126-P.
"BLM/RS/ST-97/002+1737"--P. [2] of cover. Includes bibliographical
references (p. 57-63). SUDOCS: I 53.35:1737-14.


NAL Call #:  SF85.3.G75--1997

Descriptors:  
Range management---United States/
Grazing---Environmental aspects---United States/ Riparian
ecology---United States/ Wetland conservation---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

611. Green-Ampt runoff model: A
review.


Manivannan, S. and Raman, S.
S.


Indian Journal of Soil
Conservation
31 (2): 105-113.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
S625.I47S6;

ISSN: 0970-3349

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

612. Green revolution: Preparing for the 21st
century.


Khush, G. S.

Genome 42 (4): 646-655. (Aug. 1999)

NAL Call #:  
QH431.G452;

ISSN: 0831-2796 [GENOE3].

Notes: Genetic resources, biotechnology and world food
supply: A special symposium held June 20-21, 1997, London, Ontario,
Canada. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
green revolution/ genetic
improvement/ food security/ sustainability/ agriculture/ maximum
yield/ high yielding varieties/ yield increases/ food production/
population growth/ triticum aestivum/ oryza sativa/ fertilizers/
lodging/ resistance/ disease resistance/ pest resistance/ genetic
resistance/ irrigation/ government policy/ literature
reviews


Abstract: In the 1960s there were large-scale
concerns about the world's ability to feed itself. However,
widespread adoption of "green revolution" technology led to major
increases in food-grain production. Between 1966 and 1990, the
population of the densely populated low-income countries grew by
80%, but food production more than doubled. The technological
advance that led to the dramatic achievements in world food
production over the last 30 years was the development of
high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties are
responsive to fertilizer inputs, are lodging resistant, and their
yield potential is 2-3 times that of varieties available prior to
the green revolution. In addition, these varieties have multiple
resistance to diseases and insects and thus have yield stability.
The development of irrigation facilities, the availability of
inorganic fertilizers, and benign government policies have all
facilitated the adoption of green-revolution technology. In the
1990s, the rate of growth in food-grain production has been lower
than the rate of growth in population. If this trend is not
reversed, serious food shortages will occur in the next century. To
meet the challenge of feeding 8 billion people by 2020, we have to
prepare now and develop the technology for raising farm
productivity. We have to develop cereal cultivars with higher yield
potential and greater yield stability. We must also develop
strategies for integrated nutrient management, integrated pest
management, and efficient utilization of water and soil
resources.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

613. The green technology of selenium
phytoremediation.


Banuelos, G S

Biofactors 14 (1-4): 255-260. (2001);

ISSN: 0951-6433

Descriptors:  
selenium: pollutant, toxin/
selenoprotein/ Brassica sp. (Cruciferae)/ canola (Cruciferae)/
microorganism (Microorganisms)/ Angiosperms/ Dicots/
Microorganisms/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants/
agricultural effluent/ contaminated sediments/ selenium laden
soil


Abstract: Selenium toxicity is encountered in arid
and semi-arid regions of the world with alkaline, seleniferous
soils derived from marine sediments. Once present in soils and
waters at high concentrations, Se is very complicated and highly
expensive to remove with conventional physical and chemical
techniques. Phytoremediation is a plant-based technology that is
being considered for managing Se in central California soils. The
technology involves the use of plants in conjunction with microbial
activity associated with the plants to extract, accumulate, and
volatilize Se. Once absorbed by plant roots, Se is translocated to
the shoot where it may be harvested and removed from the site.
Therefore, plant species used for phytoremediation of Se-laden
soils may by plant uptake and volatilization minimize the Se load
eventually entering agricultural effluent and the harvested crop
can be carefully blended with animal forage and fed to animals in
Se-deficient areas.


© Thomson

614. Greenhouse gas emissions from farmed
organic soils: A review.


Kasimir, Klemedtsson A;
Klemedtsson, L; Berglund, K; Martikainen, P; Silvola, J; and
Oenema, O


Soil Use and
Management
13 (4
[supplement]): 245-250. (1997)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S68;

ISSN: 0266-0032

Descriptors:  
carbon dioxide: greenhouse gas/
methane: greenhouse gas/ nitrous oxide: greenhouse gas/
agriculture/ climate change/ farmed organic soil/ greenhouse gas
emission/ soil management


Abstract: The large boreal peatland ecosystems
sequester carbon and nitrogen from the atmosphere due to a low
oxygen pressure in waterlogged peat. Consequently they are sinks
for CO2 and strong emitters of CH4. Drainage and cultivation of
peatlands allows oxygen to enter the soil, which initiates
decomposition of the stored organic material, and in turn CO2 and
N2O emissions increase while CH4 emissions decrease. Compared to
undrained peat, draining of organic soils for agricultural purposes
increases the emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) by
roughly 1 t CO2 equivalents/ha per year. Although farmed organic
soils in most European countries represent a minor part of the
total agricultural area, these soils contribute significantly to
national greenhouse gas budgets. Consequently, farmed organic soils
are potential targets for policy makers in search of socially
acceptable and economically cost-efficient measures to mitigate
climate gas emissions from agriculture. Despite a scarcity of
knowledge about greenhouse gas emissions from these soils, this
paper addresses the emissions and possible control of the three
greenhouse gases by different managements of organic soils. More
precise information is needed regarding the present trace gas
fluxes from these soils, as well as predictions of future emissions
under alternative management regimes, before any definite policies
can be devised.


© Thomson

615. A greenhouse without pesticides: Fact or
fantasy.


Lenteren, J. C. van.

Crop Protection 19 (6):  375-384. (July
2000)


NAL Call #:  
SB599.C8;

ISSN: 0261-2194 [CRPTD6]

Descriptors:  
greenhouse culture/ plant
protection/ crops/ integrated pest management/ plant disease
control/ biological control/ natural enemies/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

616. Ground water contaminants and their
sources-a review of state reports.


Canter, L. W. and Maness,
K.


International Journal of
Environmental Studies
47 (1):
1-17. (1995);


ISSN: 0020-7233

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

617. Groundwater as a Geologic Agent: An
Overview of the Causes, Processes, and Manifestations.


Toth, J.

Hydrogeology Journal
7 (1): 1-14. (1999);

ISSN: 1431-2174.

Notes: DOI: 10.1007/s100400050176

Descriptors:  
Groundwater/ Geology/ Porous Media/
Geohydrologic Units/ Hydraulics/ Geochemistry/ Soil Mechanics/ Rock
Mechanics/ Geomorphology/ Groundwater


Abstract: The objective of the present paper is to
show that groundwater is a general geologic agent. This perception
could not, and did not, evolve until the system nature of basinal
groundwater flow and its properties, geometries, and controlling
factors became recognized and understood through the 1960s and
1970s. The two fundamental causes for groundwater's active role in
nature are its ability to interact with the ambient environment and
the systematized spatial distribution of its flow. Interaction and
flow occur simultaneously at all scales of space and time, although
at correspondingly varying rates and intensities. Thus, effects of
groundwater flow are created from the land surface to the greatest
depths of the porous parts of the Earth's crust, and from a day's
length through geologic times. Three main types of interaction
between groundwater and environment are identified in this paper,
with several special processes for each one, namely: (1) Chemical
interaction, with processes of dissolution, hydration, hydrolysis,
oxidation-reduction, attack by acids, chemical precipitation, base
exchange, sulfate reduction, concentration, and ultrafiltration or
osmosis; (2) Physical interaction, with processes of lubrication
and pore-pressure modification; and (3) Kinetic interaction, with
the transport processes of water, aqueous and nonaqueous matter,
and heat. Owing to the transporting ability and spatial patterns of
basinal flow, the effects of interaction are cumulative and
distributed according to the geometries of the flow systems. The
number and diversity of natural phenomena that are generated by
groundwater flow are almost unlimited, due to the fact that the
relatively few basic types are modified by some or all of the three
components of the hydrogeologic environment: topography, geology,
and climate. The six basic groups into which manifestations of
groundwater flow have been divided are: (1) Hydrology and
hydraulics; (2) Chemistry and mineralogy; (3) Vegetation; (4) Soil
and rock mechanics; (5) Geomorphology; and (6) Transport and
accumulation. Based on such a diversity of effects and
manifestations, it is concluded that groundwater is a general
geologic agent.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

618. Groundwater quality.

Mayer, A. S.; Imhoff, P. T.;
Mitchell, R. J.; Rabideau, A. J.; McBride, J. F.; and Miller, C.
T.


Water Environment
Research
66 (4): 532-585.
(June 1994)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303 [WAERED]

Descriptors:  
groundwater pollution/ pollutants/
transport processes/ water quality/ monitoring/ biodegradation/
movement in soil/ groundwater flow/ sorption/ desorption/
pesticides/ leaching/ models/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

619. Groundwater quality.

Mayer, A. S.; Mitchell, R. J.;
Carriere, P. P. E.; Hein, G. L.; Rabideau, A. J.; and Wojick, C.
L.


Water Environment
Research
67 (4): 629-685.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1047-7624

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

620. Groundwater quality.

Mayer, A. S.; Carriere, P. P. E.;
Gallo, C.; Pennell, K. D.; Taylor, T. P.; Williams, G. A.; and
Zhong, L.


Water Environment
Research
69 (4): 777-844.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1047-7624

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

621. Growth and functioning of roots and of root
systems subjected to soil compaction: Towards a system with
multiple signalling?


Tardieu, F.

Soil and Tillage
Research
30 (2/4): 217-243.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S48;

ISSN: 0167-1987.

Notes: Issue editor: Jensen, H. E.

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

622. A guidebook for application of
hydrogeomorphic assessments to riverine wetlands.


Brinson, Mark M. and United States.
Army. Corps of Engineers. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment
Station. Wetlands Research Program (U.S.).


Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station; Series: Wetlands Research Program
technical report WRP-DE-11. (1995)


Notes: Title from caption. At head of title: Wetlands
Research Program. "December 1995 - Operational draft." Includes
bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  GB621-.G84-1995

http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/wetlands/pdfs/wrpde11.pdf

Descriptors:  
Wetlands Classification/ Ecosystem
management/ Wetlands---Law and legislation---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

623. Guideline for dairy manure management from
barn to storage.


Weeks, Stanley A.

Ithaca, N.Y.: Northeast Regional
Agricultural Engineering Service; vii, 36 p.: ill.; Series: NRAES
108. (1998)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.
36).


NAL Call #:  S675-.N72-no.108;

ISBN: 0935817271

Abstract:  The 36-page guideline covers the
following topics: planning the development or improvement of a
manure handling system, getting technical information and
assistance, and meeting regulations; manure characteristics and
production; alternatives for manure management; options for
transferring manure from barn to storage; and manure storage types
and storage management.


© Natural Resource, Agriculture and
Engineering Service (NRAES)

624. Guideline for dairy odor
management.


Wright, P. E.; Graves, R. E.; and
Koelsch, R. K.


Ithaca, NY: Natural Resource,
Agriculture, and Engineering Service//Dairy Practices Council
NRAES-146; 34 p. (2001);


ISBN: 0-935817-65-4

Descriptors:  
dairy farm management/ odor control/
animal manure management


Abstract:  This guideline, a joint publication
between NRAES and the Dairy Practices Council, presents various
ways to reduce or eliminate odor from dairy manure and other
sources on dairy farms. Topics covered include odors: perception,
characteristics, and measurement; sources of on-farm odors;
preventing and reducing odors from livestock and other facilities;
preventing and reducing odors from manure handling systems;
reducing odors during land application; and neighbor relations and
regulation. An appendix provides an off-site odor report that can
be used by producers to survey farm neighbors and help pinpoint
odor problems. Nineteen figures and three tables supplement the
text.


© Natural Resource, Agriculture and
Engineering Service (NRAES)

625. Guideline for milking center
wastewater.


Wright, P. and Graves, R.
E.


Ithaca, NY: Natural Resource,
Agriculture, and Engineering Service NRAES-115; 34 p.
(1998);


ISBN: 0-935817-26-3

Descriptors:  
wastewater/ milking/ drainage/ laws
and regulations / animal manure management


Abstract:  Topics covered include wastewater
characteristics and estimating the amount of waste produced; source
control of milking center wastewater; the milking center drainage
system, including codes and regulations, components, and drainage
systems for the milking center; and treatment alternatives,
including liquid manure system, short-term storage and land
application with manure spreader, settling tanks, grass filter,
aerobic lagoon, organic filter bed, septic system, constructed
wetlands, stone-filled treatment trench, spray irrigation, lime
flocculator treatment, and aerated septic system. Safety and health
concerns are also summarized.


© Natural Resource, Agriculture and
Engineering Service (NRAES)

626. Guidelines for managing cattle grazing in
riparian areas to protect water quality: Review of research and
best management practices policy.


Mosley, Jeffrey C.

Moscow, ID: Idaho Forest, Wildlife
and Range Policy Analysis Group, University of Idaho; v, 67 p.:
col. ill.; Series: Report (Idaho Forest, Wildlife, and Range Policy
Analysis Group) no. 15. (1997)


Notes: "December 1997"--Cover. Includes bibliographical
references (p. 51-63).


NAL Call #:  SF85.35.I2G95--1997

Descriptors:  
Grazing---Idaho---Management/ Water
quality---Idaho/ Riparian areas---Idaho---Management / Stream
conservation---Idaho


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

627. Guiding concepts for the application of
indicators to interpret change in soil properties and processes in
forests.


Raison, R. J. and Rab, M.
A.


In: Criteria and indicators for
sustainable forest management: Papers presented at a
IUFRO/CIFOR/FAO conference, Sustainable forest management:
Fostering stakeholder input to advance development of
scientifically based indicators.
(Held Aug 1998 at Melbourne, Australia.) Raison,
R. J.; Brown, A. G.; and Flinn, D. W. (eds.)


Wallingford, UK: CAB International;
pp. 231-258; 2001.  


ISBN: 0-85199-392-3

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

628. Guiding principles for constructed
treatment wetlands: Providing for water quality and wildlife
habitat.


Interagency Workgroup on
Constructed Wetlands (U.S.) and United States. Environmental
Protection Agency. Office of Wetlands, Oceans and
Watersheds.


Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds.
(2001)


Notes: Rev. 06/26/2001, Original document published in
2000; Title from web page. Developed by Interagency Workgroup on
Constructed Wetlands. "October 2000" Description based on content
viewed April 11, 2002. "EPA-843-B-00-003" Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  TD756.5-.G85-2000

http://www.epa.gov/owow/wetlands/constructed/

Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands---United
States/ Water quality---United States/ Water quality
management---United States/ Wetland ecology---United
States


Abstract:  This User's Guide provides: guiding
principles for planning, siting, design, construction, operation,
maintenance, and monitoring of constructed treatment wetlands;
information on current [Environmental Protection] Agency policies,
permits, regulations, and resources; and answers to common
questions.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

629. Gully erosion and environmental change:
Importance and research needs.


Poesen, J.; Nachtergaele, J.;
Verstraeten, G.; and Valentin, C.


Catena 50 (2/4): 91-133. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
GB400.C3;

ISSN: 0341-8162

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

630. Habitat coupling in lake
ecosystems.


Schindler, Daniel E and Scheuerell,
Mark D


Oikos 98 (2): 177-189. (2002);

ISSN: 0030-1299

Descriptors:  
nutrients/ aquatic organism
(Organisms)/ fish (Pisces): habitat couplers, omnivore/ organism
(Organisms): alien species, benthivorous consumer, carnivore/
plankton (Organisms)/ Animals/ Chordates/ Fish/ Nonhuman
Vertebrates/ Vertebrates/ anthropogenic disturbances/ benthic
habitats/ biological processes/ chemical processes/ ecological
characteristics/ ecosystem processes/ energy flow/ eutrophication/
evolutionary characteristics/ exotic species introduction/ food web
stability/ food web structure/ habitat coupling/ habitat
modification/ lake ecosystems/ nutrient cycling/ pelagic habitats/
physical processes/ population dynamics/ predator prey
interactions/ riparian habitats


Abstract: Lakes are complex ecosystems composed of
distinct habitats coupled by biological, physical and chemical
processes. While the ecological and evolutionary characteristics of
aquatic organisms reflect habitat coupling in lakes, aquatic
ecology has largely studied pelagic, benthic and riparian habitats
in isolation from each other. Here, we summarize several ecological
and evolutionary patterns that highlight the importance of habitat
coupling and discuss their implications for understanding ecosystem
processes in lakes. We pay special attention to fishes because they
play particularly important roles as habitat couplers as a result
of their high mobility and flexible foraging tactics that lead to
inter-habitat omnivory. Habitat coupling has important consequences
for nutrient cycling, predator-prey interactions, and food web
structure and stability. For example, nutrient excretion by
benthivorous consumers can account for a substantial fraction of
inputs to pelagic nutrient cycles. Benthic resources also subsidize
carnivore populations that have important predatory effects on
plankton communities. These benthic subsidies stabilize population
dynamics of pelagic carnivores and intensify the strength of their
interactions with planktonic food webs. Furthermore, anthropogenic
disturbances such as eutrophication, habitat modification, and
exotic species introductions may severely alter habitat connections
and, therefore, the fundamental flows of nutrients and energy in
lake ecosystems.


© Thomson

631. Handbook for wetland creation on reclaimed
surface mines.


Brooks, Robert P.; Gardner, T. W.;
United States. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and
Enforcement; Pennsylvania State University, Environmental Resources
Research Institute; and Penn State Cooperative Wetlands
Center


University Park, PA: Environmental
Resources Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University and
Penn State Cooperative Wetlands Center; Series: Report
(Pennsylvania State University, Environmental Resources Research
Institute) no. ER9503; iv, 59 p.: ill. (1995)


Notes: "May 1995" Includes bibliographical references
(p. 55-59). Prepared under Office of Surface Mining cooperative
agreement. GR196421.


NAL Call #:  S621.5.S8B762--1995

Descriptors:  
Abandoned mined lands reclamation/
Wetlands/ Constructed wetlands/ Strip mining---Environmental
aspects/ Reclamation of land


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

632. A handbook of constructed wetlands: A guide
to creating wetlands for: Agricultural wastewater, domestic
wastewater, coal mine drainage, stormwater in the Mid-Atlantic
Region.


Davis, Luise.; United States.
Natural Resources Conservation Service; United States.
Environmental Protection Agency. Region III; and Pennsylvania.
Dept. of Environmental Resources.


Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department
of Agriculture. (1995)


Notes: "This document was prepared by Luise Davis"--P.
[2] of cover; Contents note: v.1. General considerations -- v.2.
Domestic wastewater -- v.3. Agricultural wastewater -- v.4. Coal
mine drainage -- v.5. Stormwater.


NAL Call #:  TD756.5.D39--1995; ISBN: 0160529999 (v.1); 0160530008 (v.2); 0160530016
(v.3); 0160530024 (v.4); 0160530032 (v.5)


Descriptors:  
Constructed wetlands---Middle
Atlantic States---Handbooks, manuals, etc/ Sewage
Purification---Handbooks, manuals, etc/ Agricultural
pollution---Handbooks, manuals, etc/ Coal mine waste---Handbooks,
manuals, etc / Storm sewers---Handbooks, manuals, etc


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

633. Harvesting, propagating,and planting
wetland plants.


Hoag, J. Chris. and Plant Materials
Center


Aberdeen, ID: USDA, Natural
Resources Conservation Service, Plant Materials Center; Series:
Riparian/Wetland Project information series no. 14.
(2000)


Notes: Title from web page. "July, 2000." Description
based on content viewed May 8, 2002. Includes bibliographical
references.


NAL Call #:  aQK115-.H63-2000

http://plant-materials.nrcs.usda.gov/pubs/idpmcarwproj14.pdf

Descriptors:  
Wetland plants---United States/
Wetland plants---Harvesting---United States/ Wetland
plants---Propagation---United States/ Wetland
plants---Planting---United States/ Wetland
plants---Transplanting---United States/ Riparian ecology---United
States/ Revegetation---United States/ Wetlands---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

634. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) and their
effects on biodiversity: An overview of the atmospheric pathways of
persistent organic pollutants (POPS) and suggestions for future
studies.


Finizio, A.; Di Guardo, A.; and
Cartmale, L.


Environmental Monitoring and
Assessment
49 (2/3): 327-336.
(Feb. 1998)


NAL Call #:  
TD194.E5;

ISSN: 0167-6369 [EMASDH].

Notes: In the special issue: Atmospheric change and
biodiversity: formulating a Canadian science agenda / edited by
R.E. Munn. Proceedings of the workshop held February 26-29, 1996,
in Toronto, Canada. Includes references.


Descriptors:  
organic compounds/ organochlorine
pesticides/ air pollutants/ persistence/ biodiversity/ ecosystems/
toxicity/ atmosphere/ world/ cycling/ global atmospheric
change


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

635. Health Effects Associated With Wastewater
Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse.


Kindzierski, W. B.; Rogers, R. E.;
and Low, N. J.


Water Environment
Research
65 (6): 599-605.
(1993)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47

Descriptors:  
Literature review/ Public health/
Reviews/ Wastewater disposal/ Wastewater renovation/ Wastewater
treatment/ Water pollution effects/ Water reuse/ Chlorination/
Drinking water/ Hazardous wastes/ Human pathogens/ Nitrates/ Odors/
Organic compounds/ Shellfish/ Swimming pools/ Viruses/ Wastewater
treatment processes/ Ultimate disposal of wastes/ Preparation of
reviews


Abstract: The incidence of conditions such as
cardiovascular and respiratory diseases is higher among retired
sanitation workers of New York City than among closely matched
relatives. Infectious human immunodeficiency virus is reported to
be fairly stable in wastewater for up to 12 hr, but it experiences
a 2-log to 3-log reduction in infectivity after 48 hr. Other
studies of public-health implications of exposure to wastes and
wastewater include: the survival of hepatitis A virus on human
hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate
surfaces; the contamination of water supplies and shellfish by
Giardia cysts, Legionella pneumophila, hookworm (Necator
americanus), Aeromonas strains, Clostridium perfringens,
Enterobacteriaceae, Campylobacter jejuni, and fecal coliforms; ill
health in children aged 6-11 who used recreational beaches
contaminated with wastewater; viral contamination of adjacent
coastal bathing waters by wastewater outfalls and rivers; and
pathogen removal efficiency of wastewater treatment and renovation
schemes for purposes of wastewater irrigation. Residents near a
wastewater treatment plant quantified odors by completing a
numerical odor rating form for a 6-month period. A methodology for
predicting volatile organic chemical levels immediately downwind of
surface aeration wastewater treatment plants under neutral or
stable atmospheric conditions was developed. The effects on human
health of chemical contamination of drinking water supplies was
studied for arsenic, methylmercury, organic solvents, chloroform,
chlorine, and nitrate. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in swimming
pools was reported. Densely populated cities discharging untreated
wastewater into an estuary of Venezuela were likely responsible for
the presence of infectious enteroviruses in the water and
sediments. (Geiger-PTT)


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

636. Health Effects Associated With Wastewater
Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse.


Kindzierski, W. B. and Gabos,
S.


Water Environment
Research
67 (4): 749-755.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47;

ISSN: 1061-4303

Descriptors:  
literature review/ public health/
wastewater treatment/ wastewater disposal/ water reuse/ wastewater
collection/ water treatment facilities/ diseases/ human diseases/
disease transmission/ pathogens/ waste water/ waste utilization/
hazard assessment/ Effects of pollution/ Public health/ medicines/
dangerous organisms


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

637. Health effects of aerial emissions from
animal production and waste management systems.


Schiffman, S. S.; Auverman, B. W.;
and Bottcher, R. W.


In: White papers on animal
agriculture and the environment/ National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management; Midwest Plan Service; and U.S. Department
of Agriculture; Raleigh, NC: National Center for Manure &
Animal Waste Management, 2001.


NAL Call #:  TD930.2-.W45-2002

Descriptors:  
Agricultural wastes---Environmental
aspects---United States




638. Health risks caused by freshwater
cyanobacteria in recreational waters.


Chorus, I.; Falconer, I. R.; Salas,
H. J.; and Bartram, J.


Journal of Toxicology and
Environmental Health: Part B, Critical Reviews
3 (4): 323-347. (2000)

NAL Call #:  
RA565.A1J6;

ISSN: 1093-7404

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

639. Herbaceous stubble height as a warning of
impending cattle grazing damage to riparian areas.


Hall, Frederick C.; Bryant, Larry.;
and Pacific Northwest Research Station


Portland, Or.: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station;
Series: General technical report PNW 362;


10 p.: ill. (1995)

Notes: Cover title. Distributed to depository libraries
in microfiche. Shipping list no.: 97-0633-M. "September 1995."
Includes bibliographical references (p. 7-9). SUDOCS: A
13.88:PNW-GTR-362.


NAL Call #:  Fiche-S-133-A-13.88:PNW-GTR-362

Descriptors:  
Grazing---Environmental
aspects---United States/ Riparian areas---United States/ Riparian
ecology---United States/ Vegetation monitoring---United
States


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

640. Herbicide dissipation studies in southern
forest ecosystems.


Michael, J. L. and Neary, D.
G.


Environmental Toxicology and
Chemistry
12 (3): 405-410.
(Mar. 1993)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E58;

ISSN: 0730-7268 [ETOCDK].

Notes: Paper presented at the "Symposium on Pesticides
in Forest Management, 11th Annual Meeting of the Society of
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry," November 11-15, 1990,
Arlington, Virginia. Literature review.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
watersheds/ forests/ picloram/
hexazinone/ imazapyr/ sulfonylurea herbicides/ pollution/
application methods/ surface water/ streams/ forest soils/
vegetation/ persistence/ degradation/ half life/ literature
reviews/ forestry/ southeastern states of USA/ sulfometuron
methyl


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

641. Herbicide effects on ground-layer
vegetation in southern pinelands (USA): A review.


Litt, Andrea R; Herring, Brenda J;
and Provencher, Louis


Natural Areas Journal
21 (2): 177-188. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
QH76.N37;

ISSN: 0885-8608

Descriptors:  
herbicides: pollutant, toxin/
Aristida beyrichiana [wiregrass] (Gramineae): nontarget organism/
Aristida stricta [wiregrass] (Gramineae): nontarget organism/ Pinus
palustris [longleaf pine] (Coniferopsida)/ woody plants
(Spermatophyta): endangered species, threatened species/
Angiosperms/ Gymnosperms/ Monocots/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/
Vascular Plants/ ecotoxicology/ experimental design/ ground layer
vegetation/ hardwoods/ pine plantations/ quantitative data/
southern pinelands/ species richness/ woody plant cover


Abstract: Despite the fact that herbicides are
widely used across the southeastern United States, their effects on
ground-layer vegetation (woody and herbaceous species <1.4 m
tall) are not well understood. We conducted a literature review to
examine published studies and compile available data. More than 125
studies were examined, based on several criteria (e.g., a sound
experimental design, quantitative data, study conducted in southern
pinelands). Only 21 studies were retained for our review, and the
majority of studies were conducted in pine plantations. Few clear,
consistent results were revealed, probably due in large part, to
the wide array of herbicides and diverse response variables
examined in the studies. Woody plant cover generally declined with
herbicide application, an expected result from use of
hardwood-specific herbicides in most studies, but results for
herbaceous plant cover were mixed. Most studies showed a decrease
in total (woody and herbaceous plant) species richness. We also
examined the response of plant species of special concern to
herbicide application. Most species declined, while wiregrass
(Aristida beyrichiana Trinius and Ruprecht (syn. A. stricta Michx.
s.i.)) showed mixed responses across studies. Because our findings
show that few studies have been conducted under natural conditions,
experimental design shortfalls have been common, and study
conclusions have been widely divergent, we suggest that research
precede extensive herbicide use in pinelands.


© Thomson

642. Herbicide-soil interactions in reduced
tillage and plant residue management systems.


Locke, M. A. and Bryson, C.
T.


Weed Science 45 (2): 307-320. (Mar. 1997-Apr.
1997)


NAL Call #:  
79.8-W41;

ISSN: 0043-1745 [WEESA6]

Descriptors:  
herbicides/ soil/ interactions/
no-tillage/ crop residues/ crop management/ sustainability/ cover
crops/ erosion/ soil water content/ weeds/ seedling emergence/
tilth/ conservation tillage/ tillage/ degradation/ leaching/
runoff/ sorption/ literature reviews


Abstract: Recent changes in technology; governmental
regulation and scrutiny, and public opinion have motivated the
agricultural community to examine current management practices from
the perspective of how they fit into a sustainable agricultural
framework. One aspect which can be incorporated into many existing
farming systems is plant residue management (e.g., reduced tillage,
cover crops). Many residue management systems are designed to
enhance accumulation of plant residue at the soil surface. The
plant residue covering the soil surface provides many benefits,
including protection from soil erosion, soil moisture conservation
by acting as a barrier against evaporation, improved soil tilth,
and inhibition of weed emergence. This review summarizes recent
literature (ca. last 25 yr) concerning the effects of plant residue
management on the soil environment and how those changes impact
herbicide interactions.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

643. Herbicides: A two-edged sword.

Kudsk, P and Streibig, J
C


Weed Research 43 (2): 90-102. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
79.8-W412;

ISSN: 0043-1737

Descriptors:  
herbicide: discovery, fate,
resistance/ crop plant (Angiospermae)/ weed (Tracheophyta)/
Angiosperms/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants


Abstract: Weeds cause yield losses and reductions in
crop quality. Prior to the introduction of selective herbicides,
the drudgery of manual weeding forced farmers to adhere to a suit
of weed management tactics by carefully combining crop rotation,
appropriate tillage and fallow systems. The introduction of
selective herbicides in the late 1940s and the constant flow of new
herbicides in the succeeding decades provided farmers with a new
tool, 'the chemical hoe', putting them in a position to consider
weed control more independently of the crop production system than
hitherto. The reliance on herbicides for weed control, however,
resulted in shifts in the weed flora and the selection of
herbicide-resistant biotypes. In the 1980s, the public concern
about side-effects of herbicides on the environment and human
health resulted in increasingly strict registration requirements
and, in some countries, political initiatives to reduce the use of
pesticides were launched. Today, the number of new herbicides being
introduced has decreased significantly and integrated weed
management has become the guiding concept. Farmers also have the
option of growing herbicide-resistant crops where the biology of
the crop has been adapted to tolerate herbicides considered safe to
humans and environmentally benign. This paper discusses some of the
recent developments in herbicide discovery, technology and fate,
and sketches important future developments.


© Thomson

644. Higher performance through combined
improvements in irrigation methods and scheduling: A
discussion.


Pereira, Luis S

Agricultural Water
Management
40 (2-3): 153-169.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
S494.5.W3A3;

ISSN: 0378-3774

Abstract: Prior to the discussion on approaches to
combine irrigation scheduling and water application practices,
several farm irrigation performance indicators are defined and
analysed. These indicators concern the uniformity of water
distribution along an irrigated field and the efficiency of on-farm
water application. Then, the analysis focus is on three main
irrigation systems: surface, sprinkler and microirrigation. For
each of these systems, the analysis concerns the main
characteristics and constraints of the systems, more relevant
aspects influencing irrigation performances, and approaches which
could lead to a more appropriate coupling of irrigation scheduling
and water application methods. Conclusions point out on the need
for combined improvements in irrigation scheduling and methods, for
expanding field evaluation of irrigation in farmers fields, for
improved design of on-farm systems, and for quality control of
irrigation equipments and design.


© Thomson



645. Higher plants as accumulative
bioindicators.


Weiss, P.; Offenthaler, I.;
Öhlinger, R.; and Wimmer, J.


In: Bioindicators and biomonitors:
Principles, concepts and applications/ Markert, B. A.; Breure, A.
M.; and Zechmeister, H. G., 2003; pp. 465-500.


ISBN: 0-08-044177-7

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

646. Higher-tier laboratory methods for
assessing the aquatic toxicity of pesticides.


Boxall, Alistair B A; Brown, Colin
D; and Barrett, Katie L


Pest Management
Science
58 (7): 637-648.
(2002)


NAL Call #:  
SB951-.P47;

ISSN: 1526-498X

Descriptors:  
pesticides: aquatic toxicity/ risk
assessment


Abstract: Registration schemes for plant-protection
products require applicants to assess the potential ecological risk
of their products using a tiered approach. Standard aquatic
ecotoxicity tests are used at lower tiers and clearly defined
methodologies are available for assessing the potential
environmental risks. Safety factors are incorporated into the
assessment process to account for the uncertainties associated with
the use of lower-tier single-species ecotoxicity studies. If
lower-tier assessments indicate that a substance may pose a risk to
the environment, impacts can be assessed using more environmentally
realistic conditions through the use of either pond mesocosms,
artificial streams or field monitoring studies. Whilst these
approaches provide more realistic assessments, the results are
difficult to interpret and extrapolation to other systems is
problematic. Recently it has been recognised that laboratory
approaches that are intermediate between standard aquatic toxicity
tests and field/mesocosm studies may provide useful data and help
reduce the uncertainties associated with standard single-species
tests. However, limited guidance is available on what tests are
available and how they can be incorporated into the risk-assessment
process. This paper reviews a number of these higher-tier
laboratory techniques, including modified exposure studies, species
sensitivity studies, population studies and tests with sensitive
life stages. Recommendations are provided on how the approaches can
be incorporated into the risk-assessment process.


© Thomson

647. The hindrance in the development of pit
additive products for swine manure odor control: A
review.


Zhu, J.; Bundy, D. S.; Li, X.; and
Rashid, N.


Journal of Environmental
Science and Health: Part A, Environmental Science and Engineering
and Toxic and Hazardous Substance Control
A32 (9/10): 2429-2448. (1997)

NAL Call #:  
TD172.J6;

ISSN: 1077-1204 [JESHE6]

Descriptors:  
pig manure/ odor abatement/
intensive livestock farming/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

648. Historical overview of
vermicomposting.


Edwards, C. A.

Biocycle 36 (6): 56-58. (June 1995)

NAL Call #:  
57.8-C734;

ISSN: 0276-5055

Descriptors:  
vermicomposting/ organic wastes/
waste utilization/ earthworms


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

649. History, Development and Characteristics of
Lake Ecological Models.


Xu, Fu-Liu; Tao, S. H.;

Dawson, R. W.; and Lu,
Xiao-Yan


Journal of Environmental
Sciences (China)
14 (2):
255-263. (2002);


ISSN: 1001-0742

Descriptors:  
Lakes/ Aquatic Habitats/ Ecosystems/
Model Studies/ Water Quality/ Eutrophication/ Wetlands/ Model
Testing/ Models/ Historical account/ Literature reviews/ Freshwater
ecology/ Acidification / Pollution effects/ Ecosystem management/
Lake dynamics/ Aquatic environment/ metals/ pesticides/ Lakes/
Habitat community studies/ Environmental Modeling


Abstract: This paper provides some introductory
information on the history, development, and characteristics of
various lake ecosystem models. The modeling of lake ecological
processes began to gain importance in the early 1960s. There are a
number of models available today, with varying levels of complexity
to cope with the variety of environmental problems found in lake
environments, e.g. eutrophication, acidification, oxygen depletion,
wetland management, heavy metal and pesticide pollution, as well as
hydrodynamic problems. In particular, this paper focuses on lake
eutrophication and wetland models, as well as addressing strategies
appropriate for the design and development of reliable lake
ecological models.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

650. History of coordinated resources management
planning (CRMP) in Oregon: An overview.


Anderson, E. W.

Rangelands 21 (2): 6-11. (Apr. 1999)

NAL Call #:  
SF85.A1R32;

ISSN: 0190-0528

Descriptors:  
range management/ resource
conservation/ game animals/ prescribed burning/ watershed
management/ environmental protection/ regional planning/
Oregon


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

651. Hormonal regulation in insects: Facts,
gaps, and future directions.


Gaede, G.; Hoffmann, K. H.; and
Spring, J. H.


Physiological Reviews
77 (4): 963-1032. (1997);

ISSN: 1031-9333

Descriptors:  
ecdysteroids/ juvenile hormones/
nEuropeptide hormones/ reviews/ Insecta/ Neuroendocrinology/
Hormones


Abstract: There are two main classes of hormones in
insects: 1) the true hormones produced by epithelial glands and
belonging to the ecdysteroids or juvenile hormones and 2) the
neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells. Members of
these classes regulate physiological, developmental, and behavioral
events in insects. Detailed accounts are given on isolation,
identification, structure-activity relationships, mode of action,
biological function, biosynthesis, inactivation, metabolism, and
feedback for hormones involved in 1) metabolic regulation such as
the adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic peptides and the diuretic and
antidiuretic peptides; 2) stimulation or inhibition of muscle
activity such as the myotropic peptides; 3) control of
reproduction, growth, and development such as allatotropins,
allatostatins, juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, folliculostimulins
and folliculostatins, ecdysis-triggering and eclosion hormones,
pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptides, and diapause
hormones; and 4) regulation of tanning and of color change. Because
of the improvements in techniques for isolation and structure
elucidation, there has been rapid progress in our knowledge of the
chemistry of certain neuropeptide families. With the employment of
molecular biological techniques, the genes of some neuropeptides
have been successfully characterized. There are, however, areas
that are still quite underdeveloped. These are, for example, 1)
receptor studies, which are still in their infancy; 2) the hormonal
status of certain sequenced peptides is not clarified; and 3)
functional studies are lacking even for established hormones. The
authors plead for a concerted effort to continue research in this
field, which will also advance our knowledge into the use of insect
hormones as safer and species-specific molecules for insect pest
management.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

652. How can increased use of biological N2
fixation in agriculture benefit the environment?


Jensen, E. S. and
Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.


Plant and Soil 252 (1):  177-186. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
450 P696;

ISSN: 0032-079X

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

653. How much biodiversity is enough.

Main, A. R.

Agroforestry Systems
45 (1/3): 23-41. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
SD387.M8A3;

ISSN: 0167-4366 [AGSYE6].

Notes: Special issue: Agriculture as a mimic of natural
ecosystems / edited by E.C. Lefroy, R.J. Hobbs, M.H. O'Connor and
J.S. Pate. Paper presented at a workshop held September 2-6, 1997,
Williams, Western Australia, Australia.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
biodiversity/ agriculture/
ecosystems/ sustainability/ genetic diversity/ species diversity/
history/ crop yield/ salinity/ erosion/ groundwater/ leaching/ soil
fertility/ risk reduction/ cycling/ plant pests/ plant diseases/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

654. Hungry water: Effects of dams and gravel
mining on river channels.


Kondolf, G Mathias

Environmental
Management
21 (4): 533-551.
(1997)


NAL Call #:  
HC79.E5E5;

ISSN: 0364-152X

Descriptors:  
channel instability/ conservation/
damming/ floodplain gravel pits/ gravel loss/ gravel mining/
reservoirs/ resource management/ river channels/ River Rhine/
sediment deposition/ sediment transport/ spawning
habitat


Abstract: Rivers transport sediment from eroding
uplands to depositional areas near sea level. If the continuity of
sediment transport is interrupted by dams or removal of sediment
from the channel by gravel mining, the flow may become
sediment-starved (hungry water) and prone to erode the channel bed
and banks, producing channel incision (downcutting), coarsening of
bed material, and loss of spawning gravels for salmon and trout (as
smaller gravels are transported without replacement from upstream).
Gravel is artificially added to the River Rhine to prevent further
incision and to many other rivers in attempts to restore spawning
habitat. It is possible to pass incoming sediment through some
small reservoirs, thereby maintaining the continuity of sediment
transport through the system. Damming and mining have reduced
sediment delivery from rivers to many coastal areas, leading to
accelerated beach erosion. Sand and gravel are mined for
construction aggregate from river channel and floodplains.
In-channel mining commonly causes incision, which may propagate up-
and downstream of the mine, undermining bridges, inducing channel
instability, and lowering alluvial water tables. Floodplain gravel
pits have the potential to become wildlife habitat upon
reclamation, but may be captured by the active channel and thereby
become instream pits. Management of sand and gravel in rivers must
be done on a regional basis, restoring the continuity of sediment
transport where possible and encouraging alternatives to
river-derived aggregate sources.


© Thomson

655. Hydraulic agitation of an earthen manure
storage: Final report.


Stock, Wayne F.; Prairie
Agricultural Machinery Institute (Canada); and Saskatchewan.
Agriculture Development Fund.


Regina, Saskatchewan: Saskatchewan
Agriculture Development Fund.; 15 p.: ill. (2000)


Notes: Cover title. "19980116." "February 2000."
Project Technologist Wayne Stock ... [et al.]. Cf.
prelim.


NAL Call #:  TD930.2-.H92-2000

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

656. A hydrogeomorphic classification for
wetlands.


Brinson, Mark M.; Wetlands Research
Program (U.S.); United States. Army. Corps of Engineers; and U.S.
Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.


Vicksburg, Miss.: U.S. Army
Engineer Waterways Experiment Station; Series: Technical report
(U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) WRP-DE-4.
(1993)


Notes: Title from caption. "August 1993." At head of
title: "Wetlands Research Program." "Final report." Includes
bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  GB621.B75-1993

http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/wetlands/pdfs/wrpde4.pdf

Descriptors:  
Wetlands Classification/
Geomorphology/ Hydrology/ Wetland ecology


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

657. Hydrologic and water quality impacts of
agricultural drainage.


Skaggs, R W; Breve, M A; and
Gilliamg, J W


Critical Reviews in
Environmental Science and Technology
24 (1): 1-32. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1C7;

ISSN: 1064-3389

Descriptors:  
nutrient loss/ pesticides/ pollutant
load/ runoff/ salinity/ sediment loss/ water table


© Thomson

658. The Hydrological and Geomorphological
Significance of Forested Floodplains.


Gurnell, A

Global Ecology and
Biogeography Letters
6 (3-4):
219-229. (1997);


ISSN: 0960-7447.

Notes: Conference: Floodplain Forests: Structure,
Functioning and


Management, Leicester (UK), Mar
1995; Publisher: Blackwell Science Ltd


Descriptors:  
flood plains/ forests/ hydrology/
geomorphology/ vegetation/ riparian environments/ Vegetation cover/
Riparian Vegetation/ interactions/ Woodlands/ Habitat community
studies / Streamflow and runoff


Abstract: Within river corridors, the distribution
of plant species and communities is heavily influenced by
hydrological and geomorphological processes. Furthermore, the
vegetation can have a direct influence on the detailed character
and rate of hydrogeomorphological processes. This paper reviews
such interactions at a variety of spatial scales ranging from
vegetation gradients across entire floodplains from hillslope to
river channel, to the local influences of bank vegetation and
in-channel accumulations of woody debris.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

659. Hydrological processes in abandoned and
restored peatlands: An overview of management
approaches.


Price, J S; Heathwaite, A L; and
Baird, A J


Wetlands Ecology and
Management
11 (1-2): 65-83.
(2003)


NAL Call #:  
QH541.5.M3 W472;

ISSN: 0923-4861

Descriptors:  
methane: production/ Sphagnum
(Sphagnobrya)/ Bryophytes/ Nonvascular Plants/ Plants/ abandoned
peatland/ ditch blocking/ drainage/ ecological processes/ hydraulic
conductivity/ hydrological processes/ management approach overview/
microclimate management/ pore water pressure/ restoration peatland/
soil wetness/ spring snowmelt/ water balance component restoration/
water management options/ water tension/ wetlands ecology/ winter
precipitation


Abstract: Mined peatlands do not readily recover
their hydrological function, mainly because the dominant
peat-forming plant genus, Sphagnum, cannot easily reestablish on
the degraded surface peat found on cutover sites. Drainage and
removal of the acrotelm can result in surface subsidence of up to
3.7 cm y-1 m-1 of peat shortly after drainage (compression), and
long-term rates up to 0.3 cm y-1 m-1 (compression and oxidation).
This can decrease the hydraulic conductivity by over 75%, and
decrease the water retention capacity and specific yield. In old
abandoned systems, drainage ditches may continue to facilitate a
significant seasonal water loss. Colonization of abandoned sites by
trees may increase the evapotranspirative losses by as much as 25%,
and interception losses can be as high as 32% of rainfall. Without
natural or planned occlusion of ditches, some peatlands become
drier over time. Blocking ditches may largely restore water balance
components, although the hydrological regime requires years to
stabilise sufficiently for Sphagnum recolonization, especially
where residual peat is well decomposed, having inadequate water
storage capacity. Consequently, winter precipitation (Europe) and
spring snowmelt (North America) are critical recharge periods. Over
the long term, consolidation of the peat due to drainage and
methane production (where drainage systems are blocked and soils
reflooded) decreases hydraulic conductivity, thereby reducing
lateral seepage losses. This may actually assist in Sphagnum
recolonization. A regenerated cover of Sphagnum increases soil
wetness and reduces water tension (increases pore-water pressure)
in the substrate, thus ameliorating its own environment. However,
natural recolonization and recovery of many hydrological and
ecological processes may not occur, or may require many decades.
Water management and selective plant reintroduction can accelerate
this. Water management options such as blocking ditches,
constructing bunds, reconfiguring the surface and managing
microclimate have met with varying degrees of success. No standard
management prescription can be made because each site presents
unique challenges.


© Thomson

660. Hydrology and wetland
conservation.


Gilman, Kevin.

Chichester; New York: Wiley; xii,
101 p.: ill., maps; Series: Water science series. (1994)


Notes: "Published on behalf of the Institute of
Hydrology" Includes bibliographical references.


NAL Call #:  GB628.43.G55--1994; ISBN: 0471951528

Descriptors:  
Wetlands---Great Britain/ Wetland
conservation---Great Britain


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

661. Hydrolysis of sulfonylurea herbicides in
soils and aqueous solutions: A review.


Sarmah, Ajit K and Sabadie,
Jean


Journal of agricultural and
food chemistry
 50 (22):
6253-6265. (2002)


NAL Call #:  
381 J8223;

ISSN: 0021-8561

Descriptors:  
minerals / sulfonylureas: herbicide,
hydrolysis, pyridinic ring, pyrimidine ring, triazinic ring/
aqueous solutions/ pH effect/ soils/ temperature effect


Abstract: Sulfonylureas are a unique group of
herbicides used for controlling a range of weeds and some grasses
in a variety of crops and vegetables. They have been extremely
popular worldwide because of their low mammalian toxicity, low use
rate, and unprecedented herbicidal activity. Knowledge about the
fate and behavior of sulfonylurea herbicides in the soil-water
environment appears to be of utmost importance for agronomic
systems and environmental protection. Because these herbicides are
applied at a very low rate, and their mobility is greatly affected
by the chemicals' anionic nature in alkaline soils, a thorough
understanding of their degradation/hydrolysis processes and
mechanisms under aqueous and soil systems is important. This review
brings together published information on the hydrolysis of several
sulfonylureas in aqueous and soil solutions that includes the
effects of pH, temperature, functional relationship between pH vs
hydrolysis rate constants, and hydrolysis behavior of sulfonylureas
in the presence of minerals. In addition, the transformations of
sulfonylureas in soil, under laboratory and field experiments, have
been discussed in connection with the compounds' varied structural
features, i.e., sulfonylureas that are with or without the
pyridinic, pyrimidine, and triazinic ring.


© Thomson



662. Identification of pesticide poisoning in
wildlife.


Brown, Peter; Charlton, Andrew;
Cuthbert, Mary; Barnett, Libby; Ross, Leigh; Green, Margaret;
Gillies, Liz; Shaw, Kathryn; and Fletcher, Mark


Journal of Chromatography
A
754 (1-2): 463-478.
(1996)


NAL Call #:  
QD272.C4J68;

ISSN: 0021-9673

Descriptors:  
strychnine/ chloralose/ metaldehyde/
paraquat/ animal (Animalia Unspecified)/ Animalia (Animalia
Unspecified)/ animals/ analytical method/ analytical methods/
chloralose/ environmental analysis/ metaldehyde/ methodology/
nontarget organism/ paraquat/ pesticide poisoning/ pesticides/
pollution/ strychnine/ toxicity/ toxicology/ wildlife


Abstract: The Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme
investigates incidents of suspected poisoning of wildlife (also
honey bees and companion animals) by pesticides in the United
Kingdom. The approach to these investigations has evolved over the
past 30 years. Field investigations, postmortem examinations,
toxicological data and experience of previous poisoning incidents
assist in the selection and interpretation of appropriate chemical
analyses. Several 'multi-residue' and several 'individual compound'
analytical methods for pesticides in wildlife are currently in use;
these are described.


© Thomson

663. Identifying the major sources of nutrient
water pollution.


Puckett, L. J.

Environmental Science and
Technology
29 (9): 408A-414A.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD420.A1E5;

ISSN: 0013-936X [ESTHAG]

This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

664. IDMP guidelines: How to prepare an
irrigation and drainage management plan.


NSW Agriculture.

New South Wales: NSW Agriculture,
c2002. 17 p.: col. ill., col. maps. (2002)


Notes: WaterWise on the farm.

NAL Call #:  TC812-.I36-2002;

ISBN: 0734714122

Descriptors:  
Irrigation---Australia---New South
Wales---Management/ Drainage---Australia---New South
Wales---Management/ Irrigation---Australia---New South
Wales---Planning/ Drainage---Australia---New South
Wales---Planning


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

665. Illustrations and guidelines for selecting
statistical methods for quantifying spatial pattern in ecological
data.


Perry, J N; Liebhold, A M;
Rosenberg, M S; Dungan, J; Miriti, M; Jakomulska, A; and Citron,
Pousty S


Ecography 25 (5): 578-600. (2002);

ISSN: 0906-7590

Descriptors:  
animal (Animalia)/ plant (Plantae)/
Animals/ Plants/ animal ecology/ coastal regions/ deserts/
frequency distributions/ geostatistics/ landscape ecology/ mapping/
mountainous regions/ philosophy/ plant ecology/ rangeland types/
sampling effects/ shrub cover/ spatial patterns: quantification/
spatially explicit data/ variance mean indices/ visualization
techniques


Abstract: This paper aims to provide guidance to
ecologists with limited experience in spatial analysis to help in
their choice of techniques. It uses examples to compare methods of
spatial analysis for ecological field data. A taxonomy of different
data types is presented, including point- and area-referenced data,
with and without attributes. Spatially and non-spatially explicit
data are distinguished. The effects of sampling and other
transformations that convert one data type to another are
discussed; the possible loss of spatial information is considered.
Techniques for analyzing spatial pattern, developed in plant
ecology, animal ecology, landscape ecology, geostatistics and
applied statistics are reviewed briefly and their overlap in
methodology and philosophy noted. The techniques are categorized
according to their output and the inferences that may be drawn from
them, in a discursive style without formulae. Methods are compared
for four case studies with field data covering a range of types.
These are: 1) percentage cover of three shrubs along a line
transect; 2) locations and volume of a desert plant in a 1 ha area;
3) a remotely-sensed spectral index and elevation from 105 km2 of a
mountainous region; and 4) land cover from three rangeland types
within 800 km2 of a coastal region. Initial approaches utilize
mapping, frequency distributions and variance-mean indices.
Analysis techniques we compare include: local quadrat variance,
block quadrat variance, correlograms, variograms, angular
correlation, directional variograms, wavelets, SADIE, nearest
neighbour methods, Ripley's L(t), and various landscape ecology
metrics. Our advice to ecologists is to use simple visualization
techniques for initial analysis, and subsequently to select methods
that are appropriate for the data type and that answer their
specific questions of interest. It is usually prudent to employ
several different techniques.


© Thomson

666. Immunoassays for Pesticides.

Meulenberg, E. P.; Mulder, W. H.;
and Stoks, P. G.


Environmental Science and
Technology
29 (3): 553-561.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
TD420.A1E5;

ISSN: 0013-936X

Descriptors:  
assay/ pollutants/ pesticides/
assessments/ cost benefit analysis/ sampling/ water analysis/ water
pollution control/ water quality standards/ immunoassays/ water
sampling/ reviews/ water quality/ water quality control/ toxicity
tests/ bioassays/ immunology/ pollution detection/ immunoassay/
Identification of pollutants/ Freshwater pollution/ Analytical
procedures/ Immunology/ Instrumentation and process engineering/
Methods and instruments


Abstract: Immunoassay is recognized as a promising
method for screening environmental contaminants. Numerous
immunoassays have already been developed, and especially the
rapidity, sensitivity, and cost-effectiveness of this method are
considered as advantageous for screening purposes to reduce sample
load for conventional analyses. A particular interesting
application involves water quality control with regard to
pesticides, for which in Europe a threshold concentration of 0.1 mu
g/L applies. An overview is given of the various pesticides for
which immunoassays have been developed, including commercially
available kits. Pros and cons, applicability, and results of fields
tests are discussed. Additionally, a survey is given on further
developments for improvement of existing or new immunoassays and on
the application of immunochemistry in other embodiments
(immunoaffinity chromatography, immunosensors). Particular emphasis
is laid on validation and standardization of
immunoassays.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

667. Impact and management of purple loosestrife
(Lythrum salicaria) in North America.


Blossey, Bernd; Skinner, Luke C;
and Taylor, Janith


Biodiversity and
Conservation
10 (10):
1787-1807. (2001);


ISSN: 0960-3115

Descriptors:  
Lythrum salicaria [purple
loosestrife] (Lythraceae): weed/ black tern (Charadriiformes)/
insects (Insecta)/ least bittern (Ciconiiformes)/ marsh wren
(Passeriformes)/ pied billed grebe (Podicipediformes)/ Angiosperms/
Animals/ Arthropods/ Birds/ Chordates/ Dicots/ Insects/
Invertebrates/ Nonhuman Vertebrates/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/
Vascular Plants/ Vertebrates/ biological invasions/ ecological
succession/ ecosystem function/ ecosystem integrity/ environmental
impact/ weed management: benefits, risks/ wetland habitats:
encroachment


Abstract: The invasion of non-indigenous plants is
considered a primary threat to integrity and function of
ecosystems. However, there is little quantitative or experimental
evidence for ecosystem impacts of invasive species. Justifications
for control are often based on potential, but not presently
realized, recognized or quantified, negative impacts. Should lack
of scientific certainty about impacts of non-indigenous species
result in postponing measures to prevent degradation? Recently,
management of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), has been
criticized for (1) lack of evidence demonstrating negative impacts
of L. salicaria, and (2) management using biocontrol for lack of
evidence documenting the failure of conventional control methods.
Although little quantitative evidence on negative impacts on native
wetland biota and wetland function was available at the onset of
the control program in 1985, recent work has demonstrated that the
invasion of purple loosestrife into North American freshwater
wetlands alters decomposition rates and nutrient cycling, leads to
reductions in wetland plant diversity, reduces pollination and seed
output of the native Lythrum alatum, and reduces habitat
suitability for specialized wetland bird species such as black
terns, least bitterns, pied-billed grebes, and marsh wrens.
Conventional methods (physical, mechanical or chemical), have
continuously failed to curb the spread of purple loosestrife or to
provide satisfactory control. Although a number of generalist
insect and bird species utilize purple loosestrife, wetland habitat
specialists are excluded by encroachment of L. salicaria. We
conclude that (1) negative ecosystem impacts of purple loosestrife
in North America justify control of the species and that (2)
detrimental effects of purple loosestrife on wetland systems and
biota and the potential benefits of control outweigh potential
risks associated with the introduction of biocontrol agents.
Long-term experiments and monitoring programs that are in place
will evaluate the impact of these insects on purple loosestrife, on
wetland plant succession and other wetland biota.


© Thomson

668. The impact of agricultural practices on
biodiversity.


McLaughlin, A. and Mineau,
P.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
55 (3): 201-212.
(1995)


NAL Call #:  
S601 .A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

669. Impact of alien plants on Grant Basin
rangelands.


Young, James A and Longland,
William S


Weed Technology 10 (2): 384-391. (1996)

NAL Call #:  
SB610.W39;

ISSN: 0890-037X

Descriptors:  
weeds (Tracheophyta)/ Artemisia
tridentata (Compositae)/ angiosperms/ dicots/ plants/
spermatophytes/ vascular plants/ alien plants/ big sagebrush/
ecosystem function/ environmental sciences/ terrestrial ecology/
great basin rangeland/ pest assessment control and management/
succession


Abstract: Our purpose is to discuss the impact of
alien plants on rangeland ecosystems of the Great Basin in terms of
their effects on biological functions. The sagebrush/bunchgrass
ranges of western North America are used as a model ecosystem for
the impact of alien plants. Alien weed species have been introduced
in successive waves, with the success of each new introduction
dependent on how well adapted to the environment and how
competitive the new weed is with those previously introduced.
Annual species have been successful across extensive areas of Great
Basin rangelands. Biennial and short- and long-lived perennial
introductions have been restricted to much more specific habitats.
Alien plants impact rangelands through stand renewal and
successional processes. Alien weeds can cause such processes to be
accelerated and/or truncated depending on the species and range
site.


© Thomson

670. Impact of composting strategies on the
treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants.


Semple, K T; Reid, B J; and Fermor,
T R


Environmental
Pollution
112 (2): 269-283.
(2001)


NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E52;

ISSN: 0269-7491

Descriptors:  
organic compounds: degradation,
pollutant, soil, toxin/ actinomycetes (Actinomycetes and Related
Organisms): decomposer, xenobiotic degrading microorganism/
bacteria (Bacteria): decomposer, xenobiotic degrading
microorganism/ fungi (Fungi): decomposer, lignolytic, xenobiotic
degrading microorganism/ Bacteria/ Eubacteria/ Fungi/
Microorganisms/ Nonvascular Plants/ Plants/ pollutant
bioavailability/ pollutant biotransformation/ soil
contamination


Abstract: Chemical pollution of the environment has
become a major source of concern. Studies on degradation of organic
compounds have shown that some microorganisms are extremely
versatile at catabolizing recalcitrant molecules. By harnessing
this catabolic potential, it is possible to bioremediate some
chemically contaminated environmental systems. Composting matrices
and composts are rich sources of xenobiotic-degrading
microorganisms including bacteria, actinomycetes and lignolytic
fungi, which can degrade pollutants to innocuous compounds such as
carbon dioxide and water. These microorganisms can also
biotransform pollutants into less toxic substances and/or lock up
pollutants within the organic matrix, thereby reducing pollutant
bioavailability. The success or failure of a composting/compost
remediation strategy depends however on a number of factors, the
most important of which are pollutant bioavailability and
biodegradability. This review discusses the interactions of
pollutants with soils; look critically at the clean up of soils
contaminated with a variety of pollutants using various composting
strategies and assess the feasibility of using composting
technologies to bioremediate contaminated soil.

© Thomson

671. The impact of conservation tillage on
pesticide runoff into surface water: A review and
analysis.


Fawcett, R. S.; Christensen, B. R.;
and Tierney, D. P.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
49 (2): 126-135.
(1994)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

672. Impact of crop rotation and land management
on soil erosion and rehabilitation.


Amir, J.

In: Soil erosion, conservation and
rehabilitation/ Agassi, M.


New York: Marcel Dekker, 1996; pp.
375-397.


ISBN: 0-8247-8984-9

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

673. Impact of environmental regulations on
cattle production.


Morse, D.

Journal of Animal
Science
74 (12): 3103-3111.
(Dec. 1996)


NAL Call #:  
49-J82;

ISSN: 0021-8812 [JANSAG].

Notes: Paper presented at the symposium "Ruminant
Nutrition from an Environmental Perspective" at the ASAS 87th
Annual Meeting, July 1995, Orlando, Florida.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
livestock farming/ water quality/
environmental legislation/ regulations/ endangered species/
riparian vegetation/ environmental protection/ economic impact/
animal manures/ application to land/ pollution control/ dairy
farms/ poultry manure/ United States/ Florida


Abstract: A greater focus of legislative mandates is
directed toward nonpoint sources of pollution. This article focuses
on environmental regulations and their impact on cattle production.
Key legislation will be reviewed to stress how variations in the
type of law, degree of impact, enforcement mechanism, and time line
for compliance affect the ability for research to be designed and
accomplished in a desired time frame and to yield data on which
imposed management practices should be based. Science-based
regulations are desired to maximize beneficial impacts of
management practices; however, many regulations are developed and
management practices are imposed prior to research to minimize
liability of the regulatory agency in case natural resources are
degraded in the absence of management practices. The technology
adoption process will be reviewed. Documented impact of imposed
management practices (technology adoption) will be presented. Of
particular interest is the importance of documenting the economic
and resource impacts of regulations on livestock operators. Types
of research needed prior to implementing management practices will
be reviewed. Local involvement can increase the adoption rate of
practices and technologies.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

674. The impact of human activities on
freshwater aquatic systems.


Skurlatov, Yu I and Ernestova, L
S


Acta Hydrochimica et
Hydrobiologica
26 (1): 5-12.
(1998);


ISSN: 0323-4320

Descriptors:  
hydrogen peroxide/ hydroxyl
radicals/ manganese: pollutant/ oxygen/ sulfur: pollutant/
superoxide radicals/ atmospheric fallout/ biogeochemical cycling/
biological quality/ bottom sediment composition/ environmental
quality/ freshwater aquatic systems/ human activities/ wastewater
treatment


Abstract: The roles of oxygen and its activated
species (superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl
radicals), as well as that of sulfur compounds, are considered in
relation to biological quality and the self-cleaning capacity of
freshwater aquatic systems. The effects on the aquatic
redox-processes are discussed in terms of atmospheric fallout of
sulfur compounds, bottom sediment composition, and input of
wastewaters containing reducing substances. It is shown that the
totality of anthropogenic influences, and/or unfavourable natural
geochemical conditions, as well as climatic effects in a region can
increase the significance of one-electron transfer processes in
bio-geochemical cycles of oxygen, sulfur and manganese, compared
with the significance of two-electron transfer processes. The
resulting, reactive intermediate products of one-electron transfer
processes are very important with respect to the composition and
properties of aquatic systems. Examples are given of practical
applications of wastewater treatment, using hydrogen peroxide and
UV-irradiation, and of regulation of consumers' activities which
affect natural waters.


© Thomson

675. Impact of insecticide resistance mechanisms
on management strategies.


Horowitz, A. R. and Denholm,
I.


In: Biochemical sites of
insecticide action and resistance/ Ishaaya, Isaac.


Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2001; pp.
323-338.


ISBN: 3540676252

Descriptors:  
insecticides/ applied entomology/
evolutionary biology/ insecticide resistance/ management
strategies/ Pest Assessment Control and Management/ Pesticides/ in
vitro assay: analytical method/ applied entomology/ evolutionary
biology/ insecticide resistance/ management strategies


© Thomson

676. Impact of nutrition on reduction of
environmental pollution by pigs: An overview of recent
research.


Jongbloed AW; Lenis NP; and Mroz
Z


Veterinary Quarterly
19 (3): 130-134; 36 ref.
(1997)


This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

677. Impact of ploughless soil tillage on yield
and soil quality: A Scandinavian review.


Rasmussen, K. J.

Soil and Tillage
Research
53 (1): 3-14.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
S590.S48;

ISSN: 0167-1987.

Notes: Issue editor: Arshad, M. A.

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

678. The impact of reduced tillage on soilborne
plant pathogens.


Bockus, W. W. and Shroyer, J.
P.


Annual Review of
Phytopathology
36: 485-500.
(1998)


NAL Call #:  
464.8-An72;

ISSN: 0066-4286 [APPYAG]

Descriptors:  
plant pathogens/ soil flora/
no-tillage/ crop residues/ erosion/ soil water content/ crop yield/
degradation/ soil temperature/ plant disease control/ biological
control/ cultural control/ disease resistance/ rotations/
literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

679. Impact of soil erosion on crop yields in
North America.


Biggelaar, C. den.; Lal, R.; Wiebe,
K.; and Breneman, V.


Advances in Agronomy 72:
1-52.
(2001)

NAL Call #:  
30-Ad9;

ISSN: 0065-2113 [ADAGA7]

Descriptors:  
crop yield/ erosion/ soil
degradation/ data analysis/ data collection/ yield losses/
experimental design/ techniques/ soil management/ technology/
history/ agricultural research/ agricultural policy/ economic
analysis / literature reviews/ North America


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

680. Impacts of agricultural herbicide use on
terrestrial wildlife in temperate landscapes: A review with special
reference to North America.


Freemark, K. and Boutin,
C.


Agriculture, Ecosystems and
Environment
52 (2/3): 67-91.
(Feb. 1995)


NAL Call #:  
S601.A34;

ISSN: 0167-8809 [AEENDO]

Abstract: The existing literature was examined to
assess the extent to which wildlife (plants, soil organisms,
above-ground insects/arthropods, mammals, birds) living in
terrestrial habitats has been affected by use of agricultural
herbicides in temperate landscapes. Although North America was of
special interest for regulatory reasons, the review was extended to
western Europe because the most extensive and intensive work has
been done there. The half-life of herbicides in the environment
ranges from less than 1 month to more than 1 year. Wildlife within
fields is most likely to be exposed to herbicides, particularly
when fields are planted with crops (e.g. corn, soybean, wheat,
cotton) which are routinely sprayed. Wildlife is also likely to be
exposed in non-crop habitats adjoining croplands, primarily from
direct overspray (especially during aerial application), and drift
during and/or volatilisation after application. The most conclusive
scientific evidence for direct effects of herbicides on arable
weeds, and associated indirect effects on insects and birds exists
in the United Kingdom. Evidence for similar effects in North
America is primarily circumstantial at present. Little work has
been done anywhere on impacts of herbicides on plants and their
associated fauna in non-crop habitats adjoining treated fields.
Chemical farming (in particular, the use of herbicides) has
dramatically altered the habitat pattern of temperate landscapes in
North America and western Europe. Strong evidence exists for
adverse effects of changes in habitat pattern on beneficial insects
and arthropods in the United Kingdom, and on birds in North America
and western Europe. Toxicity testing guidelines. for non-target
plant protection need to be developed and enforced to support
pesticide registration. In addition, research is needed to include
more ecologically relevant plant species in laboratory tests, to
develop multi-species tests (particularly in the field), to improve
methods for risk assessment, and to develop options for mitigating
risks. Large scale, long-term trans-disciplinary research of
different farming systems is needed, particularly in North America,
to integrate and better evaluate ecological, agronomic, and
socio-economic costs and benefits of agricultural herbicide use in
temperate landscapes.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

681. Impacts of agricultural practices on
subsurface microbial ecology.


Madsen, E. L.

Advances in Agronomy
54: 1-67. (1995)

NAL Call #:  
30-Ad9;

ISSN: 0065-2113 [ADAGA7]

Descriptors:  
bacteria/ microorganisms/
groundwater/ community ecology/ environmental factors/ agriculture/
irrigation/ agricultural chemicals/ leaching/ pollutants/
groundwater pollution/ literature reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

682. Impacts of animal manure management on
ground and surface water quality.


Sharpley, A.; Meisinger, J. J.;
Breeuwsma, A.; Sims, J. T.; Daniel, T. C.; and Schepers, J.
S.


In: Animal waste utilization:
Effective use of manure as a soil resource/ Hatfield, J. L. and
Stewart, B. A.


Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press, 1998;
pp. 173-242


NAL Call #:   S655.A57 1998

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

683. Impacts of Atrazine in Aquatic
Ecosystems.


Graymore, M.; Stagnitti, F.; and
Allinson, G.


Environment
International
26 (7-8):
483-495. (2001)


NAL Call #:  
TD169.E54;

ISSN: 0160-4120

Descriptors:  
Atrazine / Ecology/ Water quality
(Natural waters)/ Herbicides/ Runoff/ Groundwater/ Leaching/
Aquatic environment/ Community structure/ Environmental impact/
Pollution effects/ Ecosystems/ Aquatic organisms/ Community
composition/ Water Pollution Effects/ Pesticides/ Aquatic Life/
Groundwater Pollution/ Agricultural Runoff/ atrazine/ Water
Quality/ Freshwater pollution/ Effects on organisms/ Effects of
pollution


Abstract: A portion of all herbicides applied to
forests, croplands, road sides, and gardens are inevitably lost to
water bodies either directly through runoff or indirectly by
leaching through groundwater into ephemeral streams and lakes. Once
in the aquatic environment, herbicides may cause stress within
aquatic communities and radically alter community structure.
Atrazine is one of the most effective and inexpensive herbicides in
the world and is consequently used more frequently than any other
herbicide. Atrazine is frequently detected in aquatic waters, and
has been known to affect reproduction of aquatic flora and fauna,
which in turn impacts on the community structure as a whole. This
paper presents a summary of the reported direct and indirect
impacts of atrazine on aquatic organisms and community structure.
The information can be used for developing improved management
guidelines and legislation. It is concluded that a single universal
maximum limit on the atrazine application in catchments, as
suggested by many regulatory authorities, does not provide adequate
protection of the aquatic environment. Rather, it is advocated that
flexible limits on the application of atrazine be developed in line
with the potential risk of contamination to surface and subsurface
water and fragility of the aquatic environment.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

684. Impacts of Changing Precipitation Patterns
on Water Quality.


Hatfield, J. L. and Prueger, J.
H.


Journal of Soil and Water
Conservation
59 (1): 51-58.
(Jan. 2004-Feb. 2004)


NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822;

ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  
Conservation Practices/ Drainage/
Soil Management/ Soil Water Balance/ Surface Runoff/ Water Quality/
Conservation Tillage/ Management Systems/ Manure Application/ Swine
Manure/ Runoff/ Phosphorus/ Soil/ Nitrogen/ Nitrate/
Surface


Abstract: Changing climate across the United States
has been observed in the increasing intensity and amount of
precipitation. One of the predicted areas for this impact is in the
upper Midwest or the Corn Belt, and one concern is that current
soil management practices in this region may not adequately protect
the soil under these changes resulting in water quality impacts. To
address this concern, this study was conducted to survey the
current literature on the water quality impacts from current soil
management practices and evaluate potential impacts on runoff and
drainage from soil management practices under a number of
precipitation scenarios. Soil management practices, e.g., crop
residue, no-tilt, incorporation of manure, provide protection under
today's climate. However, increasing precipitation amounts, or
frequencies, rapidly decrease the effectiveness of these practices
with the deleterious effect being even greater on soils with low
water holding capacity and limited depth. The water quality impacts
may be even more dramatic with the likelihood of increased surface
runoff events. Soil management practices need to be developed and
evaluated under precipitation patterns that may represent future
scenarios so that producers can begin to adopt these practices into
their management programs.


© Thomson ISI

685. Impacts of Climate Change on Aquatic
Ecosystem Functioning and Health.


Meyer, J. L.; Sale, M. J.;
Mulholland, P. J.; and Leroy Poff, N.


Journal of the American
Water Resources Association
35 (6): 1373-1386. (1999)

NAL Call #:  
GB651.W315;

ISSN: 1093-474X.

Notes: Special issue on water resources and climate
change; Publisher: American Water Resources Association


Descriptors:  
USA/ Ecosystems/ Climatic Changes/
Food Chains/ Reviews/ Mixing/ Runoff/ Instream Flow/ Model Studies/
Risk/ Benefits/ Cost Analysis/ Inland water environment/
Environmental impact/ Fresh water/ Ecosystem disturbance/
Freshwater environments/ Water quality/ Nutrient loading/
Hydrology/ North America/ Ecology/ Climate/ Food chains/ Hazard/
Economics/ United States/ Mechanical and natural changes/ Air
pollution/ Water Resources and Supplies


Abstract: We review published analyses of the
effects of climate change on goods and services provided by
freshwater ecosystems in the United States. Climate-induced changes
must be assessed in the context of massive anthropogenic changes in
water quantity and quality resulting from altered patterns of land
use, water withdrawal, and species invasions; these may dwarf or
exacerbate climate-induced changes. Water to meet instream needs is
competing with other uses of water, and that competition is likely
to be increased by climate change. We review recent predictions of
the impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems in eight
regions of North America. Impacts include warmer temperatures that
alter lake mixing regimes and availability of fish habitat; changed
magnitude and seasonality of runoff regimes that alter nutrient
loading and limit habitat availability at low flow; and loss of
prairie pothole wetlands that reduces waterfowl populations. Many
of the predicted changes in aquatic ecosystems are a consequence of
climatic effects on terrestrial ecosystems; shifts in riparian
vegetation and hydrology are particularly critical. We review
models that could be used to explore potential effects of climate
change on freshwater ecosystems; these include models of instream
flow, bioenergetics models, nutrient spiraling models, and models
relating riverine food webs to hydrologic regime. We discuss
potential ecological risks, benefits, and costs of climate change
and identify information needs and model improvements that are
required to improve our ability to predict and identify climate
change impacts and to evaluate management options.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

686. Impacts of disturbance on detritus food
webs in agro-ecosystems of contrasting tillage and weed management
practices.


Wardle, D. A.

Advances in Ecological
Research
26: 105-185.
(1995);


ISSN: 0065-2504

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

687. The impacts of irrigation and drainage on
the environment = Les impacts de l'irrigation et du drainage sur
l'environnement.


Jensen, Marvin Eli

The Hague, the Netherlands: ICID;
26 p.: ill.; Series: N.D. Gulhati memorial lecture (5th).
(1993)


Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.
24-26).


NAL Call #:  TC809-.J46-1993

Descriptors:  
Irrigation---Environmental
aspects


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

688. Impacts of riparian vegetation on
hydrological processes.


Tabacchi, E.; Lambs, L.; Guilloy,
H.; Planty-Tabacchi, A. M.; Muller, E.; and Decamps, H.


Hydrological
Processes
14 (16/17):
2959-2976. (2000)


NAL Call #:  
GB651.H93;

ISSN: 0885-6087

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

689. The Implications of Grassland and Heathland
Management for the Conservation of Spider Communities: A
Review.


Bell, JR; Wheater, CP; and Cullen,
WR


Journal of Zoology
255 (3): 377-387. (2001);

ISSN: 0952-8369

Descriptors:  
Heaths/ Grasslands/ Conservation/
Community composition/ Habitat/ Management/ Araneae/ Spiders/
Populations & general ecology/ Conservation


Abstract: Both intensity and type of habitat
management in grasslands and heathlands affect spider communities.
With high intensity management, spider communities often lack
diversity and are dominated by a few r-selected species affiliated
with bare ground. Low intensity management produces more complex
communities introducing more niches for aerial web spinners and
climbing spiders. The preferred management will be site-dependent
and may not be appropriate for all spiders in all situations,
particularly for some rare or threatened species. Providing natural
cover is recommended when using extreme forms of management or
intensive grazing (particularly by sheep). In extreme cases, or
where trampling is heavy, the litter layer should be conserved. We
advocate research and survey before and after major management
implementation. Habitat management for spiders should not be
considered alone, but integrated into a holistic plan. Management
for spiders may conflict with rare plant conservation and small
reserves should examine the viability of providing two contrasting
regimes.


© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts
(CSA)

690. Implications of grazing vs. no grazing on
today's rangelands.


Laycock, W. A.

In: Ecological implications of
livestock herbivory in the West/ Vavra, M.; Laycock, W. A.; and
Pieper, R. D.


Denver, CO: Society for Range
Management, 1994; pp. 250-280.


ISBN: 1-884930-00-X; Proceedings of the 42nd annual
meeting of the American Institute of Biological
Sciences.


NAL Call #:  SF85.35.A17E28

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

691. Implications of movement in developing and
deploying integrated pest management strategies.


Irwin, Michael E

Agricultural and Forest
Meteorology
97 (4): 235-248.
(1999)


NAL Call #:  
340.8-AG8;

ISSN: 0168-1923

Descriptors:  
aphid (Homoptera)/ vector/ soybean
mosaic potyvirus (Potyvirus)/ pathogen/ Animals/ Arthropods/
Insects/ Invertebrates/ Microorganisms/ Plant Viruses/ Viruses/
integrated pest management/ pest movement/ disease transmission/
movement/ soybean mosaic potyvirus/ disease vectors/ case studies/
information needs/ flight/ disease prevention/ epidemiology/
simulation models/ mathematical models/ aphididae/ glycine max/
aerial insects/ air microbiology/ literature reviews


Abstract: To develop an integrated pest management
(IPM) program, one must rely on detailed knowledge of pest movement
at several levels. The tenets of IPM and the three tiers of
information (fundamental, tactical, and operational) needed to
deploy an IPM program are considered. I highlight the soybean
mosaic potyvirus pathosystem, a pest system that is nearly
impossible to control once the pathogen enters a field, to
illustrate how the pathogen can be contained through IPM practices,
but only with a reasonable understanding of pathogen transport by
insect vectors. The virus is transmitted by a suite of aphids with
different flight activity modes. Disease spread is rapid and
irreversible if initial inoculum is high and vector flight activity
is great. For that reason, the management mode must be preventive,
not remedial. The complex epidemiology involves vector movement
over both landscape and ecoregional scales, and movement,
especially as it is influenced by atmospheric motion systems over
both scales, should be understood to effectively manage soybean
mosaic virus epidemics. The importance of conceptual, simulation,
and predictive models that take into consideration vector movement
cannot be overstated when dealing with a pest complex of this
nature.


© Thomson

692. Implications of phytic acid and
supplemental microbial phytase in poultry nutrition: A
review.


Sebastian, S.; Touchburn, S. P.;
and Chavez, E. R.


World's Poultry Science
Journal
54 (1): 27-47. (Mar.
1998)


NAL Call #:  
47.8-W89;

ISSN: 0043-9339 [WPSJAO]

Descriptors:  
broilers/ turkeys/ bioavailability/
phosphorus/ phytic acid/ nutrient-nutrient interactions/ female
animals/ male animals/ enzyme preparations/ feed additives/ dietary
minerals/ calcium/ fiber content/ copper/ zinc/ cereals/ grain
legumes/ oilseeds/ age differences/ sex differences/ protein
digestibility/ excretion/ poultry manure/ literature
reviews


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

693. Implications of weed seedbank dynamics to
weed management.


Buhler, D. D.; Hartzler, R. G.; and
Forcella, F.


Weed Science 45 (3): 329-336. (May 1997-June
1997)


NAL Call #:  
79.8-W41;

ISSN: 0043-1745 [WEESA6].

Notes: Paper presented at the Weed Science Society of
America Meeting on Importance of weed biology to weed management
held February 6, 1996, Norfolk, VA.


Includes references.

Descriptors:  
weeds/ seed banks/ population
dynamics/ weed control/ tillage/ weed biology/ population ecology/
botanical composition/ cropping systems/ depth/ rotations/
integrated pest management/ decision making/ mathematical models/
yield losses/ crop yield/ light/ requirements/ literature
reviews


Abstract: The species composition and density of
weed seed in the soil vary greatly and are closely linked to the
cropping history of the land. Altering tillage practices changes
weed seed depth in the soil, which plays a role in weed species
shifts and affects efficacy of control practices. Crop rotation and
weed control practices also affect the weed seedbank. Information
on the influence of cropping practices on the weed seedbank should
be a useful tool for integrated weed management. Decision aid
models use information on the weed seedbank to estimate weed
populations, crop yield loss, and recommend weed control tactics.
Understanding the light requirements of weed seed may provide new
approaches to weed management. Improving and applying our
understanding of weed seedbank dynamics is essential to developing
improved weed management systems. The principles of plant ecology
must be integrated with the science of weed management to develop
strategies that take advantage of basic plant responses in weed
management systems for agronomic crops.


This citation is from
AGRICOLA.

694. The importance of different scale processes
for the restoration of floodplain woodlands.


Hughes, F M R; Adams, W M; Muller,
E; Nilsson, C; Richards, K S; Barsoum, N; Decamps, H; Foussadier,
R; Girel, J; Guilloy, H; Hayes, A; Johansson, M; Lambs, L; Pautou,
G; Peiry, J L; Perrow, M; Vautier, F; and Winfield, M


Regulated Rivers Research
and Management
17 (4-5):
325-345. (2001)


NAL Call #:  
TC530.R43;

ISSN: 0886-9375

Descriptors:  
trees (Spermatophyta): seedling/
Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants/ channel movements/
ecosystem respo