Environmental Effects of U.S. Department of Agriculture Conservation Programs

Conservation Effects Assessment Bibliography: Environmental Effects of U.S. Department of Agriculture Conservation Programs

The Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library

Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture



Environmental Effects of U.S. Department

of Agriculture Conservation Programs


A Conservation Effects

Assessment Bibliography



Special Reference Briefs

Series no. SRB 2004-01



Compiled by

Stuart R. Gagnon

Joseph R. Makuch

Ted J. Sherman


Water Quality Information

Center

National Agricultural

Library

Agricultural Research

Service

U.S. Department of

Agriculture


454 citations

Water Quality Information Center logo



National Agricultural

Library                    Beltsville,

Maryland  20705-2351               August

2004






National

Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:


Gagnon, Stuart

R.

 Environmental

effects of U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation programs : a

conservation effects assessment bibliography.

 (Special reference

briefs ; NAL-SRB. 2004-01)

 1. Water in

agriculture--United States--Bibliography.

 2.Water

quality--United States--Bibliography.

 3. Agricultural

pollution--United States--Bibliography.

 4.Agriculture and

state--Environmental aspects--United

States--Bibliography.

 I. Makuch, Joseph

R. II. Sherman, Ted J. III. Water Quality Information Center

(U.S.)

 III. Title.

aZ5071.N3 no.

2004-01




Abstract


Environmental Effects of U.S.

Department of Agriculture Conservation Programs , Special Reference Brief 2004-01. U.S.

Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural

Library.


This bibliography is one in a

multi-volume set developed by the Water Quality Information Center

at the National Agricultural Library in support of the U.S.

Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Effects Assessment

Project (CEAP). The bibliography is a guide to literature examining

environmental effects of USDA conservation programs. The

information is useful for assessing on-the-ground results of conservation programs

from various environmental perspectives.


Keywords: conservation

programs, environmental quality, program

evaluation, agricultural research, Conservation Reserve

Program ,

Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program, Farm Bill


Mention of trade names or

commercial products in this report is solely for the purpose of

providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or

endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.


To ensure timely distribution,

this report has been reproduced essentially as supplied by the

authors.  It has received minimal publication editing and

design.  The authors' views are their own and do not

necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Department of

Agriculture.

The

U.S. Department of Agriculture prohibits discrimination in all its

programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national

origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual

orientation, or marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases

apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require

alternative means for communication of program information

(Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA's TARGET

Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).


To file a complaint of

discrimination, write USDA, Office of Civil Rights, Room 326-W,

Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington D.C.

20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal

opportunity provider and employer.


August 2004



TABLE OF CONTENTS



Preface 1
About This Bibliography 2
Climate Change and Air Quality 3
Soil 9
Water 21
Wildlife Habitat 35
Other Environmental Effects 75
Multiple Environmental Effects 97
Subject Index 113
Author Index 131


Preface

This is one in a series of bibliographies

developed by the Water Quality Information Center at the National

Agricultural Library in support of the U.S. Department of

Agriculture's Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP).

 

The purpose of CEAP is to study

the environmental effects of conservation practices implemented

through various U.S. Department of Agriculture conservation

programs. CEAP will evaluate conservation practices and management

systems related to nutrient, manure, and pest management; buffer

systems; tillage; irrigation and drainage practices; wetland

protection and restoration; and wildlife habitat establishment.

More information about CEAP is available at www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/nri/ceap/.

The

current titles in this series are

  • Environmental Effects of U.S. Department

    of Agriculture Conservation Programs
    Special Reference Brief

    2004-01

  • Implementing Agricultural Conservation Practices: Barriers and Incentives
    Special Reference Brief 2004-02
  • Data and Modeling for Environmental Credit Trading
    Special Reference Brief 2004-03
  • Agricultural Conservation Practices and

    Related Issues: Reviews of the State of the Art and Research

    Needs
    Special Reference Brief 2004-04

Each of the documents, as well as

bibliographies on similar topics, is accessible online from the

Water Quality Information Center at www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/.

The

center gratefully acknowledges the following organizations who

granted permission to use their citations and/or abstracts in these

bibliographies.

In

addition, support from the Natural Resources Conservation Service

for the development of these bibliographies is greatly appreciated.

 


Joseph R. Makuch, Ph.D.

Coordinator

Water Quality Information

Center

[Table of Contents]


About This Bibliography


This bibliography is a guide to

literature examining environmental effects of U.S. Department of

Agriculture (USDA) conservation programs. Examples of programs

covered are the Conservation Reserve Program, Environmental Quality

Incentives Program, Wetlands Reserve Program, and Wildlife Habitat

Incentives Program. The purpose of this bibliography is to provide

an overview of various environmental outcomes resulting from

landowner participation in USDA conservation programs. This

information is useful for assessing on-the-ground results of

conservation programs from various environmental

perspectives.


There are 454 citations with

abstracts (when available) in this bibliography. Citations were

found through literature searches of the AGRICOLA database,

produced by the National Agricultural Library, and several

commercial bibliographic databases. Many relevant citations were

also found in Final

Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) ,

citation number 416.  In addition, Water Quality Information

Center staff created citations for documents that were located by

various other means. Documents cited were published from 1985

through 2003 (with a few included from early 2004). URLs are

provided for online documents that are freely available. The

inclusion or omission of a particular citation does not imply

endorsement or disapproval.


Citations are grouped in these

categories: Climate Change and Air Quality, Soil, Water, Wildlife

Habitat, Other Environmental Effects, and Multiple Environmental

Effects. Within these sections, citations are arranged

alphabetically by title.


To locate information on a

specific topic, for example, conservation tillage, use the subject

index beginning on page 113. To ensure that you see all the

relevant citations for a particular topic, be sure to also look up

related terms in the subject index, for example, no till, ridge

till, etc., from the example above. An author index is also

available beginning on page 131.


To obtain a specific document,

please contact your local library. Information on how to obtain

documents from the National Agricultural Library can be found

at www.nal.usda.gov/ddsb/.


[Table of Contents]


Climate Change and

Air Quality

1. Assessment of Alternative Management

Practices and Policies Affecting Soil Carbon in Agroecosystems of

the Central United States.

Donigian, A. S.; Barnwell, T. O.;

Jackson, R. B.; Patwardhan, A. S.; and Weinrich, K. B.

Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental

Protection Agency; EPA600R94067, 1994.  

Notes: Contract: EPA68CO0019; Prepared in cooperation

with Computer Sciences Corp., Athens, GA. and Colorado State Univ.,

Fort Collins. Natural Resource Ecology Lab. Sponsored by

Environmental Research Lab., Athens, GA.

http://www.epa.gov/cgi-bin/claritgw?op-Display&document=clserv:ORD:0762;&rank=4&template=epa

Descriptors:  

Emissions/ Ecosystems/ Mathematical

models/ Economic model/ Conservation/ Reduction/ Carbon dioxide/

Land use/ Farm crops/ Cultivation/ Yield/ Regions/ United States/

Trends/ Tables Data/ Climatic changes/ Soil properties/ Carbon/

Organic matter/ Farm management/ Air pollution and control/

Environmental pollution and control/ Agriculture and food/

Agricultural economics/ Agricultural equipment facilities and

operations/ Natural resources and earth sciences/ Soil sciences/

 Medicine and biology/ Ecology/ Atmospheric

sciences/ Physical meteorology

Abstract:  The goal of the U.S. EPA BIOME

Agroecosystems Assessment Project is to evaluate the degree to

which agroecosystems can be technically managed, on a sustainable

basis, to conserve and sequester carbon, reduce the accumulation of

carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and provide reference datasets

and methodologies for agricultural assessment. The report provides

preliminary estimates of carbon sequestration potential for the

central United States including the Corn Belt, the Great Lakes, and

portions of the Great Plains. This study region comprises 44% of

the land area and 60% to 70% of the agricultural cropland of the

conterminous United States. The assessment methodology includes the

integration of the RAMS economic model, the Century soil carbon

model, meteorologic and soils data bases, and GIS display and

analysis capabilities in order to assess the impacts on soil carbon

of current agricultural trends and conditions, alternative tillage

practices, use of cover crops, and Conservation Reserve Program

policy.

2. Assessment of alternative soil management

practices on N2O emissions from US agriculture.

Mummey, D. L.; Smith, J. L.; and

Bluhm, G.

Agriculture, Ecosystems and

Environment 70

(1): 79-87. (1998)

NAL Call #:  

S601 .A34; ISSN: 0167-8809

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

3. Carbon and Nitrogen Sequestration in Two

Prairie Topochronosequences on Contrasting Soils in Southern

Wisconsin.

Brye, KR and Kucharik,

CJ

American Midland

Naturalist 149 (1):

90-103. (Jan. 2003)

NAL Call #:  

410 M58; ISSN: 0003-0031

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Organic Matter Recovery/ Grassland Soils/ Cultivation/

Accumulation/ Abandonment/ Dynamics/ Storage/ Sink

Abstract: Prairie restoration has the potential to

sequester nitrogen (N) and atmospheric carbon (C) in the soil, but

the capability of a site to respond positively to prairie

restoration depends on numerous factors such as soil parent

material, topography and time. Soil bulk density in the top 10 cm

and C and N concentrations at several intervals to a depth of 1 m

were measured in a tallgrass prairie topochronosequence at fine-

and coarse-textured soil locations to evaluate the role of texture,

slope and ecosystem age in controlling C and N sequestration

following cessation of cultivation and subsequent prairie

restoration. Soil C and N concentrations, contents and C:N ratios

were significantly greater in fine-textured soils compared to sites

with coarse-textured soil. Soil texture generally did not explain

variations in the amounts or rates of C and N sequestration in the

restored prairies. Soil surface bulk density was significantly

correlated with slope, but not ecosystem age, at sites with

coarse-textured soil. Within the limits of this study, neither

slope nor ecosystem age were correlated to bulk density at sites

with fine-textured soil. Soil C content in the top 25 cm increased

significantly as ecosystem age increased for the restored and

remnant prairies at the fine-textured location, but not at the

coarse-textured location. Results demonstrate that a combination of

soil parent material, topography and time since cessation of

cultivation control the content and accumulation of C and N

following prairie restoration. In the context of this study, the

bottom line is that significant C sequestration was not achieved,

given the current level and types of restoration management, within

two and a half decades following conversion of cultivated cropland

to prairie.

© Thomson ISI

4. Carbon dynamics of the Conservation and

Wetland Reserve Programs.

Barker, J. R.; Baumgardner, G. A.;

Turner, D. P.; and Lee, J. J.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 51

(4): 340-346. (July 1996-Aug.

1996)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

land use/ conversion/ carbon cycle/

woodlands/ grasslands/ farmland/ afforestation/ carbon/ atmosphere/

air pollution/ greenhouse effect/ land management/ federal

programs/ forest soils/ grassland soils/ agricultural soils/

trends/ Conservation Reserve Program/ carbon sequestration/

nutrient dynamics/ carbon pools/ global carbon budget/ greenhouse

gases/

croplands/ forestlands

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

5. Climate and weather of the Great

Plains.

Wilken, G. C.

In: General Technical Report RM;

Vol. 158.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

18-20.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

weather/ climate/ northern plains

states of USA/ southern plains states of USA

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

6. Conservation practices in U.S. agriculture

and their impact on carbon sequestration.

Uri, Noel D.

Environmental Monitoring

and Assessment 70 (3):

323-344. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

TD194.E5; ISSN: 0167-6369

Descriptors:  

carbon: soil sequestration

practices/ Conservation Reserve Program/ United States agriculture:

conservation practices/ comprehensive effort/ conservation buffer

strips/ conservation practices: evolution/ soil

conservation:

individual, site

specific

Abstract: Increase in the use of conservation

practices by agriculture in the United States will enhance soil

organic carbon and potentially increase carbon sequestration. This,

in turn, will decrease the net emission of carbon dioxide. A number

of studies exist that calibrate the contribution of various

individual, site-specific conservation practices on changes in soil

organic carbon. There is a general absence, however, of a

comprehensive effort to measure objectively the contribution of

these practices including conservation tillage, the Conservation

Reserve Program, and conservation buffer strips to an change in

soil organic carbon. This paper fills that void. After recounting

the evolution of the use of the various conservation practices, it

is estimated that organic carbon in the soil in 1998 in the United

States attributable to these practices was about 12.2 million

metric tons. By 2008, there will be an increase of about 25%. Given

that there is a significant potential for conservation practices to

lead to an increase in carbon sequestration, there are a number of

policy options that can be pursued.

© Thomson

7. Conservation Reserve Program: Effects on

soil organic carbon and preservation when converting back to

cropland in northeastern Colorado.

Bowman, R. A. and Anderson, R.

L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 57

(2): 121-126. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

United States, Colorado/ Watershed

Management/ Agricultural Practices/ Organic Carbon/ Soil Chemistry/

Soil Conservation/ Tillage/ Crops/ Watershed protection

Abstract: Information on the potential for carbon

sequestration from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and

knowledge concerning the fate of accrued carbon on sod takeout and

recropping to a wheat-based rotation are essential. We conducted

two separate field studies in northeastern Colorado to quantify the

soil organic carbon (SOC) changes after various amounts of time in

the CRP program, and to assess problems associated with converting

CRP grass to cropland and the potential for loss of accrued SOC

with different tillage systems. For our first objective, we

assessed six CRP sites, with three sites showing increased SOC

content over the adjacent winter wheat/summer fallow sites, and

three sites showing no differences. In the conversion study,

systems with little or no tillage yielded more winter wheat

(Triticum aestivum L.) grain than systems with tillage because of

more available soil water at planting time. Furthermore, SOC loss

was less with no-till and reduced-till (herbicides plus one

tillage) systems than by conventional tillage with numerous sweep

plow operations. Thus, NT and reduced-till systems designed to

control perennial CRP grasses will enable producers to maintain

some of the gains in SOC when CRP land is converted to

cropland.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

8. Considering offsite wind erosion benefits

in the decision to implement soil conservation practices: An

example using the Conservation Reserve Program.

Piper, S.

Applied Agricultural

Research 5 (3): 153-158.

maps. (Summer 1990)

NAL Call #:  

S539.5.A77; ISSN: 0179-0374 [AAREEZ]

Descriptors:  

wind erosion/ decision making/ soil

conservation/ cost benefit analysis/ public expenditure/ social

benefits/ program effectiveness/ United States/ offsite benefits/

onsite benefits

Abstract: Wind erosion in the western United States

results in substantial offsite and onsite damages. These damages

can be reduced by implementing soil conservation measures to

decrease the level of wind erosion on agricultural land. Soil

conservation decisions by farmers are based primarily on the amount

of onsite benefits possible from erosion control. However, both

onsite and offsite benefits must be considered in order to attain a

socially desirable level of soil conservation. Estimates of the

offsite and onsite benefits from the Conservation Reserve Program

indicate that excluding offsite benefits from the soil conservation

decision results in a substantially lower than socially desirable

level of soil conservation.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

9. CRP and microbial biomass dynamics in

temperate climates.

Follett, R. F.

In: Management of carbon

sequestration in soil/

Lal, R.; Kimble, J. M.; Follet, R.

F.; and Stewart, B. A.; Series: Advances in soil

science.

Boca Ration, Fla.: CRC Press,

1998; pp. 305-322.

Notes: ISBN: 0849374421; Paper presented at the

symposium "Carbon sequestration in soils,"

held July, 1996, The Ohio State

University

NAL Call #:  S592.6.C35M35-1998

Descriptors:  

soil flora/ biomass/ soil/ quality/

land use/ soil management/ federal programs/ soil conservation/

Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

10. The CRP increases soil organic

carbon.

Gebhart, D. L.; Johnson, H. B.;

Mayeux, H. S.; and Polley, H. W.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 49

(5): 488-492. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ soil organic

matter/ carbon/ cropland/ pastures/ land use/ cultivated lands/

organic carbon/ crops/ Watershed protection/ Land pollution/

Conservation

Abstract: The land use change from cropland to

perennial grass cover associated with the Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) may sequester atmospheric CO sub(2) back into the

soil carbon pool, thereby changing formerly cultivated soils from

sources to sinks for atmospheric carbon. To evaluate the effect of

CRP on soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, samples from adjacent

cropland, native pasture, and five year old CRP sites in Texas,

Kansas, and Nebraska were analyzed. Across all locations, SOC

levels for cropland, CRP, and native pasture were 59.2, 65.1, and

90.8 metric tons C/ha in the surface 300 cm, respectively. CRP

lands gained an average of 1.1 tons C/ha/yr suggesting that the 17

million hectares of land enrolled in CRP may have the potential to

sequester about 45% of the 38.1 million tons of carbon released

annually into the atmosphere from U.S. agriculture. These findings

illustrate that agricultural CO sub(2) emissions may be effectively

controlled through changes in land use and management

systems.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

11. Evaluating the environmental effects of

agricultural policy: The soil bank, the CRP, and airborne

particulate concentrations.

Ringquist, R. J.; Lee, J.; and

Ervin, R. T.

Policy Studies

Journal 23: 519-533. (Fall

1995); ISSN:

0190-292X

Descriptors:  

United States---Environmental

policy/ Air pollution---United States/ Agriculture---United

States---Legislation/ Soil conservation---United States

Legislation/ United States---Agricultural policy---Legislation/

Soil erosion---Environmental aspects/ Agriculture---Environmental

aspects

Abstract: Finds significant improvement in air

quality as a result of soil conservation provisions of the 1985 and

1990 Farm bills; some focus on the 1985 Conservation Reserve

program; US. Analysis of reduction in air-borne dust in the

Southern High Plains region.

© 2004 PAIS, published by OCLC

Public Affairs Information Service

12. Forest carbon sinks: Costs and effects of

expanding the Conservation Reserve Program.

Parks, P. J. and Hardie, I.

W.

Choices 11 (2): 37-39. (1996)

NAL Call #:  

HD1751.C45; ISSN: 0886-5558

Descriptors:  

forests/ carbon/ federal programs/

program participants/ farmland/ land diversion/

United States/ carbon

emission

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

13. Land management effects on nitrogen and

carbon cycling in an Ultisol.

Torbert, H. A.; Prior, S. A.; and

Reeves, D. W.

Communications in Soil

Science and Plant Analysis 30 (9/10): 1345-1359. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

S590.C63; ISSN: 0010-3624 [CSOSA2]

Descriptors:  

ultisols / nitrogen cycle/ carbon

cycle/ land management/ soil fertility/ tillage/ conservation

tillage/ cover crops/ fallow systems/ cropping systems/ gossypium

hirsutum/ triticum aestivum/ pinus taeda/ Alabama

Abstract: Soil carbon (C) content in agro-systems

is important in a global context because of the potential for soil

to act as a sink for atmospheric CO(2). However, soil C storage in

agro-ecosystems can be sensitive to land management practices. The

objective of this study was to examine the impact of land

management systems on C and nitrogen (N) cycling in an Ultisol in

Alabama. Soil samples (0-10,10-20, and 20-30 cm depths) were

collected from a Marvyn sandy loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous,

thermic Typic Hapludults) under five different farm scale

management systems for at least 5 years. The five systems were

cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production managed with 1)

conventional tillage only, 2) conventional tillage with a grazed

winter cover crop (wheat, Triticum aestivum L.), 3) conservation

tillage with a winter cover crop grown for cover only with strip

tillage; or taken out of cotton production with either 4)

long-term-fallow (mowed), or 5) Conservation Reserve Program with

loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) (CRP-pine). Total N, total organic C

(TOC), total P, and soil C:N ratios were determined. Potential C

mineralization, N mineralization, C turnover and C:N mineralization

ratios were determined on samples during a 30-day laboratory

incubation study. The fallow system had significantly higher TOC

concentration (7.7 g kg(-1) C) while the CRP-pine system had lower

TOC concentration (3.1 g kg(-1) C) compared with the farmed

management systems (approximately equal to 4.7 g kg(-1) C). The

fallow system had a significantly lower C turnover at all three

soil depths compared with the other management systems. At the 0-10

cm depth, the highest C:N mineralization ratio levels were observed

in management systems receiving the most tillage. Our results

indicate that for Ultisols in the Southeast the use of surface

tillage in land management systems is a controlling factor which

may limit soil C sequestration.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

14. National-Scale Estimation of Changes in

Soil Carbon Stocks on Agricultural Lands.

Eve, MD; Sperow, M; Paustian, K;

and Follett, RF

Environmental

Pollution 116 (3): 431-438.

(2002)

NAL Call #:  

QH545.A1E52; ISSN: 0269-7491

Descriptors:  

Carbon Sequestration/ Global

Change/ Land Use Change/ IPCC Inventory/ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) /

Greenhouse Gas/ Conservation Tillage/ Organic Carbon/

Sequestration/ Resources/ Dynamics/ Matter/ Sinks

Abstract: Average annual net change in soil carbon

stocks under past and current management is needed as part of

national reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and to evaluate the

potential for soils as sinks to mitigate increasing atmospheric

CO2. We estimated net soil C stock changes for US agricultural

soils during the period from 1982 to 1997 using the IPCC

(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) method for greenhouse

gas inventories. Land use data from the NRI (National Resources

Inventory; USDA-NRCS) were used as input along with ancillary data

sets on climate, soils, and agricultural management. Our results

show that, overall, changes in land use and agricultural management

have resulted in a net gain of 21.2 MMT C year(-1) in US

agricultural soils during this period. Cropped lands account for

15.1 MMT C year(- 1), while grazing land soil C increased 6.1 MMT C

year(-1). The land use and management changes that have contributed

the most to increasing soil C during this period are (1) adoption

of conservation tillage practices on cropland, (2) enrollment of

cropland in the Conservation Reserve Program, and (3) cropping

intensification that has resulted in reduced use of bare fallow.

(C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

© Thomson ISI

15. Potential carbon benefits of the

Conservation Reserve Program in the United States.

Barker, J. R.; Baumgardner, G. A.;

Turner, D. P.; and Lee, J. J.

Journal of

Biogeography 22 (4-5):

743-751. (1995)

NAL Call #:  

QH1.J62; ISSN: 0305-0270.

Notes: Conference: 1. GCTE Science Conference, Woods

Hole, MA (USA), 23-27 May 1994

Descriptors:  

USA/ carbon sinks/ land

improvement/ vegetation changes/ climatic changes/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ Conservation

Abstract: Three scenarios of the Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) were simulated to project carbon (C) pools

and fluxes of associated grassland and forestland for the years

1986-2035; and to evaluate the potential to offset greenhouse gas

emissions through C sequestration. The approach was to link

land-area enrolments with grassland and forestland C densities to

simulate C pools and fluxes over 50 years. The CRP began in 1986

and by 1996 consisted of 16.2 x 10 super(6) ha cropland converted

to 14.7 x 10 super(6) ha grassland and of 1.5 x 10 super(6) ha

forestland. The CRP1 simulated the likely outcome of the CRP as

contracts expire in 1996 with the anticipated return of 8.7 x 10

super(6) ha grassland and of 0.4 x 10 super(6) ha forestland to

crop production. The CRP2 assumed that the CRP continues with no

land returning to crop production. The CRP3 was an expansion of the

CRP2 to include afforestation of 4 x 10 super(6) ha new land.

Average net annual C gains for the years 1996-2005 were < 1, 12,

and 16 TgC yr super(-1) for CRP1, CRP2, and CRP3, respectively.

Afforestation of marginal cropland as simulated under CRP3 could

provide approximately 15% of the C offset needed to attain the

Climate Change Action Plan of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to

their 1990 level by the year 2000 within the United

States.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

16. Soil carbon sequestration and the

greenhouse effect: Proceedings of a symposium, 90th Annual

Meeting.

Lal, R.

Madison, WI: Soil Science Society

of America; xvii, 236. (2001)

Notes: Meeting held 18-22 October 1998 at Baltimore,

MD.; ISBN:

0-89118-836-3

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.


17. Soil Change and Carbon Storage in Longleaf

Pine Stands Planted on Marginal Agricultural Lands.

Markewitz, D; Sartori, F; and

Craft, C

Ecological

Applications 12 (5):

1276-1285. (Oct. 2002)

NAL Call #:  

QH540.E23; ISSN: 1051-0761

Descriptors:  

Carbon Storage/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ Longleaf Pine/ Marginal Agricultural Lands/ Soil

Cations/ Soil Change/ Soil Nitrogen/ Soil Phosphorus/ Wiregrass

Savannas/ Ecosystem Function/ Loblolly Pine/ 3 Decades Forest/

Sequestration/ Patterns/ Turnover

Abstract: An increasing area of marginal

agricultural land in the coastal plain of the southeastern United

States is being planted to longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.).

This chronosequence study in southern Georgia evaluated the effect

of pine planting and the associated cessation of agricultural

activity such as tillage and fertilization on soil C storage and

soil nutrient stocks. Soils are Arenic or Typic Kandiudults with

coarse- textured surface soils. Soil C, nutrients, and bulk density

from 0 to 50 cm in planted stands 1, 3, 7, and 14 yr old, as well

as soils beneath natural longleaf pine stands that were in a never

tilled (NT) condition, were evaluated (n = 3 per stand age). No

accumulation of soil C was apparent during the first 14 yr of pine

growth. The average content of soil C in planted stands (11 +/- 1

Mg/ha; mean +/- 1 SE) was similar to 16 Mg/ha less than that in the

NT soils (27 +/- 4 Mg/ha). Soil total N content within planted

stands also did not differ by age, although extractable NO,

declined rapidly. Despite agricultural N inputs, the mean N content

of planted stands (410 +/- 83 Mg/ha) was below that in NT stands

(730 +/- 21 Mg/ha). Total P (1507 +/- 21 Mg/ha) and extractable P

(113 -_ 21 Mg/ha) contents also did not differ between planted

stands but had highly elevated values compared to total P (728 -_

38 Mg/ha) and extractable P (2 +/- 1 Mg/ha) for NT soils. Soil

exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K had generally decreasing contents with

stand age but varying patterns related to NT soils. During the

first 14 yr of reforestation, soils did not sequester C. Carbon

benefits may be gained, however, in above-ground and belowground

biomass accumulation and through the cessation of high

energy-consumptive activities such as fertilization or tillage.

Enhanced P fertility on these marginal lands can improve pine

growth, but only if other elements such as N are not limiting to

growth.

© Thomson ISI


18. Soil management concepts and carbon

sequestration in cropland soils.

Follett, R. F.

Soil and Tillage

Research 61 (1/2): 77-92.

(2001)

NAL Call #:  

S590.S48; ISSN: 0167-1987

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

19. Statistical Assessment of a Paired-Site

Approach for Verification of Carbon and Nitrogen Sequestration on

Wisconsin Conservation Reserve Program Land.

Kucharik, CJ; Roth, JA; and

Nabielski, RT

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 58 (1): 58-67.

(Jan. 2003-Feb. 2003)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

Agricultural Land Management/

Carbon Sequestration / CRP/ Soil Organic Matter/ Wisconsin/ Organic

Matter Recovery/ Particle Size Analysis/ Soil Carbon/ Quality/

 Switchgrass/ Management/ Grassland/ Storage/ Fields/

Bulk

Abstract: The threat of global climate change has

provoked policy-makers to consider plausible strategies to slow the

accumulation of greenhouse gases-especially carbon dioxide (CO2)-in

the atmosphere. One such idea involves the sequestration of

atmospheric carbon (C) in degraded agricultural soils as part of

the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). While the potential for

significant C sequestration in CRP grassland ecosystems has been

demonstrated, the paired-site sampling approach traditionally used

to quantify soil C changes has not been evaluated with robust

statistical analysis. In this study, 14 paired CRP (> 8 years

old) and cropland sites in Dane County, Wisconsin, were used to

assess whether a paired-site sampling design could detect

statistically significant differences (ANOVA) in mean soil organic

C and total nitrogen (N) storage. We compared 0 to 10 cm (0 to 3.9

in) bulk density and sampled soils (0 to 5 cm, 5 to 10 cm, and 10

to 25 cm [0 to 2 in, 2 to 3.9 in, and 3.9 to 9.8 in]) for textural

differences and chemical analysis of organic matter (OM), soil

organic C (SOC), total N, and pH. The CRP contributed to reducing

soil bulk density by 13% (p < 0.001) and increased SOC and OM

storage (kg m(-2) [lb ft(-2)]) by 13% to 17% in the 0 to 5 cm (2

in) layer (p = 0.1). We tested the statistical power associated

with ANOVA for measured soil properties and calculated minimum

detectable differences (MDD). We concluded that 40 to 65 paired

sites and soil sampling in 5 cm (2 in) increments near the surface

were needed to achieve an 80% confidence level (a = 0.05;

&beta; = 0.20) in soil C and N sequestration rates. Because

soil C and total N storage was highly variable among these sites

(CVs > 20%), only a 23% to 29% change in existing total organic

C and N pools could be reliably detected. While C and N

sequestration (247 kg C ha(-1) yr(-1) and 17 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)

[220 lb C ac(-1) and 15 lb N ac(-1)]) may be occurring and confined

to the surface 5 cm (2 in) as part of the Wisconsin CRP, our

sampling design did not statistically support the desired 80%

confidence level. We conclude that usage of statistical power

analysis is essential to insure a high level of confidence in soil

C and N sequestration rates that are quantified using paired

plots.

© Thomson ISI

20. Uncertainty in estimating land use and

management impacts on soil organic carbon storage for US

agricultural lands between 1982 and 1997.

Ogle, S. M.; Breidt, F. J.; Eve,

M. D.; and Paustian, K.

Global Change

Biology 9 (11): 1521-1542.

(2003)

NAL Call #:  

QC981.8.C5G6323; ISSN: 1354-1013.

Notes: Number of References: 143;

Publisher: Blackwell Publishing

Ltd

Descriptors:  

Environment/ Ecology/

agroecosystems/ carbon sequestration/ greenhouse gas mitigation/

IPCC/ land use change/ uncertainty analysis/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ fine sandy loam/ cultivated grassland soils/ Carbon 13

natural abundance/ fallow tillage systems/ long term tillage/

southwestern Saskatchewan/ crop rotations/ great plains/ nitrogen

fertilization

Abstract: Uncertainty was quantified for an

inventory estimating change in soil organic carbon (SOC) storage

resulting from modifications in land use and management across US

agricultural lands between 1982 and 1997. This inventory was

conducted using a modified version of a carbon (C) accounting

method developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

(IPCC). Probability density functions (PDFs) were derived for each

input to the IPCC model, including reference SOC stocks, land

use/management activity data, and management factors. Change in C

storage was estimated using a Monte-Carlo approach with 50 000

iterations, by randomly selecting values from the PDFs after

accounting for dependencies in the model inputs. Over the inventory

period, mineral soils had a net gain of 10.8 Tg C yr(-1), with a

95% confidence interval ranging from 6.5 to 15.3 Tg C yr(-1). Most

of this gain was due to setting-aside lands in the Conservation

Reserve Program. In contrast, managed organic soils lost 9.4 Tg C

yr(-1), with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 6.4 to 13.3 Tg

C yr(-1). Combining these gains and losses in SOC, US agricultural

soils accrued 1.3 Tg C yr(-1) due to land use and management

change, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from a loss of 4.4

Tg C yr(-1) to a gain of 6.9 Tg C yr(-1). Most of the uncertainty

was attributed to management factors for tillage, land use change

between cultivated and uncultivated conditions, and C loss rates

from managed organic soils. Based on the uncertainty, we are not

able to conclude with 95% confidence that change in US agricultural

land use and management between 1982 and 1997 created a net C sink

for atmospheric CO2.

© Thomson ISI

[Table of Contents]


Soil

21. Agricultural sedimentation impacts on

lakeside property values.

Bejranonda, S.; Hitzhusen, F. J.;

and Hite, D.

Agricultural and Resource

Economics Review  28

(2): 208-218. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

HD1773.A2N6; ISSN: 1068-2805

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

22. Agriculture and dynamics of soil erosion

in the United States.

Uri, Noel D and Lewis, James

A

Journal of Sustainable

Agriculture 14 (3): 63-82.

(1999)

NAL Call #:  

S494.5.S86S8; ISSN: 1044-0046

Descriptors:  

Soil erosion---United States/ Soil

conservation---United States/ United States---Agricultural

policy---Environmental aspects/ Agriculture---Environmental

aspects/ United States---Environmental policy

Abstract: Examines soil conservation programs'

effectiveness in reducing erosion; educational, technical and

financial assistance, research and development, land retirement,

regulation, tax, and incentives policies meant to affect production

practices adoption. Some focus on the Food Security Act of 1985,

the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act (FAIR) of 1996,

and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP).

© 2004 PAIS, published by OCLC

Public Affairs Information Service

23. Assessment of soil quality in Conservation

Reserve Program and wheat-fallow soils.

Staben, M. L.; Bezdicek, D. F.;

Smith, J. L.; and Fauci, M. F.

Soil Science Society of

America Journal 61

(1): 124-130. (1997)

NAL Call #:  

56.9-So3; ISSN: 0361-5995 [SSSJD4]

Descriptors:  

soil/ quality/ assessment/ land

use/ land diversion/ grassland soils/ agricultural soils/ wheat

soils/ soil organic matter/ carbon/ nitrogen content/ carbon

nitrogen ratio/ soil flora/ soil fauna/ biomass/ soil enzymes/

enzyme activity/ soil ph/ mineralization/ respiration/ soil

management/ Washington/ soil respiration

Abstract: Chemical and microbial aspects of soil

quality are an important consideration when evaluating the benefits

of soil conservation efforts such as the Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP). The objective of this study was to evaluate the

quality of CRP and wheat-fallow (W-F) soils using soil biological

and chemical parameters and C and N mineralization processes. The

study was conducted on 20 CRP/W-F paired sites in eastern

Washington, on Ritzville silt loam (coarse-silty, mixed, mesic

Calciorthidic Haploxerolls). Soils collected from the paired fields

were analyzed for chemical and biological parameters that have been

suggested as indicators of soil quality. Potential enzyme

activities and soil N were higher in the CRP soil than the W-F

soil. Although there were no significant differences in total

organic carbon (TOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) the C

mineralization potentials and C pools were significantly different

between the CRP and W-F soils. Soil biota measurements showed there

was greater active bacterial biomass in the CRP soil but greater

fungal-feeding nematodes, flagellates, and amoebae in the W-F soil.

The C mineralization study suggests that there is a significant

increase in the secondary C pool of the CRP soil, which may

indicate a buildup of higher quality soil organic matter and the

potential for higher enzyme levels. When grass or straw was added

to each soil type, the W-F soil produced more CO2 with either

substrate than the CRP soil, indicating C limiting conditions in

the W-F soil. Since it is unknown what constitutes good soil

quality, these shifts in chemical and biological parameters may

seem subtle. However, in general, trends in the data indicated that

soil quality in the CRP was improved after 4 to 7 yr, compared with

its previous management in W-F cropland.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

24. Assessment of soil quality in fields with

short and long term enrollment in the CRP.

Baer, S. G.; Rice, C. W.; and

Blair, J. M.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 55

(2): 142-146. (2000)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

25. Comparing performance of the 1985 and the

1990 Conservation Reserve Programs in the West.

Young, D.; Bechtel, A.; and

Coupal, R.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 49

(5): 484-487. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ government

supports/ cropland/ cost analysis/ environmental effects/ policy

making/ soil management/ Western/ erosion control/ government

programs/ economics/ environmental impact/ United States/ Watershed

protection/ Environmental action/ Conservation/ United

States

Abstract: Despite its widespread popularity, the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has been criticized for its cost

ineffectiveness in achieving soil conservation goals. The objective

of this study was to compare how the more targeted revision of the

CRP in the 1990 Farm Bill compares with the 1985 Farm Bill CRP in

concentrating enrollment in highly erodible western U.S. counties.

Correlations between CRP enrollment and erodibility for counties in

California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington show that the 1990 CRP

has been more successful than the 1985 CRP in concentrating

enrollment in erodible counties. Fixed bid caps in the 1985 CRP

often directed enrollment to counties with lower productivity and

modest erodibility, which reduced cost-effectiveness. While the

1990 reforms appear to have improved the targeting of the CRP, the

1 million ha (2.3 million ac) 1990 CRP is small in terms of

economic and environmental impact compared to the 14 million ha (34

million ac) 1985 CRP.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

26. Conservation Reserve Program effects on

soil quality indicators.

Karlen, D. L.; Rosek, M. J.;

Gardner, J. C.; Allan, D. L.; Alms, M. J.; Bezdicek, D. F.; Flock,

M.; Huggins, D. R.; Miller, B. S.; and Staben, M. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 54

(1): 439-444. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Regional conservation programs/ Iowa/

Minnesota/

North Dakota/

Washington

Abstract: Reviewed soil data from areas in the U.S.

for their responses to the CRP and whether the soil quality

indicators currently used are an accurate measure of ecosystem

responses to CRP.

27. Cost effectiveness and equity aspects of

soil conservation programs in a highly erodible region.

Young, D. L.; Walker, D. J.; and

Kanjo, P. L.

American Journal of

Agricultural Economics  73 (4): 1053-1062. (Nov. 1991)

NAL Call #:  

280.8-J822; ISSN: 0002-9092

Descriptors:  

erosion/ soil conservation/ cost

effectiveness analysis/ federal programs/ farmers/ agricultural

regions/ economic impact/ social costs/ profits/ integer

programming/ program participants/ Washington/ food security act of

1985/ distribution of costs/ taxpayers mixed integer programming

models/ Whitman County, Washington

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve (CRP) and

Conservation Compliance Programs could divide the soil conservation

burden between farmers and taxpayers. In a highly erodible

southeastern Washington region, however, a uniform region-wide CRP

bid cap and relaxed compliance requirements resulted in little or

no projected burden for farmers in arid, less productive

subregions. In contrast, farmers in a more productive subregion

were projected to bear 50% or more of the costs of soil

conservation. The projected government cost per ton of soil

conserved also increased threefold from the most to the least

productive subregion.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

28. Earthworm (Lumbricidae) survey of North

Dakota fields placed in the U.S. Conservation Reserve

Program.

Deibert, E. J. and Utter, R.

A.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 58

(1): 39-45. (2003); ISSN: 0022-4561

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

29. Effects of long-term cropping on chemical

aspects of soil quality.

Eck, H. V. and Stewart, B.

A.

Journal of Sustainable

Agriculture 12

(2/3): 5-20. (1998)

NAL Call #:  

S494.5.S86S8; ISSN: 1044-0046

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

30. Enzyme activities in semiarid soils under

Conservation Reserve Program, native rangeland, and

cropland.

Acosta-Martinez, V.; Klose, S.;

and Zobeck, T. M.

Journal of Plant Nutrition

and Soil Science / Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenernahrung und

Bodenkunde 166 (6):

 699-707. (2003)

NAL Call #:  

384 Z343A; ISSN: 1436-8730.

Notes: Number of References: 39;

Publisher: Wiley-V C H Verlag

Gmbh

Descriptors:  

Agriculture/ Agronomy/ specific

enzyme activities/ arylamidase activity/ beta glucosaminidase

activity/ crop rotations/ cotton/ sunflowers/ beta glucosaminidase

activity / microbial biomass/ residue management/ cropping systems/

arylamidase activity/ organic matter/ chloroform fumigation/ cotton

yield/ tillage/ nitrogen

Abstract: There is limited knowledge of biochemical

processes in low carbon content soils of semiarid regions under

different land use and management. This study investigated several

enzyme activities of C, N, P, and S transformations in semiarid

soils with different clay (10-21 %) and sand (59-85%) contents that

were under Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), native rangeland

(NR), and cropland (CL) under sunflowers (Eriophyllum ambiguum

(Gray)), continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), or in rotations

with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)

in West Texas, USA. Soils under CRP and NR showed higher total C

and N contents than cultivated soils under continuous cotton, but

soil pH (6.7-8.4) was not affected by the management or land use

studied. The activities of beta-glucosidase, beta-glucosaminidase,

arylamidase, acid and alkaline phosphatase, phosphodiesterase, and

arylsulfatase (mg product (kg soil)(-1) h(-1)) were lower in CL

under continuous cotton compared to cotton in rotation with other

crops, CRP, and NR. The enzyme activities were also lower when

compared to soils from other regions. Linear regression analyses

indicated positive correlations between enzyme activities and total

C

(r values up to 0.96, P <

0.01). There was a positive relationship between enzyme activities

and total N, but soil pH showed the opposite trend. Enzyme

activities were significantly intercorrelated with r values up to

0.98 (P < 0.001). The specific enzyme activities (mg product (g

organic C)(-1)) were lower in continuous cotton in comparison to

the uncultivated soils (i.e., NR and CRP) reflecting differences in

organic matter quantity and quality due to cultivation. Among the

enzymes studied, the specific activities of beta-glucosidase and

arylamidase showed a more pronounced decrease with increasing soil

depth. In general, soils under CRP or wheat-cotton rotations

revealed higher enzyme activities than soils under the common

agricultural practice for these regions, i.e., continuous cotton

under conventional tillage.

© Thomson ISI

31. Erosion estimates and the effects of land

use changes on soil savings estimates--Insights from the 1992

National Resources Inventory: Benefits.

Kellogg, R. L. and Wallace,

S.

In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual

Meeting of the Soil and Water Conservation Society. (Held  7-9 Aug, 1995 at Des Moines,

Iowa.); pp. 37-38; 1995.

Descriptors:  

USA/ natural resources/ erosion

rates/ cropland/ wind erosion/ land use/ sheet erosion/ rill

erosion/ soil conservation/ 1992 National Resources Inventory/

Conservation Reserve Program/ Erosion and sedimentation

Abstract:  The 1992 National Resources

Inventory shows that average erosion rates on cropland fell

dramatically during the 10-year period from 1982 to 1992. The sheet

and rill erosion rate fell from an average of 4.1 tons per acre per

year on 421 million acres of cropland in 1982 to 3.1 tons per acre

per year on 382 million acres of cropland in 1992. At the same

time, the average rate of wind erosion fell from 3.3 tons per acre

per year to 2.4 tons per acre per year. The combined wind and water

erosion rate reduction translates to a saving of nearly 1 billion

tons of soil per year, with approximately equal savings arising

from reductions in sheet and rill erosion rates and wind erosion

rates. Of this, about 395 million tons per year is due to the

enrollment of land in the Conservation Reserve Program, 529 million

tons per year is due to improved conservation practices on

croplands acres, 158 million tons per year is due to conversion of

cropland to other uses (such as developed land, pastureland, etc.).

These savings are offset to some extent by an increase in erosion

of 102 million tons per year on noncropland in 1982 converted to

cropland by 1992. The paper includes a detailed breakdown of these

soil savings estimates for eight major field crops-corn, cotton,

soybeans, wheat, potatoes, sorghum, barley, and rice.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA)

32. Erosion potential of a Torrertic

Paleustoll after converting Conservation Reserve Program grassland

to cropland.

Unger, P. W.

Soil Science Society of

America Journal 63

(6): 1795-1801. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

56.9-So3; ISSN: 0361-5995 [SSSJD4]

Descriptors:  

mollisols/ clay loam soils/ wind

erosion/ water erosion/ erodibility/ grassland soils/ land use/

conversion/ tillage/ soil management/ grasses/ plant residues/

Texas/ grass management

Abstract: Extensive cropland areas were covered by

the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the semiarid southern

Great Plains. Because soils were highly erodible, would erosion

again become a problem when CRP land was converted to cropland? The

erosion potential due to tillage methods used to convert CRP

grassland to cropland was determined on Pullman clay loam

(Torrertic Paleustoll). Tillage methods were no-, sweep, disk, and

moldboard + disk tillage with CRP grass retained or removed (mowing

and baling), and grass burning followed by sweep or disk tillage.

Wind erosion potential was based on percentage of > 0.84-mm

diam. and mean weight diameter (MWD) of dry aggregates at 2 to 3 yr

after converting to cropland. Water erosion potential was based on

MWD and percentage of < 0.25-mm water-stable aggregates, and

water stability of 1-to 2-mm aggregates at crop planting and

harvest. Few differences due to tillage methods were significant.

For dry aggregates, more than 60% were > 0.84-mm diam. and MWD

was >10 mm with all tillage methods, indicating a low wind

erosion potential. Wet aggregate stability and MWD values at some

sampling times indicated water erosion could occur. Although

erosion potential was low, continued use of residue-incorporating

tillage could lead to greater potentials. Because of initially low

potentials, CRP land on Pullman and similar soils could be

converted to cropland by any tillage method. Then, a conservation

tillage system (e.g., no-tillage) could be implemented before

erosion by wind or water became a serious problem.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


33. Establishment of range plants in the

northern Great Plains.

Reis, R. E.; White, R. S.; and

Lorenz, R. J.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

29-34.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

resource conservation/ soil

conservation/ legislation/ replanting/ northern plains states of

USA/ food security act of 1985/ Conservation Reserve

Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

34. Evaluating Agricultural Nonpoint-Source

Pollution Programs in Two Lake Erie Tributaries.

Forster, D. L. and Rausch, J.

N.

Journal of Environmental

Quality 31 (1): 24-31. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

QH540.J6; ISSN: 0047-2425

Descriptors:  

Economics/ Agriculture/ Nonpoint

pollution/ Soil erosion/ Water pollution control/ Water

conservation/ Government programs/ tributaries/ Costs/ Performance

assessment/ Governments/ Erosion control/ Pollution control/

Agricultural pollution/ North America, Erie L/ United States,

Maumee River/ United States, Ohio, Sandusky River/ Agricultural

Watersheds/ Nonpoint Pollution Sources/ Best Management Practices/

Government Supports/ Expenditures/ Economic Evaluation/ Economic

Efficiency/ Catchment areas/ Erosion/ Pollution (Nonpoint sources)/

United States, Erie L/ United States, Ohio, Sandusky River/ United

States, Ohio, Maumee River/ Environmental action/ Prevention and

control/ Watershed protection/ Water Quality/ Water Pollution:

Monitoring, Control & Remediation/ Water quality

control

Abstract: During the past three decades, numerous

government programs have encouraged Lake Erie basin farmers to

adopt practices that reduce water pollution. The first section of

this paper summarizes these state and federal government

agricultural pollution abatement programs in watersheds of two

prominent Lake Erie tributaries, the Maumee River and Sandusky

River. Expenditures are summarized for each program, total

expenditures in each county are estimated, and cost effectiveness

of program expenditures (i.e., cost per metric ton of soil saved)

are analyzed. Farmers received nearly $143 million as incentive

payments to implement agricultural nonpoint source pollution

abatement programs in the Maumee and Sandusky River watersheds from

1987 to 1997. About 95% of these funds was from federal sources. On

average, these payments totaled about $7000 per farm or about $30

per farm acre (annualized equivalent of $2 per acre) within the

watersheds. Our analysis raises questions about how efficiently

these incentive payments were allocated. The majority of

Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) funds appear to have been

spent on less cost-effective practices. Also, geographic areas with

relatively low (high) soil erosion rates received relatively large

(small) funding.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

35. An ex post evaluation of the conservation

reserve, federal crop insurance, and other government programs:

Program participation and soil erosion.

Goodwin, B. K. and Smith, V.

H.

Journal of Agricultural and

Resource Economics

28 (2): 201-216. (2003)

NAL Call #:  

HD1750.W4; ISSN: 0162-1912

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

36. Impacts of tillage and no-till on

production of maize and soybean on an eroded Illinois silt loam

soil.

Hussain, I.; Olson, K. R.; and

Ebelhar, S. A.

Soil and Tillage

Research 52 (1/2): 37-49.

(1999)

NAL Call #:  

S590.S48; ISSN: 0167-1987

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

37. Integrated dryland crop and livestock

production systems on the Great Plains: Extent and

outlook.

Krall, J. M. and Schuman, G.

E.

Journal of Production

Agriculture 9 (2):

187-191. (Apr. 1996-June 1996)

NAL Call #:  

S539.5.J68; ISSN: 0890-8524 [JPRAEN].

Notes: Paper presented at the symposium "Cropping

Systems of the Great Plains" held during the ASA-CSSA-SSSA annual

meetings 1994, Seattle.

Includes references.

Descriptors:  

dry farming/ sustainability/

farming systems/ integrated systems/ livestock farming/ crop

production/ land use/ censuses/ trends/ environmental impact/ soil

organic matter/ farm management/ soil fertility/ great plains

states of USA

Abstract: Soil organic carbon levels have declined

24 to 60% on many Great Plains soils since initial cultivation.

Integrated crop and livestock systems could help reverse this

trend, therefore we examined the extent of use, the factors

affecting use, and the potential for this system. The 1992 U.S.

Department of Commerce data indicate that land in integrated

systems is limited to less than 10% of the agricultural land.

However, expiration of the USDA Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

has created interest in integrated systems. Economists report that

after CRP contracts expire, perennial forages and livestock systems

may be the most profitable; however, a survey of growers indicates

that 63% of all CRP acres will go back to crop production. Recent

research in Wyoming shows that returning CRP land to production

using wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow practices quickly

degrades soil quality. A doubling of grazing fees would mean an 18%

reduction in demand for public land, which could mean more options

for CRP acreage after contract expiration. Exemplified successful

systems are the Australia wheat-sheep (Ovis aries L.) system,

perennial legume-wheat rotation in southern Alberta, grass

community establishment on marginal Wyoming cropland, and an

alternative (organic) farming system in South Dakota. Benefits

include the opportunity for soil quality improvement, economic

diversity, and pest control. However, tradition, lack of managerial

experience, and necessary alteration in farm-ranch infrastructure

may slow adoption. Generally, dryland integrated systems are

agriclimatic zone specific, and represent a potential ecologically

and economically sustainable form of agriculture. Scientists and

producers have to identify and develop appropriate integrated

systems that fit the natural resource base.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

38. Land use biodiversity index as a soil

quality indicator.

Bloodworth H; Sobecki T; and

Santen E van.

In: Making conservation tillage

conventional: Building a future on 25 years of research --

Proceedings of 25th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Conference

for Sustainable Agriculture. (Held 24 Jun 2002-26 Jun 2002  at Auburn,

AL.); pp. 219-221; 2002.

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

39. Land-use management using a soil survey

geographic database for Finney County, Kansas.

Wu, J.; Ransom, M. D.;

Kluitenberg, G. J.;

Nellis, M. D.; and Seyler, H.

L.

Soil Science Society of

America Journal 65

(1): 169-177. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

56.9-So3; ISSN: 0361-5995 [SSSJD4]

Descriptors:  

land use / geographical information

systems/ databases/ soil surveys/ land management/ land use

planning/ aquifers/ thickness/ land banks/ remote sensing/

satellite imagery/ fallow/ grasslands/ physiographic features/ soil

organic matter/ soil texture/ surface layers / ground cover/

agricultural land/ crop production/ triticum aestivum/ sorghum

bicolor/ zea mays/ medicago sativa/ horizons/ irrigated farming/

maps/ Kansas/ Conservation Reserve Program/ land cover/ land

use/

land cover maps

Abstract: The determination of best management

practices for land resources is often complicated by the lack of a

means for evaluation and lack of quality data. Soil surveys are an

important source of data that can be used to improve farm and ranch

planning and environmental protection. In this study, we examined

the use of a soil survey geographic (SSURGO) database within a

geographic information system (GIS) coupled with remote sensing

data for land-use management in Finney County, Kansas. The

objectives were (i) to identify land-use change; (ii) to evaluate

the influence of soil, groundwater, and physiography on land use;

and (iii) to assess land-use potential and present management

alternatives. Land-use/land-cover (LULC) maps for 1987, 1989, and

1992 were derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data. These LULC

layers were manipulated with layers: organic matter content,

thickness, and texture of the surface soil horizon; land capability

class; aquifer thickness (AT); and physiography. The acreage of

fallow land decreased and the acreage of grassland increased from

1987 to 1992 because of an increase in the acreage of land used in

the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Broad cropping patterns

(irrigated vs. nonirrigated) did not change significantly between

1987 and 1992 and were related to AT. Some currently cropped areas

had high erosion potential, whereas some grasslands had relatively

low erosion hazards. These grasslands could be used as alternatives

for cropping. The study demonstrates the potential of using SSURGO

within a GIS coupled with remote sensing information in planning

and management for natural resources.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

40. Legume, grass, and Conservation Reserve

Program effects on soil organic matter recovery.

Robles, M. D. and Burke, I.

C.

Ecological

Applications 7 (2): 345-357.

(1997)

NAL Call #:  

QH540.E23; ISSN: 1051-0761

Descriptors:  

United States, Wyoming/ legumes/

grasses/ soil conservation/ organic matter/ Reclamation

Abstract: Active pools of soil organic matter (SOM)

can recover to native levels on formerly cultivated fields that are

abandoned for approximately 50 yr, but the short-term (<10 yr)

recovery dynamics of SOM and nutrient supply have not been widely

investigated. In several fields on a farm in southeastern Wyoming

that had been involved in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP, a

federal program that pays landowners to convert cultivated land

into revegetated grasslands), we compared C and N in several SOM

pools (coarse particulate organic matter [POM, between 500 mu m and

2 mm], fine POM [53-500 mu m], and total SOM), and we compared

potential C and N mineralization in active pools responsible for

nutrient supply. The two CRP treatments, planted 6 yr prior to this

study, were an approximately 80% legume:20% grass mixture (HL CRP)

and a 20% legume:80% grass mixture (LL CRP). To quantify SOM

accumulations directly due to increased plant inputs within CRP

fields, we also compared SOM pools under legumes and grasses

relative to plant interspaces, where we expected plant inputs to be

minimal. The net impacts of increased plant inputs and the

cessation of tillage generally increased pools of mineralizable and

coarse-POM C and N by factors of two to four relative to

wheat-fallow fields (alternate years in winter wheat and in

fallow), but had negligible effects on total SOM. Recovery of

microsite (approximately 10-cm scale) soil heterogeneity, an

important structural attribute of native arid and semiarid

ecosystems, was accelerated under legumes, which produced more

labile tissue than grasses. Soils under legumes contained larger

pools of coarse-POM C and N and exhibited higher net N

mineralization rates than soil under grasses or in plant

interspaces. Grasses grown in HL CRP soils, which had the highest

rates of potential net N mineralization, produced more labile

tissue than the same grasses grown in the more nutrient-depleted LL

CRP fields, suggesting that plant/soil feedbacks were important.

Therefore, recovery of labile soil and plant N was enhanced when

the proportion of legumes was high, and this may lead to improved

grain or animal N nutrition if these CRP fields are subsequently

cropped or grazed.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

41. Management considerations for returning

CRP lands to crop production.

Lindstrom, M. J.; Schumacher, T.

E.; and Blecha, M. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 49

(5): 420-425. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ agriculture/

erosion control/ government supports/ cropland/ soil management/

crop production/ government programs / crops/ Watershed protection/

Environmental action

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

was initiated in 1985 under the Food Security Act with the

intention of converting up to 18 million hectares (45 million

acres) of highly erodible land (HEL) to permanent cover. Twelve

sign-up periods has resulted in 377,000 contracts nationally. Eight

percent of the cropland in the U.S. is enrolled in CRP. By 1993,

14.8 million hectares (36.5 million acres) of highly erodible or

environmentally sensitive land were enrolled in CRP. The first

contracts will begin to expire in 1995. By 1997, 8.9 million

hectares (22 million acres) will be released from their CRP

contracts. Fifty-five percent of CRP acres (8.1 million hectares or

20 million acres) are located in the 10 Great Plains States.

Average erosion reduction is estimated to be 42.6 Mg ha

super(-1)/yr (19 t/ac) for land enrolled in CRP. As the year 1995

nears and CRP lands become eligible for release, landowners will be

faced with many options, including leaving the lands in grass for

hay or livestock production, or establishing some type of wildlife

or recreation practices. However, recent surveys show that many

acres will be cropped if CRP contracts are not renewed. As global

concern about soil degradation increases, landowners will be

directed toward maintaining the environmental benefits of

CRP,

even on land returning to crop

production.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

42. Microbial diversity along a transect of

agronomics zones.

Ibekwe, A. M.; Kennedy, A. C.;

Frohne, P. S.; Papiernik, S. K.; Yang, C. H.; and Crowley, D.

E.

FEMS Microbiology

Ecology 39 (3):

183-191. (Mar. 2002)

NAL Call #:  

QR100.F45; ISSN: 0168-6496 [FMECEZ]

Descriptors:  

soil management/ soil flora/ soil

bacteria/ community ecology/ precipitation/ Washington/ ammonia

oxidizing bacteria/ soil quality

Abstract: The diversity of microbial communities

constitutes a critical component of good soil-management practices.

To characterize the effects of different management practices,

molecular indicators such as phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA),

denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and composition of

ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were used to analyze bacterial community

structure and diversity from four eastern Washington State soils.

Samples from four sites were collected representing a transect of

high-precipitation to low-precipitation areas that covered

different agronomic zones with different management and cropping

practices. Biomass amounts estimated from extractable PLFA were

significantly higher in the no-till (NT) soil than in the

conventional-till (CT) soil. Similarities among the different 16S

rDNA DGGE band profiles were analyzed quantitatively using

correspondence analysis and this confirmed that the CT soil was the

most dissimilar soil. DGGE analysis of 16S rDNA ammonia-oxidizing

bacteria from the four soils revealed two identical bands,

indicating little effect of agronomic practices and precipitation

on these species. A second set of primers, specific for amoA

(ammonia monooxygenase) genes, was used to examine ammonia

oxidizers in the samples. Six banding patterns (clusters) from

amplified rDNA restriction analysis of 16S rDNA fragments were

observed after restriction analysis with HinfI. Sequencing of these

clones revealed the presence of only Nitrosospira-like sequences.

Analysis of the sequences showed that ammonia oxidizers from the NT

soil were more diverse compared to those from the CT and

Conservation Reserve Program soils. Our data showed that management

and agronomic practices had more impact on bacterial community

structure than annual precipitation.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

43. A note on the use of conservation

practices in U.S. agriculture.

Boyd, R. and Uri, N. D.

Environmental Monitoring

and Assessment 72 (2):

141-178. (Nov. 2001)

NAL Call #:  

TD194-.E5; ISSN: 0167-6369 [EMASDH]

Descriptors:  

agriculture/ conservation tillage/

conservation/ agricultural production/ productivity/ carbon/ soil

organic matter/ federal programs/ economic sectors/ mathematical

models/ United States/ carbon sequestration/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ conservation buffer strips/ dynamic computable general

equilibrium models

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

44. On-site and off-site impacts of soil

erosion: Their implications for soil conservation

policy.

Segarra, E.; Ervin, R. T.; Dicks,

M. R.; and Taylor, D. B.

Resources, Conservation and

Recycling 5 (1): 1-19.

(1991); ISSN:

0921-3449

Descriptors:  

erosion/ conservation/ federal

policies/ environmental management/ soils/ Land pollution/

Landslides and erosion/ Environment

Abstract: Using dynamic optimization modeling,

impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the

Conservation Compliance Provision (CC) contained in the

Conservation Title of the 1985 US Food Security Act was evaluated

for a representative farm in South-Central Virginia. Results

provide insights on the optimal course of action with respect to

what, how, and when to produce agricultural commodities, such that

maximization of net present value of returns is achieved when

considering the alternatives of enrolling in CRP, meeting CC

requirements, or neither.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

45. Post-contract land use effects on soil

carbon and nitrogen in conservation reserve grasslands.

Dao, T. H.; Stiegler, J. H.;

Banks, J. C.; Boerngen, L. B.; and Adams, B.

Agronomy Journal

94 (1): 146-152.

(Jan. 2002-Feb. 2002)

NAL Call #:  

4-AM34P; ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT]

Descriptors:  

bothriochloa ischaemum/ triticum

aestivum/ land use/ soil fertility/ nitrogen/ soil organic matter/

grasslands/ nature reserves/ nature conservation/ erosion/

cultivation/ semiarid zones/ tillage/ conservation tillage/

no-tillage/ mineralization/ land banks/ Oklahoma

Abstract: Carbon and N changes in highly erodible

croplands (HELs) under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and

the effects of reverting to cultivation in semiarid regions are not

well understood. The effects of four transitional production

systems [Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum

L.)-unfertilized (OWBUF), Old World bluestem-fertilized (OWBF),

conservation-tillage (CT), and no-till (NT) wheat (Triticum

aestivum L.)] on soil C and N were determined in two CRP fields in

western Oklahoma. Soil potentially mineralizable C (PMC) and N

(PMN) were determined in cores collected before and after the

reinitiation of cultivation in 1994 and in 1997. Compared with

soils of the same series from adjoining cultivated fields, Old

World bluestem (OWB) cover increased soil PMC, primarily in the 0-

to 0.1-m depth of Dalhart (Aridic Haplustalfs) and La

Casa-Aspermont (Typic Paleustolls) soils before 1994. Negative PMN

required a high level of fertility management to improve stand

productivity. Shift from OWB to wheat increased soil PMC and PMN in

the short-term. No-till and CT treatments had PMC averaging 8.9 and

9.6 g m(-3) d(-1) or 23 to 32% higher than those from OWB

treatments in the 0- to 0.3-m depth of Dalhart soil. Soil PMC of

the CT treatment averaged 7.2 g m(-3) d(-1) or 73% higher than that

of the La Casa-Aspermont under OWB. The trend of higher

mineralizable C and N suggested that post-CRP conservation

practices, in particular NT, contributed to HEL restoration by also

controlling the upward movement and loss of CO3-C, maintaining

these lands as C sinks in semiarid regions.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

46. Properties and productivity of recently

tilled grass sod and 70-year cultivated soil.

Zobeck, T. M.; Rolong, N. A.;

Fryrear, D. W.; Bilbro, J. D.; and Allen, B. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 50

(2): 210-215. (1995)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

cultivated lands/ soil erosion/

productivity/ grasslands/ trees/ soil physical properties/

cropland/ erosion control/ Conservation Reserve Program/ Watershed

protection

Abstract: The 1985 Food Security Act established

the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) whereby highly erodible land

was placed into sod or trees for 10 years. Detailed information on

the effects of grass sod on soil properties and productivity is

needed in order to fully understand the impact of returning the

retired land to production. In this study, land that had been in

grass sod for about 30 years was converted to cotton and sorghum

production in 1985. Yields were measured from 1985 through 1991 on

that land and land that was continuously cultivated for 70 years.

Selected soil properties were also measured after the study. Silt

content, organic matter, and wet soil stability were higher in the

surface soil of the grass sod than in the cultivated fields. Clod

density was lower in the grass sod than in the cultivated fields.

Sorghum biomass was higher in the recently converted field but

yield differences between the converted and continuously cultivated

field were not observed after fertilization. Cotton lint yields did

not increase on the recently converted grassland. These results

suggest economists must consider the crop grown when estimating

yields of crops grown on land previously in the CRP. Crops may

differ in yield and how they respond to management after

conversion.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

47. Restoration of microbial residues in soils

of the Conservation Reserve Program.

Amelung, W.; Kimble, J. M.; Samson

Liebig, S.; and Follett, R. F.

Soil Science Society of

America Journal 65

(6): 1704-1709. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

56.9-So3; ISSN: 0361-5995 [SSSJD4]

Descriptors:  

land banks/ arable soils/ grassland

soils/ agricultural land/ soil flora/ biomass/ nitrogen content/

carbon/ amino sugars/ chemical composition/ carbon nitrogen ratio/

soil organic matter/ soil conservation/ great plains states of USA/

western states of USA/ Minnesota

Abstract: To elucidate the role of microorganisms

for C and N sequestration in arable soils converted to grassland

(sites of the Conservation Reserve Program; CRP), we determined

amino sugars as indicators for microbial residues in surface

samples (0-5 cm) obtained from each of 10 adjacent native

grassland, CRP, and cropland sites across the U.S. Great Plains.

The CRP sites were 6 to 10 yr and the cropland sites were >80 yr

old. Compared with native grasslands, the CRP sites had lost

between 17 and 50% and the cropland sites between 32 and 94% of

their surface soil organic matter (SOM). The C/N ratio was not

significantly different among the three land-use systems,

indicating that C and N losses occurred at similar intensity. The

mean amino sugar concentrations decreased in the order native

grassland (70 g kg(-1) C; 750 g kg(-1) N) > CRP (53 g kg(-1) C;

570 g kg(-1) N) > cropland (47 g kg(-1) C; 450 g kg(-1) N). This

decrease in the element-normalized concentrations of amino sugars

indicated that they responded faster to management than other C or

N containing compounds. The response of individual amino sugars

related to soil compaction and the temperature regime. We suggest

that the resequestration of C and N into the residues of bacteria

and fungi requires several years, but as it depends on land use it

could be manipulated using, for example, soil decompacting

techniques to improve CRP efficiency.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

48. Soil C and N changes on Conservation

Reserve Program lands in the central Great Plains.

Reeder, J D; Schuman, G E; and

Bowman, R A

Soil and Tillage

Research 47 (3-4): 339-349.

(1998)

NAL Call #:  

S590.S48; ISSN: 0167-1987

Descriptors:  

carbon/ soil storage/ nitrogen/

soil change/ Conservation Reserve Program lands/ crop management/

fallow/ soil technology/ crop (Angiospermae)/ wheat (Gramineae)/

Monocots/ Plants/ Spermatophytes/ Vascular Plants

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

was initiated to reduce water and wind erosion on marginal, highly

erodible croplands by removing them from production and planting

permanent, soil-conserving vegetation such as grass. We conducted a

field study at two sites in Wyoming, USA, in order to quantify

changes in soil C and N of marginal croplands seeded to grass, and

of native rangeland plowed and cropped to wheat-fallow. Field plots

were established on a sandy loam site and a clay loam site on

wheat-fallow cropland that had been in production for 60+ years and

on adjacent native rangeland. In 1993, 6 years after the study was

initiated, the surface soil was sampled in 2.5 cm depth increments,

while the subsurface soil was composited as one depth increment.

All soil samples were analyzed for total organic C and N, and

potential net mineralized C and N. After 60+ years of cultivation,

surface soils at both study sites were 18-26% lower (by mass) in

total organic C and N than in the A horizons of adjacent native

range. Six years after plowing and converting native rangeland to

cropland (three wheat-fallow cycles), both total and potential net

mineralized C and N in the surface soil had decreased and NO3-N at

all depths had increased to levels found after 60+ years of

cultivation. We estimate that mixing of the surface and subsurface

soil with tillage accounted for 40-60% of the decrease in surface

soil C and N in long-term cultivated fields; in the short-term

cultivated fields, mixing with tillage may have accounted for

60-75% of the decrease in C, and 30-60% of the decrease in N. These

results emphasize the need to evaluate C and N in the entire soil

solum, rather than in just the surface soil, if actual losses of C

and N due to cultivation are to be distinguished from vertical

redistribution. Five years after reestablishing grass on the sandy

loam soil, both total and potential net mineralized C and N in the

surface soil had increased to levels equal to or greater than those

observed in the A horizon of the native range. On the clay loam

soil, however, significant increases in total organic C were

observed only in the surface 2.5 cm of N-fertilized grass plots,

while total organic N had not significantly increased from levels

observed in the long-term cultivated fields.

© Thomson

49. Soil erosion potential of former

Conservation Reserve Program sites.

Gilley, J. E. and Doran, J.

W.

Transactions of the

ASAE 41 (1):

97-103. (Jan. 1998-Feb. 1998)

NAL Call #:  

290.9-Am32T; ISSN: 0001-2351 [TAAEAJ]

Descriptors:  

erodibility/ water erosion/

estimation/ simulation models/ computer simulation/ conservation

areas/ soil conservation/ federal programs/ land use/ universal

soil loss equation/ Mississippi/ Nebraska/ South Dakota/ water

erosion prediction project (WEPP)/ revised universal soil loss

equation (RUSLE)

Abstract: Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) areas

that are returned to crop production will initially be much less

erodible than fields which were farmed using conventional

practices. In this study, a rainfall simulator was used to measure

runoff and erosion from former CRP areas in Mississippi, Nebraska

and South Dakota over approximately a two year period. Soil loss

rates measured immediately following tillage on each of the three

sites were similar to values obtained on the undisturbed CRP

treatments. However, when left in a fallow condition, the

erosion-reducing effectiveness of the sod appeared to have lasted

less than one year. The rapid increase in soil erodibility

following tillage was attributed to a reduction in surface cover

and organic material. The WEPP and RUSLE models are currently used

extensively in conservation planning and assessment. The

experimental data collected in this study were used to derive

selected parameter values for use in these models.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

50. Soil hydraulic properties of cropland

compared with reestablished and native grassland.

Schwartz, R. C.; Evett, S. R.; and

Unger, P. W.

Geoderma 116 (1-2): 47-60. (2003)

NAL Call #:  

S590.G4; ISSN: 0016-7061.

Notes: Number of References: 32

Descriptors:  

Agriculture/ Agronomy/ hydraulic

properties/ porosity/ hydraulic conductivity/ soil management/

tillage/ infiltrometers/ unsaturated soils/ tillage/ infiltration/

conductivity/ infiltrometers/ model/ disc

Abstract: Conversion of cropland to perennial

grasses will, over time, produce changes in soil hydraulic

properties. The objective of this study was to characterize and

compare hydraulic properties of fine-textured soils on adjacent

native grassland, recently tilled cropland, and reestablished

grassland in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) at three

locations in the Southern Great Plains. A tension infiltrometer was

used to measure unconfined, unsaturated infiltration over a range

of supply pressure heads (nominally, h = -150, -100, -50, and -5 mm

H2O) at the soil surface. Intact soil cores were sampled within the

Ap and Bt horizons to determine bulk density and water desorption

curves, theta(h), at potentials ranging from -0.15 to -100 kPa.

Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(h) over the range in supply

pressure heads was estimated using Wooding's equation for

steady-state flow from a disc source. The van Genuchten water

retention model was fitted to theta(h) data to estimate parameter

values. Soils in CRP had greater surface bulk densities than their

grassland and cropland counterparts. The shape of the soil water

retention curve for grassland and CRP land were similar, suggesting

that converted croplands had fully reconsolidated. Mean

near-saturated hydraulic conductivities of cropland at h = -5 mm

were not significantly different from grassland. However, at -150

mm supply pressure head, cropped soils had a mean unsaturated

conductivity 2.3 and 4.1 times greater than CRP land and grassland,

respectively. Sites in CRP had the lowest (P < 0.05)

near-saturated hydraulic conductivities (h = -5 mm), which suggest

that after 10 years, grasses had not fully ameliorated changes in

pore structure caused by tillage. Comparison of unsaturated

conductivities for grassland and CRP land suggest that long-term

structural development on native grasslands was principally

confined to effective pore radii greater than 300 mum. Land use

practices had a greater effect on water movement than did soil

series, indicating that the modifying effects of tillage,

reconsolidation, and pore structure evolution on hydraulic

properties are important processes governing water movement in

these fine-textured soils. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All

rights reserved.

© Thomson ISI

51. Soil organic matter recovery in semiarid

grasslands: Implications for the Conservation Reserve

Program.

Burke, I. C.; Lauenroth, W. K.;

and Coffin, D. P.

Ecological

Applications 5 (3): 793-801.

(1995)

NAL Call #:  

QH540.E23; ISSN: 1051-0761

Descriptors:  

grasslands/ soil/ organic matter/

cultivation/ regeneration/ United States, Colorado/ Conservation/

Reclamation

Abstract: Although the effects of cultivation on

soil organic matter and nutrient supply capacity are well

understood, relatively little work has been done on the long-term

recovery of soils from cultivation. We sampled soils from 12

locations within the Pawnee National Grasslands of northeastern

Colorado, each having native fields and fields that were

historically cultivated but abandoned 50 yr ago. We also sampled

fields that had been cultivated for at least 50 yr at 5 of these

locations. Our results demonstrated that soil organic matter, silt

content, microbial biomass, potentially mineralizable N, and

potentially respirable C were significantly lower on cultivated

fields than on native fields. Both cultivated and abandoned fields

also had significantly lower soil organic matter and silt contents

than native fields. Abandoned fields, however, were not

significantly different from native fields with respect to

microbial biomass, potentially mineralizable N, or respirable C. In

addition, we found that the characteristic small-scale

heterogeneity of the shortgrass steppe associated with individuals

of the dominant plant, Bouteloua gracilis, had recovered on

abandoned fields. Soil beneath plant canopies had an average of 200

g/m super(2) more C than between-plant locations. We suggest that

50 yr is an adequate time for recovery of active soil organic

matter and nutrient availability, but recovery of total soil

organic matter pools is a much slower process. Plant population

dynamics may play an important role in the recovery of shortgrass

steppe ecosystems from disturbance, such that establishment of

perennial grasses determines the rate of organic matter

recovery.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

52. Soil organic matter recovery on

Conservation Reserve Program fields in southwestern

Wyoming.

Robles, M. D. and Burke, I.

C.

Soil Science Society of

America Journal 62

(3): 725-730. (1998)

NAL Call #:  

56.9-So3; ISSN: 0361-5995 [SSSJD4]

Descriptors:  

land management/ land use/ land

diversion/ semiarid soils/ grassland soils/ wheat soils/ soil

organic matter/ carbon/ nitrogen/ mineralization/ soil fertility/

Wyoming/ soil carbon pools/ mineralizable carbon/ mineralizable

nitrogen/

soil nitrogen pools

Abstract: Soil C and N changes following cessation

of cultivation in semiarid soils is not well understood. We

hypothesized that returning cultivated fields in southeastern

Wyoming to perennial grasses through the Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) would (i) increase labile pools of soil organic

matter (SOM), and (ii) increase small-scale heterogeneity of SOM.

Carbon and N in labile and passive pools of SOM were measured in

CRP fields seeded with perennial grasses intermediate wheatgrass

(Elytrigia intermedia [Host] Nevski ssp. intermedia), pubescent

wheatgrass (Elytrigia intermedia [Schur.] A. Love ssp. barbulata)

and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leysser), and in winter wheat

(Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow fields. Mineralizable C increased

from 0.37 g m-2 d-1 in wheat-fallow fields to 0.99 g m-2 d-1 in CRP

fields; mineralizable N and coarse particulate C were consistently

but not significantly higher in CRP fields. Fine particulate and

total soil C and N were not significantly different between CRP and

wheat-fallow. Within CRP fields, mineralizable C was significantly

higher under grasses than in interspaces (1.96 vs. 0.73 g m-2 d-1,

respectively), and mineralizable N and coarse particulate C and N

were consistently but not significantly higher under grasses than

in interspaces. Soil C and N have increased only slightly after 6

yr of CRP management, and future changes in land use management on

these CRP fields, including grazing and cropping, may accrue some

small benefits associated with improved soil fertility

status.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

53. Soil property changes during conversion

from perennial vegetation to annual cropping.

Wienhold, B. J. and Tanaka, D.

L.

Soil Science Society of

America Journal 65

(6): 1795-1803. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

56.9-So3; ISSN: 0361-5995 [SSSJD4]

Descriptors:  

crop production/ hay/ medicago

sativa/ agropyron/ triticum aestivum/ pisum sativum/ rotations/

tillage/ no-tillage/ perennials/ bulk density/ soil water/ soil

organic matter/ soil chemistry/ soil fertility/ biomass/ carbon/

mineralization/ North Dakota/ return-to-crop production/ haying/

Conservation Reserve Program

Abstract: Management practices for conversion of

land supporting perennial vegetation to crop production are needed.

Effect of haying (hayed or not hayed), cropping (annual crop with

no-tillage, minimum tillage, or conventional tillage, and no-tilled

perennial crop), and N fertilization (0 or 67 kg ha(-1)) on soil

properties were measured in 1995 and 1997 at a Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) site in North Dakota having an Amor loam (Fine-loamy,

mixed, superactive, frigid, Typic Haplustoll) soil in a spring

wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), winter wheat, pea (Pisum sativum L.)

rotation. Soil physical properties were not affected negatively by

the management practices used. Haying and tillage practices

influenced soil chemical properties. Organic C and total N content

declined (1.2 Mg ha(-1) for C and 0.1 Mg ha(-1) for N) from 1995 to

1997. In hayed plots, organic C and total N increased as tillage

intensity decreased while in non-hayed plots no pattern was

observed. Haying and tillage influenced soil biological properties.

Potentially mineralizable N at 0 to 0.05 m increased as tillage

intensity decreased in 1997. In the 0.05- to 0.15-m depth,

potentially mineralizable N increased from 1995 (118 kg ha(-1)) to

1997 (146 kg ha(-1)). By 1997, soil properties in hayed plots

responded to cropping practices similarly to those in established

cropping systems in this region. In non-hayed plots, management

induced patterns had not developed by 1997. Haying, conservation

tillage, and annual cropping are viable approaches for converting

land to annual crop production.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

54. Soil quality changes in eastern Washington

with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) take-out.

Gewin VL; Kennedy AC; Veseth R;

and Miller BC

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 54

(1): 432-438; 30 ref. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

55. A soil quality framework for evaluating

the impact of CRP.

Karlen, D. L.; Gardner, J. C.; and

Rosek, M. J.

Journal of Production

Agriculture 11 (1):

56-60. (Jan. 1998-Mar. 1998)

NAL Call #:  

S539.5.J68; ISSN: 0890-8524 [JPRAEN]

Descriptors:  

soil organic matter/ soil

fertility/ soil structure/ soil biology/ sustainability/

monitoring/ respiration/ no-tillage/ tillage/ biomass/ government

policy/ land banks/ United States/ Conservation Reserve

Program

Abstract: The book entitled "Soil and Water

Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture" by the U.S. National Academy of

Sciences caused people to ask whether soil quality assessments

could be used to evaluate the impact of public policies such as the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). However, differences in scale,

perception of soil quality, and the inability to directly measure

soil quality led to significant uncertainty among several potential

users. A major challenge was determining how to evaluate and

combine information from different indicators to make an overall

soil quality assessment that is meaningful. Our objectives are to

present a structured approach for interpreting soil quality

indicator data and to introduce a conceptual frame-work that can be

used to link the various scales of evaluation, including those

needed for assessing effectiveness of public policies such as the

CRP. The framework and its use are discussed and demonstrated using

soil quality indicator data from published and unpublished studies.

On-farm measurements suggest that biological indicators such as

microbial biomass and respiration were affected most quickly and to

the greatest extent when cultivated land was converted to

grassland. Applying the conceptual framework to this data suggests

that enrolling fragile lands into CRP had a positive soil quality

effect. It also indicates that using no-till practices to return

CRP land to row-crop production will preserve soil quality benefits

of the CRP, but tilling to prepare a seedbed will destroy the

benefits almost immediately.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

56. Soil quality of two Kansas soils as

influenced by the Conservation Reserve Program.

Huang, X.; Skidmore, E. L.; and

Tibke, G. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 57

(6): 344-350. (Nov. 2002-Dec.

2002)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

United States, Kansas/ Soil

Conservation/ Land Management/ Cultivated Lands/ Best Management

Practices/ Indicators/ Soil Properties/ Carbon/

Agriculture/

Techniques of planning

Abstract: Achieving and maintaining a good soil

quality is essential for sustaining agricultural production in an

economically viable and environmentally safe manner. The transition

of land management provides an opportunity to measure soil-quality

indicators to quantify the effects of those management practices.

This study compared soil chemical and physical properties after 10

years of grass on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land with

those in continuously cropped land (CCL). The sample sites, located

in central Kansas, have two mapping units, Harney silt loam (fine,

montmorillonitic, mesic Typic Arigiustolls) and Naron fine sandy

loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Udic Argiustolls). Soil samples

were collected at two depth increments, 0 to 5 cm and 5 to 10 cm.

Soil-quality indicators measured were soil acidity (pH),

exchangeable cations, nutrients, total carbon, structure, and

aggregation. Soil pH was significantly lower in CCL than in CRP.

Soil total C and N in the surface layer (0 to 5 cm) was much

greater than in the deeper layer (5 to 10 cm) in the CRP site. The

mass of total carbon of Naron soil was significantly higher for 0

to 5 cm and lower for 5 to 10 cm depth in CRP land than in CCL.

However, the mass of total carbon of Harney soil was significantly

higher in no-tilled CCL than in CRP. Bulk density significantly

increased in CCL. Based on dry and wet aggregate stability

analysis, the results indicated that CRP land had a greater

resistance to erosion by both water and wind than CCL. The

improvements in soil quality resulting from CRP included reducing

soil acidification, alleviating compaction, and reducing topsoil

susceptibility to erosion. However, when CRP was taken out for crop

production with conventional tillage, total carbon in the surface

layer (0 to 5 cm) and aggregate stability gradually decreased. This

suggested that appropriate land management practices are needed to

extend residual benefit from CRP on soil quality.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

57. Tillage and fallow effects on selected

soil quality characteristics of former Conservation Reserve Program

sites.

Gilley, J. E.; Doran, J. W.; and

Eghball, B.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 56

(2): 126-132. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.


58. Tillage effects on soil erosion potential

and soil quality of a former Conservation Reserve Program

site.

Gilley, J. E. and Doran, J.

W.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 52

(3): 184-188. (June 1997)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

USA/ Mississippi/ tillage/ soil

erosion/ land management/ soil conservation/ simulated rainfall/

fallowing/ degradation/ soil properties / nutrients/ runoff/

Conservation Reserve Program/ soil quality/ Erosion and

sedimentation

Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the

effects of tillage on soil erosion potential and soil quality

characteristics of a former Conservation Research Program (CRP)

site. Following tillage, the study area in Northern Mississippi was

maintained in a fallow condition for nine months. Soil loss from

simulated rainfall events was minimal on recently tilled plots and

an adjoining, undisturbed CRP area. In contrast, soil loss from the

former CRP site which had been tilled nine months previously was

similar to values obtained before the CRP program when the area had

been cropped for several years. Tillage and over-winter fallowing

caused a degradation in soil quality resulting from the

decomposition of biological nutrient reserves. The conservation and

soil quality benefits derived from the CRP may rapidly decline once

an area is tilled and then left fallow during the non-cropped

period.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

[Table of Contents]


Water

59. Accomplishments of the USDA hydrologic

unit area projects.

Ebodaghe, Denis Abumere

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of

Agriculture, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service;

Extension Service; Soil Conservation Service;

128 p.: maps. (1993)

Notes: Cover title. "Compiled by Denis

Ebodaghe"--Foreword. "June 1993."

Alternate pages are

numbered.

NAL Call #:  aTD223.A26--1993

Descriptors:  

Water quality management---United

States/ Nonpoint source pollution---United States/ Agricultural

pollution---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

60. Achieving restoration success: Myths in

bottomland hardwood forests.

Stanturf JA; Schoenholtz SH;

Schweitzer CJ; and Shepard JP

2nd International Congress

on Restoration Ecology

9 (2): 189-200; 62 ref.

(2001)

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

61. Benefit-cost analysis of best management

practices implemented to control nitrate contamination of

groundwater.

Yadav, S. N. and Wall, D.

B.

Water Resources

34 (3):  497-504. (Mar.

1998)

NAL Call #:  

292.8 W295; ISSN: 0043-1397 [WRERAQ]

Descriptors:  

nitrates / nitrate nitrogen/

groundwater pollution/ pollution control/ water quality/ cost

benefit analysis/ control programs/ Minnesota/ Garvin Brook Rural

Clean Water Program

Abstract: Implementing best management practices

(BMPs) can reduce nitrate concentration in groundwater, but does it

pay to invest in programs that reduce nitrate by encouraging

increased adoption of BMPs? In this paper we evaluate water quality

improvement by benefit-cost analysis of adopting BMPs under such a

program. The analysis shows that under current levels of

contamination, costs of the program to foster BMP implementation

will be equal to annually accrued benefits over a period of 6

years. However, under the worsening scenarios of increased

nitrate-N concentrations, the same costs will be equal to the

benefits in a 4- to 5-year period. If water quality improves to

acceptable levels through adoption of BMPs, the results reveal that

in the long run, investing in a BMP program will be more cost

effective to reduce contamination than to seek alternative sources

of safe drinking water supplies.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

62. Beyond Swampbuster: A permanent wetland

reserve.

Heimlich, Ralph E; Carey, Marc B;

and Brazee, Richard J

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation

44: 445-450. (1989)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

Wetland conservation---United

States

© The H. W. Wilson

Company

63. Biological responses to wetland

restoration: Implications for wildlife habitat development through

the Wetlands Reserve Program.

Rewa, C.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: U.S. Department of

Agriculture, 2000; pp. 95-116

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Wetland Reserve Program/ wetlands/

riparian areas/ wildlife habitats/ California/

Mississippi

64. Buffered wetlands in agricultural

landscapes in the Prairie Pothole Region: Environmental, agronomic,

and economic evaluations.

Rickerl, D. H.; Janssen, L. L.;

and Woodland, R.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 55

(2): 220-225. (2000)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822

This citation is provided courtesy of CAB International/CABI

Publishing.

65. Calibrating Benefit Function Transfer to

Assess the Conservation Reserve Program.

Feather, P. and Hellerstein,

D.

American Journal of

Agricultural Economics

79: 151-162. (1997)

NAL Call #:  

280.8 J822

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

National conservation programs/ State conservation programs/

Indiana/ Nebraska/ Pennsylvania/ Washington

Abstract: A benefit transfer function was

calibrated to corrected for bias and used to estimate the

water-based recreation benefits of CRP.


66. Changes in groundwater quality in a

conduit-flow-dominated karst aquifer, following BMP

implementation.

Currens, J. C.

Environmental

Geology 42 (5): 525-531.

(2002)

NAL Call #:  

QE1.E5; ISSN: 1073-9106 [ENGOE9]

Descriptors:  

aquifers / watersheds/ water

quality/ agriculture/ pesticides/ pollution/ USDA/ governmental

programs and projects/ Kentucky/ best management practices/

nonpoint source pollution/ Water Quality Incentives Program

(WQIP)

Abstract: Water quality in the Pleasant Grove

Spring karst groundwater basin, Logan County, Kentucky, was

monitored to determine the effectiveness of best management

practices (BMPs) in protecting karst aquifers. Ninety-two percent

of the 4,069-ha (10,054-acre) watershed is used for agriculture.

Water-quality monitoring began in October 1992 and ended in

November 1998. By the fall of 1995 approximately 72% of the

watershed was enrolled in BMPs sponsored by the US Department of

Agriculture Water Quality Incentive Program (WQIP). Pre-BMP

nitrate-nitrogen concentration averaged 4.65 mg/l. The median total

suspended solids concentration was 127 mg/l. The median triazine

concentration measured by immunosorbent assay was 1.44 microgram/l.

Median bacteria counts were 418 colonies per 100 ml (col/100 ml)

for fecal coliform and 540 col/100 ml for fecal streptococci.

Post-BMP, the average nitrate-nitrogen concentration was 4.74 mg/l.

The median total suspended solids concentration was 47.8 mg/l. The

median triazine concentration for the post-BMP period was 1.48

microgram/l. The median fecal coliform count increased to 432

col/100 ml after BMP implementation, but the median fecal

streptococci count decreased to 441 col/100 ml. The pre- and

post-BMP water quality was statistically evaluated by comparing the

annual mass flux, annual descriptive statistics, and population of

analyses for the two periods. Nitrate-nitrogen concentration was

unchanged. Increases in atrazine-equivalent flux and triazine

geometric averages were not statistically significant. Total

suspended solids concentration decreased slightly, whereas

orthophosphate concentration increased slightly. Fecal streptococci

counts were reduced. The BMPs were only partially successful

because the types available and the rules for participation

resulted in less effective.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

67. Cleaner water in the Chesapeake Bay: Can

CRP help?

Ligon, Polly C.

Blacksburg, Va.: Virginia

Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1993.

Notes: Original title: "Cleaner water in the

Chesapeake Bay: Can CRP help?: A case study of the Conservation

Reserve Program in Richmond County, Virginia 1985-1989." Vita.

Abstract. Report (M.S.)--Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State

University. M.S. 1993. Bibliography: leaves 114-121.

NAL Call #:  ViBlbV

LD5655.V851-1993.L546

Descriptors:  

Bays---Virginia---Richmond County/

Chesapeake Bay---Md and Va

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

68. Conservation compliance and wetlands

conservation provisions of the omnibus farm acts of 1985, 1990 and

1996.

Brady, S. J.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: U.S. Department of

Agriculture, 2000; pp. 5-17

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

conservation compliance/

Conservation Reserve Program/ Wetland Reserve Program/ Farm Bill/

laws and regulations/ wildlife habitats

69. Conservation in the farm bill.

Rassam, Gus

Fisheries 27 (7): 26. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

SH1.F54; ISSN: 0363-2415

Descriptors:  

Fisheries management---Political aspects

Abstract: The 2002 Farm Bill has a number of

implications for fisheries conservation. Given the huge impact of

agriculture on water resources, the conservation aspects of the

2002 Farm Bill are of crucial importance to many stakeholders,

including all citizens concerned with the increasing stresses on

aquatic habitats across the nation. Although many aspects of the

bill proved contentious, there was almost unanimous agreement

regarding the importance of conserving the nation's fish, wildlife,

and plant resources and promoting sustainable practices in farming

communities. Some of the specific conservation aspects in the bill

include the Wetland Reserve, Conservation Reserve, Wildlife Habitat

Incentives, Environmental Quality Incentives, Conservation

Security, and Farmland Protection Programs.

© The H. W. Wilson

Company

70. CRP EBI as an Indicator of Riparian

Ecosystem Services.

Kraft, S. E.

In: 57th Annual Conference of the

Soil and Water Conservation Society. (Held 13 Jul 2002-17 Jul 2002 at Indianapolis.

IN (USA).); 2002.

Notes: Conference Sponsor: Soil and Water Conservation

Society (Ankeny, IA); World Meeting Number 000 6096

Descriptors:  

Geoscience/ Aquatic

Science

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

71. Detecting changes in water quality in an

agricultural watershed following implementation of best management

practices (BMP's): The LaPlatte River watershed.

Meals, D. W.

In: 6th Annual International

Symposium on Lake and Reservoir Management: Influences of Nonpoint

Source Pollutants and Acid Precipitation. (Held 5 Nov 1986-8 Nov 1986 at Portland, OR.)

North American Lake Management Soc. (eds.); pp. 11;

1986.

Descriptors:  

watersheds/ water quality/

 environment management/ agricultural runoff/ pollution

control/ runoff/ environmental management/ United States/ Vermont/

LaPlatte River/ Prevention and control/ Freshwater

pollution

Abstract:  The LaPlatte River Watershed in

northwestern Vermont is the focus of an intensive land treatment

program to control agricultural runoff and a long-term monitoring

program to evaluate the effectiveness of these treatments on water

quality. Best Management Practices for controlling dairy manure and

cropland erosion have been implemented by the U.S. Dep. of

Agriculture's Soil Conservation Service on 90% of the priority

areas in the watershed. Four simple trend analysis techniques have

been applied to 6 years of data from four subwatersheds: (1) linear

regression against time, (2) comparison of annual means, (3)

analysis of frequency distributions, and (4) paired watershed

regression. Results of these analyses suggest significant decreases

in phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations and loads since the

project began.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

72. Detecting reductions in sediment loads

associated with Ohio's conservation reserve enhancement

program.

Richards, R. P. and Grabow, G.

L.

Journal of the American

Water Resources Association 39 (5): 1261-1268. (2003)

NAL Call #:  

GB651.W315; ISSN: 1093-474X.

Notes: Number of References: 22

Descriptors:  

Environment/ Ecology/ statistical

analysis/ water quality/ watershed management/ detecting change/

suspended sediment/ water quality/ constituent loads/ rating

curves

Abstract: Small systematic changes in loads or

concentrations of water quality constituents are difficult to

detect against the background of short term fluctuations ("noise")

that result from weather and climate effects. Minimum Detectable

Change Analysis (MDCA) uses prior knowledge of a water quality

constituent to determine how much change must occur (e.g., from

implementation of conservation practices) for the change to be

statistically significant. In this paper we use MDCA to determine

whether the goal of the Ohio Lake Erie Conservation Reserve

Enhancement Program (CREP), to reduce sediment loads by an average

of 6 percent over 10 years, represents a large enough change to be

detected. We conclude that this amount of change is unlikely to be

detected as statistically significant, even with the high frequency

sampling program planned for evaluating it. The minimum detectable

change ranges from about 7 to 9 percent for three different

rivers.

© Thomson ISI

73. The effect of CRP enrollment on sediment

loads in two southern Illinois streams.

Davie, D. K. and Lant, C.

L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 49

(4): 407-412. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

United States, Illinois, Cache R.

Basin/ soil erosion/ cropland/ sediment load/ streams/ suspended

sediments/ timing/ water quality/ vegetation regrowth/ rivers/ soil

conservation/ erosion control/ river basins/ United States,

Illinois, Cache River/ CRP enrollment/ Watershed protection/

Conservation/ Protective measures and control/ Freshwater

pollution

Abstract: The high annual cost of damages

attributed to sediment justifies the importance of gaining a better

understanding of the relationship between the Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) and stream sediment loads. This relationship was

studied for two watersheds within the Cache River basin of extreme

southern Illinois. CRP enrollments of 15.6% and 26.5% of all

cropland in the Big Creek (80.29 km super(2); 31 mi super(2)) and

Cypress Creek (62.16 km super(2); 24 mi super(2)) watersheds

resulted in estimated decreases in erosion of 24% and 37%,

respectively. Despite this, it was estimated using path analysis (a

two-step regression analysis) that a negligible 0.0125% and 0.265%

decrease in sediment load occurred in these streams in the period

1986-1988. These negative results, however, should be viewed in the

context of temporal and spatial considerations. First, studies of

drainage basin sediment dynamics imply that reductions in suspended

sediment in response to CRP enrollments are likely to be delayed

for a considerable period as in- and near-stream sediments are

remobilized. Second, few of the CRP enrollments were in near-stream

locations where hydrologic theory indicates they would be most

effective in trapping and stabilizing existing near-stream

sediments.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)


74. Effects of 1985 Food Security Act and 1990

Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act on the 1993 flooding

on the upper Mississippi and Missouri River basins.

Miller, D. G.; Shirley, C. E.; and

Chenoweth, J. W.

Water International

19 (4): 207-211. (1994);

ISSN: 0250-8060

Descriptors:  

legislation/ flooding/ historic

floods/ erosion control/ evaluation/ runoff/ flood damage/

conservation/ United States, Midwest/ soil conservation/

environmental legislation/ soil erosion/ environmental protection/

floods/ government policy/ stormwater runoff/ Watershed protection/

Conservation, wildlife management and

recreation/

Conservation

Abstract: Flooding was unusually sever throughout

the Upper Midwest during the spring and summer of 1993. These

floods resulted in locally great economic damages, but provided an

ideal "field laboratory" for evaluation of national erosion control

programs. This article documents the amount of runoff reduction and

corresponding flood damage reduction resulting from the Food

Security Act (FSA) and the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and

Trade Act (FACTA) to agricultural areas and rural infrastructure.

Specifically, the impact on runoff and flooding of single storms

with 1-, 5; 25-, and 100-year frequency probabilities was

calculated using existing, commonly accepted methods of determining

runoff. This procedure was applied to nine Midwestern states

(Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North

Dakota, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) on a county basis.

Conservation practices studied were those applied through FSA and

FACTA. Results indicate the FSA and FACTA total programs were

consistently more successful in reducing runoff than was the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) alone. Runoff reductions range

from a high of 39 per cent for the one-year storm, to a low of 2

per cent for the 100-year storm for the FSA and FACTA programs.

Runoff reductions for the CRP range from 20 per cent for the

one-year storm to 3 per cent for the 100-year storm. Additionally,

FSA and FACTA programs were shown to be highly successful in

reducing flood damage to agricultural areas and rural

infrastructure. Damage reduction to agricultural areas ranges from

10 per cent to 45 per cent for the FSA and FACTA programs. For CRP,

this reduction ranges from 4 per cent to 25 per cent. Rural

infrastructure damages are estimated to be reduced from 15 per cent

to 56 per cent with the total program, and 7 to 34 per cent by CRP

alone. These conservation programs are effectively reducing runoff

and flood damages.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

75. Effects of agricultural activities and

best management practices on water quality of seasonal prairie

pothole wetlands.

Detenbeck, N. E.; Elonen, C. M.;

Taylor, D. L.; Cotter, A. M.; Puglisi, F. A.; and Sanville, W.

D.

Wetlands Ecology and

Management 10

(4): 335-354. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

QH541.5.M3 W472; ISSN: 0923-4861

Descriptors:  

Agricultural practices/ Environment

management/ Water quality/ Wetlands/ Prairies/ Ecosystem

management/ Restoration/ Agriculture/ Vegetation cover/ Plant

populations/ Man induced effects/ Water levels/ Physicochemical

properties/ Dissolved oxygen/ Nutrients (mineral)/ Climate/

Hydrology/ Agricultural runoff / Conservation/ Environmental

restoration/ Nutrients/ Vegetation/ Biogeochemistry/ Water

Pollution Sources/ Nonpoint Pollution Sources/ United States/

prairie pothole wetlands/ biogeochemical cycle/ tillage effects/

Environmental degradation/ Ecosystems and energetics/ Conservation,

wildlife management and recreation/ Environmental action/ General

Environmental Engineering/ Sources and

fate of pollution

Abstract: Long-term effects of within-basin tillage

can constrain condition and function of prairie wetlands even after

uplands are restored. Runoff was significantly greater to replicate

wetlands within tilled basins with or without vegetated buffer

strips as compared to Conservation Reserve Program restoration

controls with revegetated uplands (REST). However, mean water

levels for native prairie reference sites were higher than for REST

controls, because infiltration rates were lower for native prairie

basins, which had no prior history of tillage. Nutrient dynamics

changed more in response to changes in water level and vegetation

structure than to increased nutrient inputs in watershed runoff.

Dissolved oxygen increased between dry and wet years except in

basins or zones with dense vegetation. As sediment redox dropped,

water-column phosphate declined as phosphate likely co-precipitated

with iron on the sediment surface within open-water or sparsely

vegetated zones. In response, N:P ratios shifted from a region

indicating N limitation to P limitation. REST sites, with dense

vegetation and low DO, also maintained high DOC, which maintains

phosphate in solution through chelation of iron and catalysis of

photoreduction. Reference sites in native prairie and restored

uplands diverged over the course of the wet-dry cycle, emphasizing

the importance of considering climatic variation in planning

restoration efforts.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)


76. Effects of best management

practices.

Davenport, T. and Kohl,

N.

In: 6th Annual International

Symposium on Lake and Reservoir Management: Influences of Nonpoint

Source Pollutants and Acid Precipitation. (Held 5 Nov 1986-8 Nov 1986 at Portland, OR.)

North American Lake Management Soc. (eds.); pp. 43;

1986.

Descriptors:  

eutrophic lakes/ sedimentation/

agricultural runoff/ water quality control/ runoff/ eutrophication/

United States/ Illinois/ Pike County/ Pittsfield City Lake/

statistical analysis/ Prevention and control/ Freshwater

pollution

Abstract:  Pittsfield City Lake is a

light-limited, eutrophic, multiple-purpose reservoir located in

Pike County, Ill. The lake has a historic and well-documented

sedimentation problem, and the predominant land use in its

watershed is agriculture. In 1980, the area was designated an

Agricultural Conservation Program Special Water Quality Project

Area by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The primary objective

of the project was to improve the water quality of Pittsfield City

Lake by reducing sediment loads through voluntary application of

Best Management Practices (BMP's). To evaluate the effects of Best

Management Practices on water quality in Pittsfield City Lake, the

lake was monitored 2 years before, 3 years during and 2 years after

implementation. Five years of BMP implementation information was

correlated with corresponding lake data to determine the

relationship of such implementation to in-lake water quality. The

results of the statistical analyses are reported.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

77. Effects of Urbanization on Small Watershed

Project Sponsors.

Peterson, J. W.

Land and Water 42 (5): 9-12. (1998);

ISSN: 0192-9453

Descriptors:  

Urbanization/ Flood Control/

 Conservation/ Watershed Management/ Flooding/ Water

Management/ Water resources/ Environmental protection/ Erosion

control/ Water reservoirs/ Effects on water of human nonwater

activities/ General papers on resources

Abstract: The U.S. Small Watershed Programs,

commonly called the Flood Prevention Operations Program (PL 78-534)

and the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Program (PL

83-566), are among the most flexible and beneficial conservation

acts ever enacted by the U.S. Congress. As one might deduce from

their titles, their main purposes were to provide a reduction in

flood damage and watershed protection (erosion and sediment

control) in the nation's upstream watersheds, primarily in rural

areas. Historically, the U.S. had dealt with natural water flow and

flooding by constructing large floodwater detention reservoirs.

These structures were usually constructed, maintained, and owned by

one of the federal water management agencies.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

78. Estimating changes in recreational fishing

participation from national water quality policies.

Ribaudo, M. O. and Piper, S.

L.

Water Resources

Research 27 (7):

1757-1763. (July 1991)

NAL Call #:  

292.8-W295; ISSN: 0043-1397 [WRERAO]

Descriptors:  

water quality/ water policy/ water

pollution/ angling/ participation/ estimation/ models/ agricultural

nonpoint source pollution/ Conservation Reserve Program

Abstract: The complete evaluation of the offsite

effects of national policies or programs that affect levels of

agricultural nonpoint source pollution requires linking extensive

water quality changes to changes in recreational activity. A

sequential decision model is specified to describe an individual's

decisions about fishing. A participation model for recreational

fishing that includes a water quality index reflecting regional

water quality is developed and estimated as a logit model with

national level data. A visitation model for those who decide to

fish that also includes the water quality index is estimated using

ordinary least squares. The water quality index is found to be

significant in the participation model but not in the visitation

model. Together, the two models provide a means of estimating how

changes in water quality might influence the number of recreation

days devoted to fishing. The model is used to estimate changes in

fishing participation for the Conservation Reserve

Program.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

79. Estimating water quality benefits:

Theoretical and methodological issues.

Ribaudo, Marc O.; Hellerstein,

Daniel.; and United States. Dept. of Agriculture.

Economic Research

Service.

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of

Agriculture, Economic Research Service; ii, 28 p.: ill.

(1992)

Notes: Cover title. "September 1992"--P. i. Includes

bibliographical references (p. 24-28).

NAL Call #:  1-Ag84Te-no.1808

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/tb1808/TB1808.PDF

Descriptors:  

Water quality

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


80. Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower

Mississippi River Alluvial Valley.

King, S. L. and Keeland, B.

D.

Restoration Ecology

7 (4): 348-359. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

QH541.15.R45R515; ISSN: 1061-2971

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

81. Ground water quality implications of soil

conservation measures: An economic perspective.

Setia, P. and Piper, S.

Water Resources

Bulletin 27 (2):

201-208. (Mar. 1991-Apr. 1991)

NAL Call #:  

292.9-AM34; ISSN: 0043-1370 [WARBA]

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ groundwater/

water quality/ pesticides/ runoff/ leaching/ agricultural

economics/ USDA/ federal programs/ Corn Belt of USA/ food security

act of 1985/ Conservation Reserve Program/ conservation compliance

provision/ pesticide root zone model --- PZRM/

economic models

Abstract: An evaluation of the intermedia movement

of pesticides applied under various land management systems already

in place, or to be implemented, under the Conservation Reserve and

Conservation Compliance programs is presented. The simulation

modeling approach followed in this analysis consists of a

mathematical programming model and leaching/surface runoff,

Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM) models. Special care was taken to

ensure that the physical model was sensitive to the chemical

characteristics of individual pesticides and the important physical

changes brought about by different agricultural practices. Results

show that, although these programs as now planned, increase farm

income and achieve soil conservation goals, they may adversely

affect ground water quality. Also, depending on soil and location

characteristics, there are tradeoffs between surface and ground

water quality implications. Hence, if these programs are to address

water quality problems, the recommended practices must be evaluated

for their impact on water quality, particularly in potentially

vulnerable areas.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

82. Impacts of short-rotation hybrid poplar

plantations on regional water yield.

Perry, C. H.; Miller, R. C.; and

Brooks, K. N.

Forest Ecology and

Management 143

(1-3): 143-151. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

SD1.F73; ISSN: 0378-1127

Descriptors:  

Water relations/ Forest management/

United States, Minnesota/ Logging/ Vegetation Effects / Hydrology/

Watershed Management/ Water Yield / Groundwater/ Populus/ Effects

on water of human nonwater activities

Abstract: Hybrid poplar plantations are being

established on northwestern Minnesota farmlands in response to

demands for timber, pulp and paper, and as a potential source of

biomass energy. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources

estimates that between 30 000 and 40 000 ha of former cropland, and

former Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land that was primarily

herbaceous cover, will be converted to tree plantations by 2005.

This paper reports the results of a 2-year study of the effects of

such land use conversions on water yield for plots within tributary

watersheds of the Red River of the North, in northwestern

Minnesota. Three 8- and 9-year-old hybrid poplar plantations and

three 22- to 34-year-old natural mixed hardwood stands were

instrumented to measure precipitation, soil moisture, and soil

water chemistry. Climatological observations at these sites were

used to estimate potential evapotranspiration. These data were used

to apply the GLEAMS model (Knisel, W.G. (Ed.), 1993. GLEAMS:

groundwater loading effects of agricultural management systems.

UGA-CPES-BAED Publication No. 5, University of Georgia. Coastal

Plain Experimental Station, Tifton, GA, 259 pp.) to predict water

yield from the two cover types. No significant differences in water

yield were detected between hybrid poplar plantations and natural

forest stands (alpha =0.05). The similarities between the hydrology

of these two cover types suggest that increasing the acreage of

short-rotation hybrid poplar plantations may influence average peak

flows in streams, stormflow during average events, snowmelt runoff

and spring flooding in the region.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

83. Implementing Swampbuster: Two years of

progress.

Margheim, G. A.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 43

(1): 27-29. ill. (Jan. 1988-Feb.

1988)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

wetlands / resource conservation/

regulations/ program development/ water conservation/ food security

act of 1985/ wetland conservation provision

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

84. Instream benefits of CRP filter

strips.

Whitworth, M. R. and Martin, D.

C.

In: Transactions of the

fifty-fifth (55th) North American wildlife and natural resources

conference.

(Held 16 Mar 1990-21 Mar 1990 at

Denver, CO.)

McCabe, R. E. (ed.); pp. 40-45;

1990.

Notes: ISSN: 0078-1355

NAL Call #:  412.9 N814

Descriptors:  

water quality/ soil erosion/

erosion control/ agricultural runoff/ government policy/

United States/ Prevention and

control

Abstract:  The U.S. Environmental Protection

Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) are both

involved in developing programs that reduce the environmental

degradation associated with agricultural activities. At EPA, the

water quality impacts that are caused by runoff from farm fields to

lakes, streams, and estuaries are an important issue for the

Nonpoint Source water pollution control program. In February, 1988,

the eligibility requirements for the Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) were changed so that 100-foot field borders parallel to

streams, lakes and estuaries could be leased to the federal

government if left fallow. These field borders, or filter strips,

do not have to meet the "highly erodible" criteria that upland CRP

lands have to meet. This is because filter strips are expected to

reduce the amounts of sediments, nutrients, and pesticides that

flow into surface water and improve the habitat for fish and

biota.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

85. Integrated assessment of uses of woody

draws in agricultural landscapes.

Qiu, Z.; Prato, T.; Godsey, L.;

and Benson, V.

Journal of the American

Water Resources Association 38 (5): 1255-1269. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

GB651.W315; ISSN: 1093-474X

Descriptors:  

Drainage Area/ Land Use/

Agriculture/ Comparison Studies/ Economic Impact/ Environmental

Effects/ Government Supports/ Resources Management/ Environmental

Policy/ Catchment areas/ Comparative studies/ Economics/

Environmental issues/ Resources/ Evaluation process/ Water

Resources and Supplies

Abstract: This study assesses economic and

environmental impacts of uses of woody draws, small natural

drainage areas covered by trees and shrubs in agricultural

landscapes. Three agricultural uses and four alternative uses are

evaluated. A net present value approach is used to compare economic

impacts of uses of draws and APEX is used to evaluate the

interaction between a woody draw and the contributing upland area

and simulate the environmental impacts of uses of draws in the

field. The study shows that relative to agricultural uses,

alternative uses of draws have significant environmental benefits

in terms of reducing surface runoff and sediment and associated

pollutants, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and pesticides.

Agricultural uses of draws are not always the most profitable

option. Certain alternatives, such as curly willow and the mixed

buffer, are highly profitable. Agricultural landscapes could be

differentially managed to achieve both economic variability and

environmental benefits. Government support is necessary to promote

alternative uses of woody draws. The support can be in the form of

CRP payments or market development of buffer products. Farmers and

resource managers can use study results to manage woody draws and

evaluate the merits of alternative policies for managing woody

draws.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

86. Iowa's wetlands present and future with a

focus on prairie potholes.

Bishop, R A; Joens, J; and Zohrer,

J

Journal of the Iowa Academy

of Science 105

(3): 89-93. (1998)

NAL Call #:  

Q11.J68; ISSN: 0896-8381

Descriptors:  

pothole habitat/ prairie marsh/

riparian floodplain/ uplands/ wetland restoration/

wildlife habitat

Abstract: The vast prairie marsh-pothole complex

that historically covered approximately 7.6 millions acres in Iowa

was reduced to less than 30,000 acres by 1980 when it was estimated

that only 5,000 acres of prairie marsh and pothole habitat remained

in private ownership. A bleak outlook for the future of wetlands

was presented by Bishop (1981)." This outlook changed with the

development of the North American Waterfowl Management Plan and the

passage of two important pieces of legislation: the North American

Wetlands Conservation Act and the Food Security Act of 1985.

Protection of existing wetlands was afforded through the

Swampbuster provision of the Food Security Act. The North American

Wetlands Conservation Act and the Wetland Reserve Program offered

through the Food Security Act provided needed funding for the

protection and restoration of wetlands in Iowa. Since 1988, the

Iowa Department of Natural Resources, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife

Service, and various county conservation boards together with

Pheasants Forever, Ducks Unlimited, and the Iowa Natural Heritage

Foundation have purchased over 10,000 ha (25,000 ac) of wetlands

and uplands in the Prairie Pothole Region of Iowa and restored over

24,240 ha (6,600 ac) of public and private wetlands. The United

States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation

Service has enrolled approximately 24,240 ha (60,600 ac) of

riparian floodplains and potholes into the Wetland Reserve Program

and Emergency Wetland Reserve Program, affording them protection

through permanent easements. Public support of wetland legislation

will ensure that funding continues to be available to protect and

restore Iowa's prairie wetlands.

© Thomson

87. Irrigated Acreage in the Conservation

Reserve Program.

Schaible, G. D.

Washington, DC: Economic Research

Service; ERSAER610XSP; USDAAER610, 1989. 27 p.

Notes: Replaces PB89-214175

NAL Call #:  A281.9-Ag8A-no.610

Descriptors:  

Land use / Area/ Soil erosion/

Benefit cost analysis/ Erosion control/ Cost effectiveness/

Nebraska/ Texas/ History/ Soil conservation/ Irrigation/ Marginal

land/ Conservation Reserve Program/ Agriculture and food/

Agricultural equipment facilities and operations/ Natural resources

and earth sciences/ Soil sciences

Abstract:  Marginal irrigated acreage enrolled

in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) through 1987 represent

less than 2 percent of the 23 million acres enrolled nationwide.

Marginal irrigated acreage is irrigated land that results in low

net returns because of high energy costs (due to high pump lifts

and/or low pump capacities) or low productivity. Most of the

enrolled irrigated acreage is in 17 Western States, with 68 percent

of it in Nebraska and Texas. The report identifies the extent of

marginal irrigated acreage enrolled in the CRP through 1987 and the

potential enrollment in the CRP under two rates of enrollment, the

historical and half the historical rate. The report also examines

why producers would enroll irrigated land in the CRP and estimates

cost savings and other benefits to remaining irrigators in Nebraska

and Texas over a 40-year period.

88. Land use changes since 1982 reduce

pesticide leaching potential.

Kellogg, R. L. and Wallace,

S.

In: Proceedings of the 50th Annual

Meeting of the Soil and Water Conservation Society; p. 22.

(Held 7-9 August, 1995 at Des Moines,

Iowa.); 1995.

Descriptors:  

leaching / pesticides/ land use/

indexing/ cropland/ water quality/ benefits/ groundwater/ risks/

mapping/ NRI/ CRP/ Water quality control/ Evaluation, processing

and publication

Abstract:  A spatial index based on the

intrinsic leaching potential of soils, annual rainfall, cropping

patterns, and chemical use (originally published by Kellogg,

Maizel, and Goss (1992)) has been updated to incorporate the

recently released 1992 National Resources Inventory (NRI) data on

land use change from 1982 to 1992. Results indicate total number of

acres with a high risk of pesticide leaching fell by 16 million as

a result of changes in land use alone. The reduction of 16 million

high risk acres of cropland conversions to non-cropland use, which

was offset somewhat by 6 million acres of new cropland (since 1982)

that had higher index scores. Of the 22 million acre reduction, 8.3

million were associated with enrollment of cropland in the CRP, 6.5

million were associated with cropland converted to pastureland and

forestland, 1.9 million were due to conversion of cropland to

developed land, 3.8 million were due to changes in the crop mix,

and the remainder to conversion of cropland to a variety of other

uses. The largest reductions in high risk acres attributable to the

CRP occurred in Iowa and Texas. The greatest ground water quality

benefit from the CRP enrollment was in the Midwest, the South, and

the Southeast. National maps will be presented on change in

cropland acreage, average pesticide leaching scores, the change in

pesticide leaching scores during the 10-year period, and a map

showing where the CRP enrollment had the greatest potential for

ground water benefits.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

89. MKT Trial/Hinkson Creek emergency

watershed program project in Boone County, Missouri.

Pellmann NF and Wallace

DC.

In: ASAE Annual International

Meeting. (Held 10 Aug 1997-14 Aug 1997 at

Minneapolis, Minnesota.)

St. Joseph, Mich.: American

Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE); 4 p.; 1997.

Notes: ASAE Paper no. 972075

NAL Call #:  S671.3 .A54

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

90. A modeling approach to evaluate best

management practices.

Williams, R D and Nicks, A

D

Water Science and

Technology 28 (3-5):

675-678. ( 1993)

NAL Call #:  

TD420.A1P7; ISSN: 0273-1223

Descriptors:  

agriculture/ chemicals runoff and

erosion from agricultural management systems/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ mathematical model/ soil pollution/ vegetative filter

strips/ water erosion prediction project/ water

pollution

© Thomson

91. Monitoring changes in agricultural runoff

quality in the Laplatte River Watershed, Vermont.

Meals, D. W.

In: Perspectives on nonpoint

source pollution: Proceedings of a national conference.

(Held 19 May 1985-22 May 1985 at Kansas City,

Missouri.)

Washington, D.C.: U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency; pp. 185-190; 1985.

Notes: Document number: EPA 440-5-85-001

Descriptors:  

nonpoint sources/ agricultural

runoff/ Freshwater pollution/ watersheds/ pollution monitoring/

pollution control/ runoff/ nonpoint pollution/ United States,

Vermont, LaPlatte River/ agricultural land/ Environmental action/

Freshwater pollution/ Pollution monitoring and detection/

Prevention and control/ Characteristics, behavior and fate/

Prevention and control

Abstract:  The LaPlatte River watershed in

northwestern Vermont is the focus of an intensive program of land

treatment to control agricultural runoff. Best Management Practices

for controlling dairy manure and cropland erosion have been

implemented by the USDA-SCS on 90 percent of the priority areas in

the watershed. A long-term monitoring program is being conducted to

evaluate the effectiveness of BMP application in improving water

quality. The monitoring program includes precipitation and stream

discharge recording and water sampling for suspended solids,

phosphorus, and nitrogen analysis. A concurrent land use monitoring

program is collecting information required to couple changes in

agricultural practices with changes in stream water quality. The

water quality monitoring program is outlined. Application of

several statistical trend analysis techniques to 5 years of record

from four watersheds is described and some results are

discussed.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

92. Nitrate losses through subsurface tile

drainage in Conservation Reserve Program, alfalfa, and row crop

systems.

Randall, G. W.; Huggins, D. R.;

Russelle, M. P.; Fuchs, D. J.; Nelson, W. W.; and Anderson, J.

L.

Journal of Environmental

Quality 26 (5): 1240-1247.

(Sept. 1997-Oct. 1997)

NAL Call #:  

QH540.J6; ISSN: 0047-2425 [JEVQAA]

Descriptors:  

nitrate nitrogen/ losses from soil/

cropping systems/ biomass production/ zea mays/ glycine max/

medicago sativa/ Minnesota

Abstract: Subsurface drainage of gravitational

water from the soil profile through tiles is a common practice used

to improve crop production on poorly drained soils. Previous

research has often shown significant concentrations of nitrate-N

(NO3-N) in drainage water from row-crop systems, but little

drainage research has been conducted under perennial crops such as

those used in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Four cropping

systems (continuous corn, a corn-soybean rotation, alfalfa, and

CRP) were established in 1988 to determine aboveground biomass

yields, N uptake, residual soil N (RSN), soil water content, and

NO3 losses to subsurface tile drainage water as influenced by

cropping system. Hydrologic-year rainfall during the 6-yr study

ranged from 23% below normal to 66% above normal. In dry years,

yields were limited, RSN accumulated at elevated levels in all crop

systems but especially in the row-crop systems, soil water reserves

and RSN were reduced to as deep as 2.7 m in the alfalfa (Medicago

sativa L.) and CRP systems, and tile drainage did not occur.

Drainage occurred only in the corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean

[Glycine max (L.) Merr.] systems in the year of normal rainfall. In

years of excess precipitation, drainage from the row-crop systems

exceeded that from the perennial crops by 1.1 to 5.3X.

Flow-weighted average NO3-N concentrations in the water during the

flow period of this study were continuous corn = 32, corn-soybean

rotation = 24, alfalfa = 3 and CRP = 2 mg/L. Nitrate losses in the

subsurface drainage water from the continuous corn and corn-soybean

systems were about 37X and 35X higher, respectively, than from the

alfalfa and CRP systems due primarily to greater season-long ET

resulting in less drainage and greater uptake and/or immobilization

of N by the perennial crops.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

93. Nonmarket Economic Benefits Provided by

Increased Recreational Fishing From Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) Related Water Quality Improvement.

Douglas, A. J. and Johnson, R. L.

U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Midcontinent

Ecological Science Center, 2001.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ Local

conservation programs/ United States/ Klamath Basin

Abstract:  Estimated the nonmarket angling

benefits of CRP-related water quality improvements.

94. Permanent Wetland Reserve: Analysis of a

New Approach to Wetland Protection.

Carey, M.; Heimlich, R.; and

Brazee, R.

Washington, DC: Economic Research

Service; USDAAIB610; ERSAIB610XSP, 1990. 20 p.

Notes: Agriculture information bulletin

610;

Replaces PB90-267352

Descriptors:  

Regulations/ Land use/ Biological

productivity/ Vulnerability/ Government policies/ Area/ History/

Legislation/ Swamps/ Conservation/ Food Security Act of 1985/ North

American Wetlands Conservation and Restoration Act of 1989/ Natural

resources and earth sciences---Natural resource management


Abstract:  Current

Federal wetland protection efforts, such as the Swampbuster

provision of the 1985 farm act, may be insufficient to attain the

administration's goal of 'no net loss' in wetland acreage. One

option is to establish a permanent wetland reserve program, which

the report discusses. The report reviews why wetlands are

important, looks at past and present Federal wetland policies, and

examines the dimensions of a reserve under three sizes. The likely

geographic distribution of the reserve and likely crop rotations

affected are both analyzed, and potential easement and restoration

costs are estimated.

95. A potential integrated water quality

strategy for the Mississippi River basin and the Gulf of

Mexico.

Greenhalgh S and Faeth

P

The Scientific World

1 (S2): 976-983. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

472 SCI25.

Notes: UID: 2001.01.354; Number of References: 32;

From: Optimizing nitrogen management in food and energy production

and environmental protection: Proceedings of the 2nd International

Nitrogen Conference on Science and Policy 2001/ Potomac, MD, USA,

14-18 October 2001

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

96. Potential of the Conservation Reserve

Program to control agricultural surface water pollution.

Lant, C. L.

Environmental

Management 15 (4): 507-518.

(1991)

NAL Call #:  

HC79.E5E5; ISSN: 0364-152X

Descriptors:  

pollution control/ agricultural

pollution/ agricultural runoff/ erosion control/ environmental

protection/ United States/ agriculture/ surface water/ government

programs/ erosion/ Illinois/ Fayette County/ wetlands/ Prevention

and control/ Environmental action/ Land pollution

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP),

initiated by the Conservation Title of the Food Security Act of

1985, is the primary federal program to control nonpoint-source

pollution in agricultural watersheds of the United States. This

study estimates potential enrollment of streamside and floodplain

croplands in this ten-year retirement program in order to gauge the

potential of the CRP as a water-quality improvement policy. A

contingent choice survey design was employed in Fayette County,

Illinois, to demonstrate that there is substantial potential for

retirement of streamside and floodplain croplands in the

CRP.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

97. Rock Creek Rural Clean Water Program: The

experiment continues.

Neubeiser, M. J.

In: Perspectives on Nonpoint

Source Pollution: Proceedings of a national conference.

(Held 19 May 1985-22 May 1985 at Kansas City,

MO.)

Washington, D.C.: U.S.

Environmental

Protection Agency; pp. 391-396;

1985.

Notes: Document number: EPA 440-5-85-001

Descriptors:  

nonpoint sources/ Freshwater

pollution/ pollution control/ agricultural runoff/ government

policy/ pollution legislation/ rivers/ nonpoint pollution/

legislation/ United States/ Idaho/ Twin Falls County/ Rock Creek/

Rural Clean Water Program/ Environmental action/ Prevention and

control

Abstract:  Rock Creek in Twin Falls County,

Idaho, has long been recognized as one of the most severely

degraded streams in the State. Both point and nonpoint sources of

pollution have contributed to this problem. The 1972 Federal Water

Pollution Control Act (P.L. 92-500) stimulated pollution abatement

efforts, and since then both State and Federal programs have been

directed toward pollution abatement in Rock Creek. Point source

discharges have been essentially eliminated from food processing

plants, fish hatcheries, and the Twin Falls sewage treatment plant.

Agricultural nonpoint sources, however, continue to cause severe

pollution problems within the Rock Creek drainage. Irrigation

return flows to the creek contain high concentrations of suspended

sediment and related agricultural pollutants such as phosphorus,

nitrogen, and fecal coliform bacteria. This paper presents and

discusses the history, major activities, and progress in restoring

the health of Rock Creek through the Rural Clean Water

Program.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

98. Runoff, erosion, and soil quality

characteristics of a former Conservation Reserve Program

site.

Gilley, J. E.; Doran, J. W.;

Karlen, D. L.; and Kaspar, T. C.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 52

(3): 191-193. (June 1997)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

Iowa/ tillage/ runoff rates/ soil

erosion/ organic matter/ simulated rainfall/ conservation/ land

management/ soil conservation/ soil properties/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ soil quality/ Erosion and sedimentation/

Streamflow and runoff/ Environmental degradation / United

States

Abstract: No-till and moldboard plow tillage

systems were established on a former Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) site in southwest Iowa. Runoff rates from simulated rainfall

events were significantly greater on sites returned to crop

production than from adjoining, undisturbed CRP areas. Substantial

soil loss was measured from the moldboard plow treatments, but no

significant differences in erosion rates were found between the

undisturbed CRP and no-till management systems. No-till management

maintained levels of soil quality similar to those of CRP by

preserving soil structural integrity and reducing losses of soil

organic matter (SOM) associated with tillage. Conservation tillage

systems which maintain residue materials on the soil surface may be

well suited for former CRP areas which are used as

cropland.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

99. Sedimentation of Prairie Pothole Wetlands:

The Need for Integrated Research by Agricultural and Wildlife

Interests.

Gleason, R. A. and Euliss, N.

H.

In: Water for Agriculture and

Wildlife and the Environment: Win-Win Opportunities -- Proceedings

from the USCID Wetlands Seminar. (Held 27 Jun 1996-28 Jun 1996 at Bismarck,

North Dakota.) Schaack, J.; Anderson, S. S.; U.S. Committee on

Irrigation and Drainage; and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

(eds.)

Denver, Colo.: U.S. Committee on

Irrigation and Drainage; pp. 107-114; 1997.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Regional conservation programs/

Prairie Pothole region

Abstract:  Examined the influences of

sedimentation on wildlife values in wetlands within the Prairie

Pothole Region.

100. Soil management after CRP contracts

expire.

Schumacher, T. E.; Lindstrom, M.

J.; Blecha, M. L.; Cogo, N. P.; Clay, D. E.; and Bleakley, B.

H.

In: Clean water, clean

environment, 21st century team agriculture, working to protect

water resources conference proceedings. (Held 5 Mar 1995-8 Mar 1995 at Kansas City,

Missouri.); Vol. 3.

St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE; pp.

239-242; 1995.

NAL Call #:  TD365.C54-1995; ISBN: 0929355601

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ cover crops/

bromus inermis/ medicago sativa/ no-tillage/ chiselling/ plowing/

moldboards/ biological activity in soil/ mineralization/ nitrogen/

carbon/ soil flora/ land banks/ soil organic matter/ South Dakota/

Conservation Reserve Programs

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

101. Subsurface drain losses of water and

nitrate following conversion of perennials to row crops.

Huggins, D. R.; Randall, G. W.;

and Russelle, M. P.

Agronomy Journal

93 (3): 477-486.

(May 2001-June 2001)

NAL Call #:  

4-AM34P; ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT]

Descriptors:  

medicago sativa/ glycine max/ zea

mays/ rotations/ rowcrops/ perennials/ drainage/ soil water/

nitrate/ water quality/ use efficiency/ water use efficiency/

Minnesota

Abstract: Nitrate losses through subsurface drains

in agricultural fields pose a serious threat to surface water

quality. Substantial reductions in drainage losses of NO3-N can

occur with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or perennial grasses as

used in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plantings. Conversion of

perennials to annual row crops, however, could have rapid, adverse

affects on water quality. We evaluated water and N use efficiency

of row crops following perennials, and losses of water and NO3-N to

subsurface drains. Four cropping systems: continuous corn (Zea mays

L.), a corn-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation, alfalfa

(ALF), and CRP, were established in 1988. The ALF and CRP were

converted to a corn-corn-soybean sequence from 1994 through 1996

while continuous corn (C-C) and corn-soybean (C-S) rotations were

maintained. Following CRP, corn yield was 14% and water use

efficiency (WUE) 20% greater as compared with C-C. Yield was 19%

and WUE 21% greater for soybean following corn in CRP and ALF as

compared with C-S. Residual soil NO3-N (RSN) increased 125% in

first year corn following CRP and was 32% greater than C-C by 1996.

High N uptake efficiencies of corn following alfalfa slowed the

buildup of RSN, but levels were equal to row crop systems after 2

yr. Nitrate losses in drainage water remained low during the

initial year of conversion, but were similar to row crop systems

during the subsequent 2 yr. Beneficial effects of perennials on

subsurface drainage characteristics were largely negated following

1 to 2 yr of corn.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

102. Survey of management practices used for

reserve acreage and grassed waterways.

Pike, D. R.; Knake, E. L.; and

Hill, J. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 49

(6): 612-615. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

agricultural practices/ waterways/

crops/ soil conservation/ farms/ land management/ Watershed

protection

Abstract: During 1991 a mail survey of Illinois

farmers was conducted to determine cover crop usage and pest

control practices on government subsidized program plantings.

Ninety-four percent of the respondents reported having Acreage

Reduction Program (ARP) plantings, 21% having Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) plantings, and 29% having grass waterways or filter

strips. Results of the survey indicate that oats (Avena sativa),

alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and clover (Trifolium spp.) were the

most widely used crops for ARP plantings while perennial grasses,

alfalfa, and clover combinations were widely used for CRP

plantings. Herbicides were used by only 9% of the farmers for

control of weeds on ARP. In the opinion of the farmers surveyed,

wildlife populations have increased for several animals. While

weeds in program plantings were noted by a large number of farmers,

injury by insects in crops adjacent to ARP and CRP was reported by

fewer than 20% of the farmers.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

103. The use of Conservation Reserve Program

land for grazing cattle.

Boyles, S. L.; Stoll, B. W.; and

Dobbles, T. L.

Journal of Sustainable

Agriculture 18

(4): 113-120. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

S494.5.S86S8; ISSN: 1044-0046 [JSAGEB]

Descriptors:  

cattle/ grazing/ nature

conservation/ agricultural land/ land use/ intensive husbandry/

rotational grazing/ stocking rate/ liveweight gain/ crude protein/

protein intake/ nitrate nitrogen/ Ohio

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is

a voluntary program under which landowners enter into contracts

with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to remove

highly erodible and environmentally sensitive cropland from

production. A 3 year project was done to evaluate intensive,

rotational cattle grazing as an alternative for this land when it

is removed from the federal program. A 16 ha area was divided into

28 cells for grazing. Cattle were moved to a new cell on a daily

basis. A seasonal average stocking rate of 3.5 hd ha(-1) was used

during the three-year study. Yearling cattle (248 +/- 17.9 kg) were

placed on grass in the spring. Average daily gain was .7 +/- .03 kg

d(-1). Crude protein (23 +/- 4.7%) did not change over years (P

> .05). Breakeven values needed to meet direct and overhead

expenses ranged from $US 0.87 to $US 0.73/kg gain. Based on

nitrate-nitrogen levels in run-off water samples, maintaining

forage on what was CRP land and using it for grazing does meet the

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conservation compliance

demands to participate in other USDA programs.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

104. Water Quality and the Conservation Reserve

Program: Implications of Targeting Saline Croplands.

Aillery, M. P.

In: Nonpoint pollution 1988:

Policy, economy, management, and appropriate technology --

Proceedings of a symposium.

Bethesda, Maryland: American Water

Resources Association; pp. 261-270; 1988.

Descriptors:  

Conservation---Cropland/

Environmental policy/ Government finance/ Nonpoint pollution

sources/ Saline soils/ Water resources management/ Cost benefit

analysis/ Crop production/ Farming/ Governmental interrelations/

Irrigation/ Water policy/ Water quality control/ Conservation in

agricultural use

Abstract:  The Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) of the 1985 Food Security Act provides an opportunity for

improved water quality and higher farm prices through retirement of

environmentally-sensitive croplands. Although current enrollment is

limited to highly erodible soils and stream buffers, salinity is

cited as one of several criteria which may be used to determine

future cropland eligibility. Extending CRP eligibility to highly

saline irrigated soils has an effect on acreage enrollment, water

quality, production control, and program cost. Modification of

program eligibility criteria to include irrigated saline croplands

will not significantly expand the national acreage pool, although

local effects may be important. Potential new enrollment is limited

by additional eligible acreage, county enrollment ceilings, and

enrollment incentives for irrigated lands. Offsite water quality

benefits attributable to reduced salt-loading may be very

significant. However, enrollment of irrigated saline cropland is

less cost-effective than currently eligible cropland from a

commodity supply perspective. State involvement in support of a CRP

salinity provision is likely to increase program effectiveness.

(See also W91-03704) (Author 's abstract)

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

105. Water Quality Benefits from the

Conservation Reserve Program.

Ribaudo, M. O.

Washington, DC: Economic Research

Service, Resources and Technology Div.; USDAAER606; ERSAER606XSP,

1989. 40 p.

Notes: Replaces PB89-175624

NAL Call #:  A281.9-Ag8A-no.606

Descriptors:  

Ground water/ Cost benefit

analysis/ Land reclamation/ Land use/ Soil erosion/ Soil

conservation/ Water quality/ Farmlands/ Environmental transport/

Nonpoint sources/ Food Security Act of 1985/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ Natural resources and earth sciences/ Soil sciences/

 Hydrology and limnology

Abstract:  The Conservation Reserve Program, a

land retirement program designed to remove from production 40 to 45

million acres of highly erodible cropland, may generate an

estimated $3.5 to $4 billion in water quality benefits. Potential

benefits include lower water treatment costs, lower sediment

removal costs, less flood damage, less damage to equipment which

uses water, and increased recreational fishing. Benefits were

estimated with a set of procedures that approximated the physical,

chemical, biological, and economic links between soil erosion and

water use.

106. Water quality improvement and wetlands

restoration.

Weitman, D.

In: When Conservation Reserve

Program contracts expire: The policy options; Ankeny, IA: Soil and

Water Conservation Society, 1994. pp. 20-22

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program/

United States

Abstract:  Addressed the importance of water

quality and wetland benefits related to CRP.


107. Watershed water quality programs: Lessons

learned in Illinois.

Davenport, T. and Lowrey,

J.

In: Perspectives on nonpoint

source pollution: Proceedings of a national conference.

(Held 19-22 May 1985;  at Kansas City,

MO.)

Washington, D.C.: U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency; pp. 256-258; 1985.

Notes: Document number: EPA 440-5-85-001

Descriptors:  

nonpoint sources/ watersheds/

pollution control/ Freshwater pollution/ agricultural pollution/

soil erosion/ government policy/ United States, Illinois/ lakes/

nonpoint pollution/ Illinois/ state policies/ United States,

Illinois, Pittsfield Lake/ Environmental action/ Pollution control/

Prevention and control

Abstract:  Several nonpoint source control

projects--Sec. 108 Great Lakes Demonstration Projects, Clean Lakes

Projects, Sec. 314 Agricultural Conservation Program Projects, and

Rural Clean Water Projects--have been implemented in watersheds

critical for agricultural pollution. Evaluation of these ongoing

nonpoint source control projects is necessary for facilitating

future NPS control programs. Presently in the State of Illinois, 2

major watershed nonpoint source evaluation projects exist--the Lake

Pittsfield (Blue Creek) and Silver Lake (Highland) Watershed

projects. Recommendations on projects selection, development, and

implementation are discussed based on evaluation of these projects.

Priority lakes for agricultural nonpoint source water quality

problem abatement are tabulated in order of priority.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

108. Wetlands Reserve Pilot Program: An

assessment based on state leadership workshops.

American Farmland

Trust.

Washington, D.C.: American

Farmland Trust;

12, 10 p. (1993)

Notes: Cover title. "December 1993."

NAL Call #:  QH75-.W47-1993

Descriptors:  

Wetland conservation/

Wetlands

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

109. Wetlands Reserve Program.

Hussey, S. L.

Fisheries 19 (8): 42-43. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

SH1.F54; ISSN: 0363-2415

Descriptors:  

wetlands / fishery resources/

agriculture/ nature conservation/ legislation/ resources

management/ environmental protection/ fisheries/ habitats/ wildlife

conservation/ Wetlands Reserve Program/ Stock assessment and

management/ Law/ policy/ economics/ social sciences/ Conservation/

wildlife management/ recreation/ Water law and institutions/

Environmental action/ United States

Abstract: Historically, one of the greatest threats

to wetlands has been drainage for agricultural purposes. One-fourth

of U.S. Cropland, more than 100 million acres, was obtained by

clearing and draining wetlands. This loss of wetland functions and

terrestrial ecosystems. Three-fourths of the nation's fish

production depends on wetlands. A wetlands protection program with

tremendous potential is the Wetlands Reserve Program, authorized by

the food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act of 1990. While

not commonly associated with fisheries, this program offers

significant opportunities to improve fisheries habitats. The

Wetlands Reserve Program was established for the voluntary

restoration and protection of wetland by landowners through

permanent or 30-year easements on up to 1 million acres of wetlands

previously modified for agricultural production. The program is

designed to take marginal cropland out of production, providing

landowners with the opportunity to benefit by maintaining wetlands.

Riparian areas are also eligible for enrollment in the program. The

prospect of habitat for fish and wildlife is one national priority

factor in determining eligibility for enrollment.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

110. When a Landowner Adopts a Riparian Buffer:

Benefits and Costs.

Lynch, L. and Tjaden, R. Maryland

Cooperative Extension; Fact Sheet 774, 2000.

http://www.riparianbuffers.umd.edu/PDFs/FS774.pdf

Descriptors:  

State conservation programs/

Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program/ Maryland

Abstract:  Detailed costs and benefits of

riparian buffer installation.

[Table of Contents]


Wildlife

Habitat

111. Agricultural land use patterns of native

ungulates in south-eastern Montana.

Selting, J. P. and Irby, L.

R.

Journal of Range

Management 50 (4):

338-345.

(July 1997)

NAL Call #:  

60.18-J82; ISSN: 0022-409X [JRMGAQ]

Descriptors:  

odocoileus hemionus/ odocoileus

virginianus/ antilocapra americana/ wild animals/ habitat

selection/ population density/ patterns/ seasonal variation/

agricultural land/ Montana/ Conservation Reserve Program

lands

Abstract: Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus),

white-tailed deer (Odocolieus virginianus), and pronghorn antelope

(Antilocapra americana) use of 6 agricultural land use categories

in southeastern Montana were monitored to identify use patterns at

specific sites. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bottom rangeland,

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, upland rangeland, wheat

(Triticum aestivum L.) stubble, and growing wheat were observed

during dawn, day, dusk, and night hours over a period of 12 months.

Mule deer densities on alfalfa peaked in fall and again in spring.

The CRP lands were selected in all seasons. Rangeland sites were

most heavily used in winter and summer. White-tailed deer used CRP

lands in all seasons except fall. Alfalfa was selected in fall,

spring, and summer. Antelope densities on alfalfa were highest in

spring and fall, while growing wheat fields were used most in

spring. Antelope in the northern study area selected CRP land in

all seasons except fall. Densities of animals and patterns of use

observed during this study would be unlikely to produce significant

impacts on forage or crops at most of our study sites.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

112. Agricultural Practices, Farm Policy, and

the Conservation of Biological Diversity.

Gerard, P. W.

Laurel, Md: National Biological

Service; PB95262515XSP, 1995. 32 p.

Notes: Also pub. as National Biological Service,

Laurel, MD. rept. no. BIOLOGICAL-4.

Descriptors:  

Endangered species/ Birds/

Policies/ Biological indicators/ Cultivated lands/ Wildlife

conservation/ Agricultural lands/ Biodiversity/ Natural resources

and earth sciences/ Natural resource management/  Agriculture

and food/ Agricultural equipment facilities and

operations

Abstract:  Long-term wildlife population

declines are associated with changing agricultural practices.

Cropland expansion, agricultural intensification, and national farm

policies are all implicated in these declines. Social, economic,

technological, and political factors determine where, what, and how

a farmer produces crops and therefore his or her effect on wildlife

habitat. Farmers are also influenced by Department of Agriculture

programs, which therefore are indirectly implicated in wildlife

population declines. Changes in the prairie and Great Plains

agricultural landscape since the 1950s provide a clear example of

the relation between federal agriculture policy, farmers' land-use

practices, and the decline of grassland bird species. Early

research indicates that the Conservation Reserve Program may help

to slow or reverse wildlife losses, including those of several

species listed as endangered. However, Conservation Reserve Program

benefits to wild life populations may vary considerably across the

United States. Wildlife conservation in the agricultural landscape

is limited by conflicting conservation objectives, the voluntary

nature of federal agriculture programs, and the habitat

requirements of many endangered vertebrate species.

113. Animal and habitat relationships in the

South Platte basin with emphasis on threatened and endangered

species.

Fitzgerald, J. P.

In: Endangered Species Management:

Planning Our Future, Proceedings of the 6th Annual 1996 South

Platte Forum.

(Held 25 Oct 1995-26 Oct 1995

 at Greeley, Colorado.) Graf, D. and

Williams, D. J. (eds.)

Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Water

Resources Research Institute, Colorado State University;

pp. 8; 1995.

Descriptors:  

United States/ Colorado/ South

Platte River Basin/ wildlife habitats/ river basins/ animal

populations/ priorities/ wildlife management/ preservation/ spatial

distribution/ species diversity/ Ecological impact of water

development

Abstract:  A minimum of 353 species of

terrestrial vertebrates reside in or make important seasonal use of

habitats in the South Platte River basin in Colorado. The list

includes 252 birds, 69 mammals, 22 reptiles, and 10 amphibians.

When species are tied to habitat requisites, the most critical

habitats in priority of management needs/preservation are: 1.

Grassland/Prairie; 2. Plains Riparian/Wetlands; 3. Middle to High

Elevation Forests. In a management context the two most critical

habitat types present the most serious problems. Most of the

eastern plains is in private ownership with few incentives

available to landowners for protection/habitat management. Habitat

is becoming fragmented with less than one-third still in prairie.

Water allocation and use patterns as well as human population

growth patterns are increasing pressures on remaining plains

landscapes, especially at the foothills/plains interface in the

basin. Agricultural patterns including increasing use of the

Conservation Reserve Program will also likely effect distributional

patterns of wildlife, perhaps to the detriment of some species.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA)

114. An annotated bibliography for wildlife

responses to the Conservation Reserve Program.

Allen, A. W.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, Wildlife

Habitat Management Institute, 2000; pp. 151-206

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

wildlife habitats/ wildlife management

115. Annual set-aside programs: A long-term

perspective of habitat quality in Illinois and the

Midwest.

Warner, Richard E.; Etter, Stanley

L.; David, Larry M.; and Mankin, Philip C.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 28 (2): 347-354.

(2000)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648.

Notes: 3 tables; 1 figure.

Descriptors:  

policies and programs/ farms/ food

crops/ production/ grassland/ cultivated farmland/ habitat

management for wildlife/ conservation programs/ land use/ cover/

vegetation/ agriculture/ habitat change/ grains/ prairie/ extensive

agriculture/ North America/ United States/ Illinois/

Iowa

Abstract: Farm programs that divert cropland from

production have been important for establishing grassy habitat in

the Midwest since the 1930s. This study documents 1) the expansion

of row crop production and general decline of grasses on farm

landscapes of the Midwest in recent decades, and 2) the trend

toward short-term set-aside programs that establish grassy habitat

of marginal value, depicted in Illinois. During the 1980s and early

1990s, row crop production in the Midwest moderated and millions of

hectares of grassland were established on cropland diverted from

production. Nonetheless, from 1964 to 1992, row crop plantings

increased by 39%, with an 84% increase in soybeans being the most

striking land-use change. Row crops supplanted numerous cover types

that have grassy structure, including oats (-83%), wheat (-10%),

other minor crops (-51%), permanent pasture (-54%), diverted

cropland (-51%), and other farmland (-41%). On a study area in

east-central Illinois, we evaluated and compared selected habitat

characteristics of grassy cover for 1962-63 and 1991-94 on 100

randomly selected 4.05-ha plots, including tract width,

heterogeneity of vegetation, disturbance during the growing season,

persistence of vegetation from one growing season to the next, and

extent to which grassy fields were connected by permanent (grass)

edges to surrounding landscape elements. There was a diminution

(P<0.05) in these habitat attributes in the 1990s compared to

the 1960s. The conservation community has emphasized the potential

benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) for wildlife,

while most of the grassland in the Corn Belt has been established

by annual set-aside programs. Although the most recent set-aside

era ended in the late 1990s, programs of this nature may reemerge.

Our study underscores the need and opportunity for improving

habitat conditions as part of future farm programs that would

divert land from production under short-term contract.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

116. Are economic instruments the saviour for

biodiversity on private land?

Gibbons, P; Briggs, S V; and

Shields, J M

Pacific Conservation

Biology 7 (4): 223-228.

(2002); ISSN:

1038-2097

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

biodiversity conservation/ economic instruments/ ecosystem

vulnerability/ environmental condition/ metapopulation viability/

offset schemes/ private lands/ representative ecosystem examples/

stewardship schemes/ tax concessions/

temporal support

© Thomson

117. Area Requirements of Grassland Birds: A

Regional Perspective.

Johnson, D. H. and Igl, L.

D.

Auk 118(1): 24-34.

(2001)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 AU4  

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program/

Great Plains

Abstract: Examined the influence of fragmentation

and isolation of CRP grassland fields on grassland breeding bird

populations in the northern Great Plains.

118. The Arkansas response to federal farm

program opportunities.

Long, J. D.; Akers, D.; and

Wilson, S. N.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 46

(4):

272-275. (July 1991-Aug.

1991)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

farmland/ wildlife conservation/

habitats/ environmental protection/ federal programs/ Conservation

Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


119. Association of the Conservation Reserve

Program with ring-necked pheasant survey counts in Iowa.

Riley, Terry Z

Wildlife Society Bulletin

23 (3): 386-390. (1995)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648

Descriptors:  

Phasianus colchicus (Galliformes)/

animals/ birds/ chordates/ nonhuman vertebrates/ vertebrates/

agriculture/ snowfall/ weather/ wildlife management

Abstract: More than 880,000 ha of Iowa farmland

were enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) from

1986-1991. I evaluated the relationship between CRP enrollment and

ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in Iowa and how

cropland and weather affected that relationship. Six percent of the

land area in Iowa was enrolled in the CRP between 1986 and 1991.

Pheasant numbers in Iowa increased 30% during the first 5 years of

the CRP compared to a similar period before the program began (P =

0.026). Numbers increased 34% (P lt 0.018) in counties with gt 70%

cropland and 26% (P= 0.12) in counties with 50-70% cropland. I did

not detect increases in pheasant numbers in counties with lt 50%

cropland (P gt 0.71). Pheasant numbers were positively related to

the CRP, but this function was also influenced by percent cropland

and cumulative snowfall.

© Thomson

120. Avian abundance and diversity in CRP, crop

fields, pastures, and restored and native grasslands during

winter.

Morris, Kelly

Passenger Pigeon

62 (3/4): 217-224.

(2000);

ISSN:  0031-2703

Descriptors:  

birds/ crops/ conservation/ species

diversity/ hibernation/ snow/ grass prairies/ meadows/ agricultural

conservation programs

Abstract: I compared grassland bird use of land set

aside by the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), crop fields,

pastures, and restored and native prairies during winter in

southern Wisconsin. Species diversity was highest in crop fields,

followed by restored prairie, CP2 (CRP fields planted to native

grasses), native prairie remnants, and pastures. Avian abundance

(number of individuals seen per hour of observation) was highest in

pastures, followed by restored prairie, CP2, crop fields and native

prairie. No birds were observed in CP1 fields (CRP fields planted

to introduced grasses and legumes). Avian abundance in crop fields

and native prairie was higher during periods of incomplete snow

cover than during periods with 100% snow cover, while the reverse

was true for restored prairie and CP2 sites. The variety of

habitats used by grassland birds during winter should be taken into

account when management plans are being developed for these

species.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

121. Avian abundance, composition, and

reproductive success on Conservation Reserve Program fields in

northern Missouri.

McCoy, T. D.

Columbia, MO: University of

Missouri, 1996.

Notes: M.S. Thesis

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Missouri

Abstract:  Studied various avian species

abundance, composition, and reproductive success in different

grassland types (CP1 vs. CP2) in northern Missouri.

122. Avian abundance in CRP and crop fields

during winter in the midwest.

Best, Louis B; Campa, Henry; Kemp,

Kenneth E; Robel, Robert J; Ryan, Mark R; Savidge, Julie; Weeks,

Harmon P Jr; and Winterstein, Scott R

American Midland

Naturalist 139 (2): 311-324.

(1998)

NAL Call #:  

410 M58; ISSN: 0003-0031

Descriptors:  

dark eyed junco (Passeriformes)/

horned lark (Passeriformes)/ lapland longspur (Passeriformes)/

meadowlark (Passeriformes)/ mourning dove (Columbiformes)/ northern

bobwhite (Galliformes)/ ring necked pheasant (Galliformes)/

American goldfinch (Passeriformes)/ American tree sparrow

(Passeriformes)/ Canada goose (Anseriformes)/ European starling

(Passeriformes)/ Animals/ Birds/ Chordates/ Nonhuman Vertebrates/

Vertebrates/ crop fields/ species abundance/ species composition/

winter/ Conservation Reserve Program

Abstract: We compared the abundance and species

composition of birds in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields

with the same aspects in row-crop fields during the winter (January

and February) over several years (1992-1995) for six Midwestern

states (Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri and Nebraska).

Field techniques were standardized in all states. CRP fields

consisted of either permanent introduced grasses and legumes (CP1)

or permanent native grasses (CP2), and the plant species seeded in

CRP fields differed within and among states. Vegetation

characteristics of CRP fields varied considerably from state to

state, but vertical density and total canopy cover (primarily

grasses) were particularly high in Nebraska. Mean annual total bird

abundance ranged from 0.1 to 5.1 birds per km of transect in CRP

fields and from 0.1 to 24.2 in row-crop fields. The total number of

bird species recorded in CRP fields in the six states ranged from 6

to 32; the range for row-crop fields was 8 to 18. The most abundant

species in CRP fields differed among states but included the

ring-necked pheasant, American tree sparrow, northern bobwhite,

dark-eyed junco and American goldfinch. The most abundant species

in row-crop fields included the horned lark, American tree sparrow,

European starling, mourning dove, lapland longspur, meadowlarks and

Canada goose. Some of the most abundant bird species wintering on

CRP fields have been undergoing long-term population declines, thus

this program has the potential to mitigate population

losses.

© Thomson

123. Avian community structure, reproductive

success, vegetative structure, and food availability in burned CRP

Fields and grazed pastures in northeastern Kansas.

Klute, D. S.

Manhattan, KS: Kansas State

University, 1994.

Notes: M.S. Thesis

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Kansas

Abstract:  Compared avian community structure

and reproductive success, food availability, and vegetative

structure in CRP grasslands in northern Kansas that were grazed and

burned.

124. Avian Population Trends Within the

Evolving Agricultural Landscape of Eastern and Central United

States.

Murphy, MT

Auk 120 (1): 20-34. (Jan. 2003)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 AU4; ISSN: 0004-8038

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Migratory Birds/ CRP Fields/ Nesting Success/ Breeding Birds/ North

America/ Habitat/ Grassland/ Abundance/ Songbirds

Abstract: State-level Breeding Bird Survey

(1980-1998) and U.S. Department of Agriculture statistics were used

to test the hypothesis that changes in agricultural land use within

the eastern and central U.S. have driven population trends of

grassland and shrub habitat birds over the past two decades. The

degree to which population trends differed between grassland and

shrub habitats was evaluated with respect to migratory and nesting

behavior. Grassland birds declined significantly between 1980 and

1999, but, on average, shrub habitat species did not.

Grassland-breeding, long-distance migrants exhibited the strongest

negative trends. Most species (78%; n = 63) exhibited at least one

significant association between population trends and changes in

agricultural land use, and in most, land use "explained" 25-30% of

the variation in population trends among states. Changes in the

farmland landscape accounted for more of the interstate variability

of population trends of short-distance migrants than of both long-

distance migrants and residents, and that variability was greater

in grassland than shrub species. Declines in the area of rangeland

and cover crops were followed by population declines and increases,

respectively, by many species. Increases of land in the

Conservation Reserve Program had negative associations with

population trends of some shrub species. The results indicate that

grassland birds have declined strongly over the past two decades,

and that regardless of migratory behavior or nesting habits, avian

population trends are linked strongly to changes in agricultural

land use within North America.

© Thomson ISI

125. Avian response to landscape change in

fragmented southern Great Plains grasslands.

Coppedge, Bryan R.; Engle, David

M.; Masters, Ronald E.; and Gregory, Mark S.

Ecological

Applications 11 (1): 47-59.

(2001)

NAL Call #:  

QH540.E23; ISSN: 1051-0761

Descriptors:  

bird communities/ neotropical

migrant species/ conservation/ aerial photography/ Juniperus spp/

plains/ prairies/ agricultural conservation programs

Abstract: We examined the dynamics of avian

communities associated with fragmented grasslands in Oklahoma USA,

using long-term (1965-1995) raw (stop-level) data from the Breeding

Bird Survey (BBS). Aerial photography was used to document changes

in land cover type and landscape pattern as affected by woody plant

(mostly Juniperus virginiana L.) encroachment and concurrent

cropland conversions to agricultural grassland under the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Rank trend analysis identified

species with significant population trends, and canonical

correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to identify important

environmental gradients froma group of descriptive habitat

variables that included land cover type composition and indices of

vegetation cover, landscape pattern, and grassland patch structure.

Avian community structure shifted along gradients of increasing

woody plant cover and indicators of continuing landscape

fragmentation. Open-habitat generalists, woodland, and successional

scrub species generally increased, whereas many grassland species

decreased. In some instances, neotropical migrants responded

positively to increasing woody vegetation. Some grassland birds

also showed a positive response to increases in agricultural

grassland, but only in areas of severe juniper encroachment. Most

grassland species exhibited consistent declines related to the

influx of woody vegetation and associated landscape changes. Woody

plant encroachment into southern Great Plains grasslands already

fragmented by agricultural activity represents a conservation

management dilemma. Although woody vegetation in remnant native

prairies may provide habitat for some declining neotropical

migrants that require shrubby areas, grassland structure and

suitability is compromised for many declining grassland-endemic

birds. Cropland conversion to agricultural grassland does appear to

provide suitable for some grassland species. However, this benefit

appears to be limited to areas where woody plant invasion into

grasslands is relatively advanced, and may have only a temporary

effect, as most CRP areas are likely to return to agricultural

production in the near future. Changes are needed in grassland

management practices to restrict woody plant encroachment and

fragmentation; otherwise, continued declines in grassland bird

populations can be expected.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

126. Avian use and vegetation characteristics

of Conservation Reserve Program fields.

Delisle, Jennifer M. and Savidge,

Julie A.

Journal of Wildlife

Management 61

(2): 318-325. (1997)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X

Descriptors:  

bobolinks (Passeriformes)/ common

yellowthroat (Passeriformes)/ dickcissels (Passeriformes)/

grasshopper sparrow (Passeriformes) / ring necked pheasant

(Galliformes)/ American tree sparrow (Passeriformes)/ Ammodramus

savannarum (Passeriformes)/ Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Passeriformes)/

Geothlypis trichas (Passeriformes)/ Phasianus colchicus

(Galliformes)/ Spiza americana (Passeriformes)/ Spizella arborea

(Passeriformes)/ Sturnella spp. (Passeriformes)/ animals/ birds/

chordates/ nonhuman vertebrates/ vertebrates/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ fields/ meadowlarks / seasonality/ species abundance/

vegetation structure/ wildlife management

Abstract: We compared avian use of Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) fields enrolled in the CP1 (cool-season

grasses and legumes) and CP2 (warm-season native grasses) options

in southeastern Nebraska from 1991 to 1995. In winter and in the

breeding season CP2 fields had taller, denser vegetation than CP1

fields. However, total bird abundance did not differ between CP1

and CP2 fields (P = 0.47). Dickcissels (Spiza americana) and

grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) were the most abundant

species during the breeding season although population numbers

varied among years (P lt 0.001). Dickcissels and grasshopper

sparrows showed no differences in abundance between CPs, but

dickcissels were associated with tall, dense vegetation and

grasshopper sparrows with sparser vegetation and a shallow litter

layer. Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) were more abundant on CP1

fields (P = 0.001), and common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas)

and sedge wrens (Cistothorus platensis) were more abundant on CP2

fields (P = 0.001 and P = 0.05). Average winter abundances did not

change over years (P = 0.90). American tree sparrows (Spizella

arborea) and ring- necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) were the

most abundant species during winter and were more abundant on CP2

fields (P lt 0.05). Meadowlarks (Sturnella spp.) were more abundant

on CP1 fields in winter (P lt 0.05).

© Thomson

127. Avian use of fields enrolled in the

Conservation Reserve Program in southeast Nebraska.

Delisle, Jennifer M.

Lincoln, Nebraska: University of

Nebraska, 1995.

Notes: Thesis (M.S.);

Includes bibliographical

references.

NAL Call #:  NBU LD3656-1995-D455

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Birds---Habitat---Nebraska

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

128. Big bluestem evaluations in the Eastern

Plains.

Moyer, J. L.; Fine, G.; and

Walker, J.

In: Report of progress: Kansas

Agricultural Experiment Station, 606; Manhattan, Kan.: Agricultural

Experiment Station, Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied

Science, 1990. 9 p.

Notes: ISSN: 1061-7841

NAL Call #:  100-K133P

Descriptors:  

andropogon gerardii/ cultivars/

forage/ comparisons / agronomic characteristics/ crop yield/ crude

protein/ digestibility/ conservation areas/ weather data/ Kansas/

Oklahoma/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


129. Bird abundance and nesting in CRP fields

and cropland in the midwest: A regional approach.

Best, Louis B; Campa, Henry; Kemp,

Kenneth E; Robel, Robert J; Ryan, Mark R; Savidge, Julie; Weeks,

Harmon P Jr; and Winterstein, Scott R

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 25 (4): 864-877.

(1997)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648

Descriptors:  

nest predation/ nesting success/

rowcrop field/ species abundance/ vegetational structure/

Conservation Reserve Program/ Agelaius phoeniceus [red winged

blackbird] (Passeriformes)/ Ammodramus savannarum [grasshopper

sparrow] (Passeriformes)/ Spiza americana [dickcissel]

(Passeriformes)

Abstract: We compared the abundance and nesting

success of avian species in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

fields during the summer with that in rowcrop fields over 5 years

(1991-1995) for 6 Midwestern states (Ind., Ia., Kans., Mich., Mo.,

and Nebr.). Field techniques were standardized in all states. CRP

fields consisted of either perennial introduced grasses and legumes

(CP1) or perennial native grasses (CP2), and the plant species

seeded in CRP fields differed within and among the states.

Disturbances to CRP fields included mowing (partial or complete),

application of herbicides, and burning. The height, vertical

density, and canopy coverage of vegetation in CRP fields were

measured in each state; values for these measurements were

particularly low in Kansas. Mean annual total bird abundance in CRP

fields ranged from 4.9 to 29.3 birds/km of transect. The most

abundant species on CRP fields differed among states but included

red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), grasshopper sparrows

(Ammodramus savannarum), and dickcissels (Spiza americana).

Although the total number of bird species was similar in CRP and

rowcrop fields across the region, bird abundance was 1.4-10.5 times

greater in the former. Nests of 33 bird species were found in CRP

fields compared with only 10 species in rowcrop fields, and the

number of nests found was 13.5 times greater in CRP fields. Nest

success in CRP fields was 40% overall; predation was the greatest

cause of nest failure. Long-term farm set-aside programs that

establish perennial grass cover, such as the CRP, seem to provide

many benefits for grassland birds, including several species for

which conservation is a great concern.

© Thomson

130. Bird abundance and nesting success in Iowa

CRP fields: The importance of vegetation structure and

composition.

Patterson, Matthew P and Best, L

B

American Midland

Naturalist 135 (1): 153-167.

(1996)

NAL Call #:  

410 M58; ISSN: 0003-0031

Descriptors:  

passerine (Passeriformes)/ Aves

(Aves Unspecified) / Plantae (Plantae Unspecified)/ animals/ birds/

chordates/ nonhuman vertebrates/ plants / vertebrates/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ land management practice

Abstract: Bird use of Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) and row-crop fields was studied in central Iowa from May

through July 1991-1993. Thirty-three bird species were recorded in

CRP fields and 34 in row-crop fields. The most abundant species in

both habitats was the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus),

accounting for 35% of all birds in CRP and 24% in row-crop fields.

The dickcissel (Spiza americana), grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus

savannarum), bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), common yellowthroat

(Geothypis trichas), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater),

savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and ring-necked

pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) were the next most abundant species

in CRP plots. The horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), vesper

sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) and brownheaded cowbird were the next

most abundant species in row-crop fields. Nests of 16 bird species

were found in CRP fields, with red-winged blackbirds accounting for

48% of all nests found. The vesper sparrow and horned lark were the

only species nesting in row-crop fields. The major cause of nest

loss for all species was predation, accounting for 52% of all nest

loss in CRP fields and 65% in row-crop fields. Mammals accounted

for 89, 88 and 85% of the predation on grasshopper sparrow,

red-winged blackbird and dickcissel nests, respectively. The

Conservation Reserve Program has likely contributed to an increase

in the abundance of many bird species in central Iowa, inasmuch as

the row-crop habitat that it replaced has lower bird abundance and

supports fewer nesting species. The vegetation structure and

composition of CRP fields in central Iowa are diverse, resulting in

differences in the bird species communities using these fields. The

effects of several land-management practices are discussed relative

to bird species composition and nesting success.

© Thomson

131. Bird Abundance and Success in

CRP.

Mccoy, T.

In: 62nd Midwest Fish and Wildlife

Conference.

(Held 3 Dec 2000-6 Dec 2000 at

Minneapolis. MN (USA).); 2001.

Notes: Paper No. 307; Conference Sponsor: NCD-AFS;

World Meeting Number 000 5249

Descriptors:  

Aquatic Science/ Biology/

 Environmental Science

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

132. Birds and the Conservation Reserve

Program: A retrospective study.

Lauber, T. B.

Orono, Me.: University of Maine,

1991.

Notes: Thesis (M.S.) in Wildlife Management.

Bibliography: leaves 243-248. Includes vita.

NAL Call #:  MeU Univ.-1991-L38

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program U.S/

Bird populations Effect of agricultural conservation on

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

133. Breeding bird composition and species

relative abundance patterns on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

land in Western Minnesota.

Hanowski, JoAnn M.

Loon 67 (1): 12-16. (1995).

Notes: WR 252

Descriptors:  

communities/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ conservation programs/ birds/ North America/ United

States/ Minnesota/ Minnesota, western

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

134. Changes in Breeding Bird Populations with

Habitat Restoration in Northern Iowa.

Fletcher, RJ and Koford,

RR

American Midland

Naturalist 150 (1):

83-94. (July 2003)

NAL Call #:  

410 M58; ISSN: 0003-0031

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Grassland Birds/ Avian Communities/ Area Sensitivity/ Prairie

Wetlands/ Natural Wetlands/ Abundance/ Management/ Dakota/

Fields

Abstract: Native tallgrass prairie and wetland

habitat in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States have

declined over the past two centuries. Bird communities using these

habitats have also experienced widespread declines that are often

attributed to severe habitat loss and fragmentation. We estimated

the change, or turnover, in bird populations in the Eagle Lake

Wetland Complex, Iowa, with ongoing grassland and wetland

restoration by linking geographic information system data and bird

surveys in different land cover types (hayland, pasture, restored

grassland, restored wetland and rowcrop agriculture) during the

1999-2001 breeding seasons. Habitat restoration efforts primarily

converted rowcrop agriculture and pastures into grassland and

wetland habitat. Based on land conversion, abundances of most

species have likely increased in the area, including many species

of management concern. Yet a few species, such as killdeer

(Charadrius vociferus), have probably decreased in abundance. This

estimation approach and these estimates provided a critical first

step for evaluating restoration efforts; however, information on

demographic parameters, such as nesting success, in restored areas

is needed for understanding how restoration ultimately affects bird

populations.

© Thomson ISI

135. A comparison of Conservation Reserve

Program habitat plantings with respect to arthropod prey for

grassland birds.

McIntyre, N. E. and Thompson, T.

R.

American Midland

Naturalist 150 (2): 291-301.

(2003)

NAL Call #:  

410 M58; ISSN: 0003-0031.

Notes: Number of References: 64

Descriptors:  

Environment/ Ecology/ Texas High

Plains/ North American grassland/ population trends/ CRP fields/

community structure/ avian abundance/ nestling diet/ vegetation/

Coleoptera/ landscape

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

was designed to reduce soil erosion and curb agricultural

overproduction by converting highly erodible agricultural land to

various forms of perennial habitat. It has had an incidental

benefit of providing habitat for wildlife and has been beneficial

in reversing population declines of several grassland bird species.

However, the mechanisms behind these reversals remain unknown. One

such mechanism may be differences in food availability on CRP vs.

non-CRP land or between different types of CRP. The influence of

CRP habitat type on the abundance of arthropod prey used by

grassland birds has not been previously explored. We compared the

abundance and diversity of arthropods among four CRP habitat types

in Texas [replicated plots of exotic lovegrass (Eragrostis

curvula), Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum), mixed native

grasses with buffalograss (Buchlo dactyloides) and mixed native

grasses without buffalograss] and native shortgrass prairie.

Attention was focused on adult and juvenile spiders (Order

Araneae), beetles (Coleoptera), orthopterans (Orthroptera:

grasshoppers and crickets) and lepidopterans (Lepidoptera:

butterflies and moths), as these taxa are the primary prey items of

grassland birds during the breeding season. Arthropod diversity and

abundance were higher on indigenous prairie compared to CRP,

reflecting differences in vegetative diversity and structure, but

there were no differences in arthropod richness or abundance among

CRP types. These results indicate that, although CRP is not

equivalent to native prairie in terms of vegetation or arthropod

diversity, CRP lands do support arthropod prey for grassland birds.

More direct assays of the survivorship and fitness of birds on CRP

compared to native shortgrass prairie are clearly

warranted.

© Thomson ISI

136. A comparison of soil fertility between

semi-natural and agricultural plant communities: Implications for

the creation of species-rich grassland on abandoned agricultural

land.

Gough, M. W. and Marrs, R.

H.

Biological Conservation 51

(2): 83-96. (1990)

NAL Call #:  

S900.B5; ISSN: 0006-3207

Descriptors:  

grasslands/ agricultural

ecosystems/ forests/ phosphorus/ old fields/ soil fertility/

comparison/ Soil

Abstract: Soils were collected from a number of

community types including semi-natural grassland, scrub, woodland,

arable fields and improved grassland on various parent substrates

and their fertility assessed by chemical analysis and plant

bioassay techniques. Under glasshouse conditions, the main limiting

factor to plant growth on the soils collected was the availability

of P. Levels of extractable P in the arable soils, improved

grassland soils and in some of the scrub and woodland soils

collected were found to be significantly higher than in adjacent,

semi-natural grassland soils. It may therefore be necessary to

reduce the availability of P in the soil before species-rich

grassland can be successfully established and maintained on old

field sites produced by "set-aside" or extensification schemes, and

in conservation management programmes where late successional

vegetation is removed.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts (CSA)

137. A comprehensive review of Farm Bill

contributions to wildlife conservation, 1985-2000.

Heard, L. P; Hohman, W. L.;

Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management Institute

(U.S.)

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, 2000.

 

Notes: "Technical Report, USDA/NRCS/WHMI-2000."

"December 2000."

Includes bibliographical

references.

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Agricultural law and

legislation---United States/ Agricultural conservation---Government

policy---United States/ Wildlife habitat improvement---United

States/ Wetland agriculture

Abstract:  Contents:  Conservation

compliance and wetlands conservation provisions of the Omnibus Farm

Acts of 1985, 1990, and 1996 / Stephen J. Brady; Grassland bird use

of Conservation Reserve Program fields in the Great Plains /

Douglas H. Johnson; Waterfowl responses to the Conservation Reserve

Program in the Northern Great Plains / Ronald E. Reynolds; Impact

of the Conservation Reserve Program on wildlife conservation in the

Midwest / Mark R. Ryan; Wildlife responses to the Conservation

Reserve Program in the Southeast / Wes Burger; The value of buffer

habitats for birds in agricultural landscapes / Louis B. Best;

Biological responses to wetland restoration: Implications for

wildlife habitat development through the Wetlands Reserve Program /

Charlie Rewa; Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program: A summary of

accomplishments, 1998-1999 / Ed Hackett; Environmental Quality

Incentives Program: Program summary and potential for wildlife

benefits / Anthony Esser, Robert T. Molleur, Paige Buck, Charlie

Rewa; Wildlife responses to wetland restoration and creation: An

annotated bibliography / Charlie Rewa; An annotated bibliography

for wildlife responses to the Conservation Reserve Program / Arthur

W. Allen

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

138. Conducting a financial analysis of quail

hunting within the Conservation Reserve Program.

Williams, C. F. and Mjelde, J.

W.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 22 (2):

233-241. (Summer 1994)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648 [WLSBA6]

Descriptors:  

colinus virginianus/ hunting/

 economic analysis/ federal programs/ Texas

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

139. The Conservation Reserve Program: A

wildlife conservation legacy.

Rude, Kathleen. and Wildlife

Management Institute.

Washington, D.C.: Wildlife

Management Institute, 1994. 15 p.: ill., map

Notes: Original title: "The Conservation Reserve

Program: A wildlife conservation legacy --- America needs the

Conservation Reserve Program";

"October, 1994."

NAL Call #:  S624.A1C67--1994

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Soil conservation---Government

policy---United States/ Wildlife conservation---United

States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

140. The Conservation Reserve Program and

grassland birds.

Johnson, D. H. and Schwartz, M.

D.

Conservation Biology

7 (4): 934-937. (1993)

NAL Call #:  

QH75.A1C5; ISSN: 0888-8892

Descriptors:  

Aves/ grasslands/ environmental

restoration/ habitat utilization/ government policy/ United States/

Birds

Abstract: Several bird species that breed in the

temperate grasslands of North America, many of which winter in the

Neotropics, declined in abundance during the past quarter century.

The Lark Bunting (see Table 1 for scientific names) and Grasshopper

Sparrow, as examples, declined by about half during that period, as

indexed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Breeding Bird

Survey. Populations of other grassland species have also diminished

steadily, if not as spectacularly. Why so many species declined is

not known, but continued conversion of perennial grassland to

annually tilled cropland is a suspected cause. A test of this

possibility is offered by the Conservation Reserve Program, a

program of the United States Department of Agriculture that caused

the reversion of millions of hectares of marginal cropland to

perennial grassland. We evaluated the use by breeding birds of

selected Program fields in eastern Montana, North Dakota, South

Dakota, and western Minnesota. These four states have about four

million hectares of land enrolled in the Program.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

141. The Conservation Reserve Program and

northern bobwhite population trends in Illinois.

Roseberry, J. L. and David, L.

M.

Transactions of the

Illinois State Academy of Science 87 (1-2): 61-70. (1994); ISSN: 0019-2252

Descriptors:  

Colinus virginianus/ population

status/ land use/ agricultural ecosystems/ Illinois/ Management/

Birds/ United States

Abstract: We examined 3 indexes of Northern

Bobwhite abundance in Illinois at various geographic scales to

determine possible relationships with the Conservation Reserve

Program. Over 256,000 ha were enrolled in the CRP during the first

9 signup periods (1986-1990). About 87% of this land was in CP-1

vegetation (introduced cool-season grasses and legumes). Male

bobwhite call counts in some parts of the state may have been

positively related to amounts of CRP land. However, there was no

strong evidence that autumn population densities increased as a

result of the program. Positive CRP effects on local bobwhite

habitat in some areas were probably offset by neutral or negative

effects in others. We discuss possible reasons why potential

benefits of the CRP for Northern Bobwhite have not been fully

realized.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

142. The Conservation Reserve Program and

wildlife habitat in the southeastern United States.

Carmichael, D. Breck

Jr.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 25 (4): 773-775.

(1997)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648

Descriptors:  

conservation programs/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ habitat management/ management/ wildlife/ North

America/  United States/ United States,

Southeastern

Abstract: The author provides a history of the

Conservation Reserve Program in the southeastern United States. A

recent cooperative study by the International Association of Fish

and Wildlife Agencies and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

conducted between 1988 and 1992 showed no significant, long-term

enhancement of habitat attributable to the CRP in the Southeast.

The author discusses reasons for this lack of success in this

region.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

143. Conservation Reserve Program: Benefit for

Grassland Birds in the Northern Plains.

Reynolds, R. E.; Shaffer, T. L.;

Sauer, J. R.; and Peterjohn, B. G.

Transactions of the 59th

North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference

: 328-336. (1994); ISSN: 0078-1355

Descriptors:  

birds/ conservation programs/

ducks/ grassland/ nests and nesting/ waterfowl/ abundance/ cover,

nesting/ policies and programs/ statistics/ North Dakota/ South

Dakota/ Conservation Reserve Program/ Upland Nesting/ Nest Success/

Waterfowl Production Areas/ Breeding Bird Surveys/ Population

Trends/ Grasslands/ North America/ United States/ North Dakota/

South Dakota/ northern plains

Abstract: The importance of the Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) to upland- nesting ducks and certain other

grassland-nesting birds was investigated. For ducks, nest success

in CRP cover was compared with nest success in planted cover on

waterfowl production areas in the same period (1992-93) and with

that of an earlier period (1980-84). For nonwaterfowl, North

American Breeding Bird Survey data were used to compare trends in

populations of certain species found in CRP, for the Periods

1966-86 (pre-CRP establishment) and 1987-92 (post-CRP cover

establishment) in North Dakota.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

144. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

contributions to avian habitat.

Allen, A. W.

In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Federal Aid Report, National Biological Survey; Fort Collins, CO:

National Ecology Research Center, 1994.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States

Abstract:  Discussed characteristics of CRP

contracts with greatest potential benefits, landscape planning, and

management recommendations.


145. The Conservation Reserve Program: Good for

birds of many feathers.

Kantrud, H. A.; Koford, R. R.;

Johnson, D. H.; and Schwartz, M. D.

North Dakota

Outdoors 56(2): 14-17.

(1993)

Descriptors:  

State conservation programs/ North

Dakota

Abstract: Examined avian species' use and

population trends on CRP land in North Dakota.

146. Conservation Reserve Program: Source or

sink habitat for grassland birds in Missouri?

McCoy, Timothy D.; Ryan, Mark

R.;

Kurzejeski, Eric W.; and Burger,

Loren W. Jr.

Journal of Wildlife

Management 63

(2): 530-538. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X.

Notes: Project Number: MO W-013-R

Descriptors:  

Fringillidae/ Passeriformes/

 Agelaius phoeniceus/ Ammodramus savannarum/ Carduelis

tristis/ Geothlypis trichas/ Spiza americana/ Spizella pusilla/

Sturnella magna/ behavior/ birds/ communities/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ ecosystems/ fecundity/ grasslands/ habitat management/

management/ nests/ nesting/ species diversity/ wildlife/ wildlife/

habitat relationships/ wild birds/ wildlife conservation/ federal

programs/ Missouri/ Natural Resources/ Land Development, Land

Reform, and Utilization (Macroeconomics)/ conservation programs/

grassland/ habitat/ reproduction/ nests and nesting/ statistics/

wildlife habitat relationships/ population dynamics/ grasshopper

sparrow/ field sparrow/ eastern meadowlark/ American goldfinch /

common yellowthroat/ dickcissel/ red winged blackbird/ North

America/ United States/ Missouri/ Missouri, Northcentral/ Knox

County/ Macon County/

Linn County

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

has been credited with contributing substantially to the

conservation of grassland birds. Although many species have nested

on grasslands established under the CRP, little evidence of

positive effect on populations has been reported. We measured

reproductive rates and estimated fecundity of 7 grassland bird

species in CRP fields in northern Missouri and compared those rates

to estimates of fecundity needed to maintain stable populations

(lambda = 1). Under conservative assumptions of survival CRP fields

seemingly were source habitats (fecundity exceeded levels necessary

for lambda = 1 for grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) and

field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) in at least 2 of 3 years, 1995 P

= 0.02, 1995 P < 0.001) and pooled over 3 years (Ps < 0.001).

Although evidence was less compelling CRP fields were likely source

habitat for eastern meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) and American

goldfinches (Carduelis tristis). For American goldfinches,

fecundity was greater than that necessary of lambda = 1 in 1995 (P

< 0.001), and pooled over 3 years (< 0.001). Our pooled

estimate of fecundity was greater than necessary for lambda = 1 for

eastern meadowlarks (Ps < 0.001), but only under a liberal

assumption of survival in 2 of 3 years (1993: P = 0.001; 1995: P =

0.088). Fecundity of common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas)

varied substantially; therefore, source-sink status alternated

among years, although the pooled estimate of fecundity was less

than required for lambda = 1 (P < 0.001). Dickcissel (Spiza

americana) fecundity was consistently less than necessary for

lambda = 1 (conservative survival assumption; all Ps < 0.001;

liberal survival assumption: 1994 P = 0.009, pooled P = 0.014). For

red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), CRP fields were

consistently a sink habitat (all Ps < 0.001). Based on our

evidence, the CRP likely has contributed to the conservation of

grasshopper sparrows, field sparrows, and eastern meadowlarks.

Although large numbers of dickcissels and red-winged blackbirds

nested in CRP fields, there is little evidence that the CRP has

contributed to populations of those species.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

147. Conserving biological diversity and the

Conservation Reserve Program.

Szentandrasi, S.; Polasky, S.;

Berrens, R.; and Leonard, J.

Growth Change 26 (3): 383-404. (1995)

NAL Call #:  

HT390.G74; ISSN: 0017-4815 [GRCHDH].

Notes: Published: Lexington, Ky., College of Business

and Economics, University of Kentucky; In the special issue:

Wilderness areas. Paper presented at the conference, "Wilderness

areas, regional planning, and the quality of life" held October 8,

1994.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

148. Le Conte's Sparrows Breeding in

Conservation Reserve Program Fields: Precipitation and Patterns of

Population Change.

Igl, L. D. and Johnson, D.

H.

In: Ecology and Conservation of

Grassland Birds of the Western Hemisphere/ Vickery, P. D. and

Herkert, J. R.; Series: Studies in Avian Biology 19,

1999;

pp. 178-186

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Regional conservation programs/ Great Plains

Abstract:  Discussed pattern of population

change in Le Conte's Sparrows associated with changes in

precipitation and moisture condition.

149. Contributions of the Conservation Reserve

Program to populations of breeding birds in North

Dakota.

Johnson, Douglas H and Igl,

Lawrence D

Wilson Bulletin

107 (4): 709-718. (1995)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 W692; ISSN: 0043-5643

Descriptors:  

Aves (Aves Unspecified)/ animals/

birds/ chordates/ nonhuman vertebrates/ vertebrates/ habitat/ North

American Breeding Bird Survey

Abstract: Previous studies have shown that habitat

provided by the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), a feature of

the 1985 farm bill. is used by many birds. The present study

quantitatively assesses the importance of the CRP by estimating

changes in breeding-bird populations of North Dakota projected if

CRP land would revert to cultivation. Of 18 species that were

common in CRP or crop fields or both, 12 were more abundant in CRP

habitats. Six of these species had suffered significant population

declines during 1967-1990. according to the North American Breeding

Bird Survey. In contrast, none of the six species that were more

common in cropland than in CRP fields had declined significantly.

Termination of the Conservation Reserve Program and a return of

enrolled land to cultivation is projected to cause population

declines in North Dakota exceeding 17% for Sedge Wren (Cistothorus

platensis), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Savannah

Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), Dickcissel (Spiza americana),

and Lark Bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys).

© Thomson


150. Cooperative Upland Wildlife Research.

Impacts of Farm Programs on Bobwhites: ACR and CRP Seedings as

Bobwhite Nesting and Brood-rearing Habitat.

Roseberry, J. L.

In: Illinois Department of

Conservation 1992. 29 pp.; Final Report, 1992.

Notes: Project Number: IL W-106-R/Job 4.1A/Study

4

Descriptors:  

Colinus virginianus/ bobwhite/

seeding/ habitat management for wildlife/ farms/ habitat/ nests and

nesting/ broods and brooding/ utilization/ cultivated farmland/

policies and programs/ transect survey/ vegetation/ cover, nesting/

population density/ North America/ United States/ Illinois/ Jasper

County

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


151. Cover quality of Conservation Reserve

Program grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

Haroldson, K.; Kimmel, R.; and

Riggs, M.

Gibier Faune Sauvage

15 (4): 501-516. (1998);

ISSN: 0761-9243.

Notes: Numero Special Tome 1

Descriptors:  

Phasianus colchicus (Phasianidae)/

Sturnella (Icteridae)/ Farming and agriculture/ Conservation

measures/ Conservation Reserve Programme/ Breeding site/ Grassland,

cover quality/ South central Minnesota/ Grassland cover quality/

Conservation Reserve Programme fields/ Birds/ Chordates/

Vertebrates

© Thomson

152. Cover Types Planted on Illinois CP-1 CRP

Fields.

David, L. M.; Warner, R. E.; and

Roseberry, J. L.

Gibson City, IL: Department of

Conservation, Div. Of Wildlife Resources; PB96138318XSP, 1992. 38

p.

Notes: Administrative Report. Prepared in cooperation

with Illinois Natural History Survey, Center for Wildlife Ecology,

Champaign, IL and Southern Illinois Univ. at Carbondale,

Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory; Sponsored by Fish and

Wildlife Restoration Program, Washington, DC

Descriptors:  

Illinois / Farmers/ Birds/

Habitats/ Tables Data/ Grasses/ Legumes/ Conservation Reserve

Program CRP/ Agriculture and food/ Agricultural equipment

facilities and operations/ Natural resources and earth sciences/

Natural resource management

Abstract:  Illinois farmers enrolled in the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) entered 87% of CRP acres in the

introduced grass and legume practice (CP-1). We determined

vegetative cover planted by farm operators on fields enrolled in

CP-1 by examining files at 87 USDA county offices in Illinois. In a

sample of 2,472 CP-1 fields from the first 9 enrollment periods,

orchard grass was the most commonly planted species; in all,

landowners planted 26 species of grasses and legumes on Illinois

CP-1 fields. Farmers seeded mixtures of smooth brome and alfalfa on

49% (106,609 acres) in the Illinois range of the ring-necked

pheasant. We judge 204,820 acres (95% of CP-1) in the pheasant

range to be suitable pheasant nest cover if unmowed. Farm operators

planted mixtures containing Korean lespedeza on 138,944 acres (30%)

of CP-1 in the range of the northern bobwhite; bobwhite range

farmers planted 95,579 acres (21%) with tall fescue. We judge

240,568 acres (52%) in the quail range to be suitable bobwhite nest

cover for a limited time if unmowed. We provide recommendations for

CRP cover management for pheasant and bobwhite habitat.

153. CRP land and game bird production in the

Texas High Plains.

Berthelsen, P. S.; Smith, L. M.;

and Coffman, C. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 44 (5):

504-507. (1989)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

agricultural practices/ game

management/ Aves/ Texas / government policy/ conservation/

Conservation/ Birds/ Management/ United States

Abstract: Soil Conservation Service personnel were

surveyed about the land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) in the Southern High Plains of Texas (71 counties,

903,215 ha). Information included type of cover established, land

enrolled, establishment success, and cost of establishment for five

conservation practices (CP1, 2, 4, 10, 12). Land in permanent

introduced grasses (CP1) and permanent native grasses (CP2)

accounted for 98% of the total CRP land. Establishment costs for

the most common cover types averaged $142.90/ha ($57.85/acre).

Establishment success was 87%. Ring-necked pheasant and waterfowl

production in a four-county area was estimated on selected CRP

grass combinations (blue grama /side-oats grama mixtures, blue

grama/Kleingrass mixtures, and blue grama/old world bluestem

mixtures) using 1988 nesting information and land enrollment

figures. Estimated pheasant production was 174,204 chicks/year.

Water-fowl production was estimated at 1,426

ducklings/year.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

154. CRP, succession, and Brewer's sparrows:

Advantages of a long-term, federal land retirement

program.

Igl, Lawrence D. and Murphy, Lisa

A.

South Dakota Bird

Notes 48 (3): 69-70.

(1996);

ISSN: 0038-3252

Descriptors:  

Fringillidae/ Passeriformes/

 Spizella breweri/ behavior/ birds/ breeding/ conservation

programs/ Conservation Reserve Program/ distribution/ ecosystems/

grasslands/ habitat use/ home range/ territory/ range extension/

succession/ vocalization/ Brewer's sparrow/ artemisa/ Artemisia

spp/ North America/ United States/ South Dakota: Butte

County

Abstract: Brewer's sparrows have extended their

breeding range to the grasslands created by the Conservation

Reserve Program in Butte County, South Dakota. These grasslands

provide habitat for sagebrush nesting and other shrubland bird

species.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

155. The CRP & wildlife habitat.

Bucklin, R.

Agricultural Outlook

[AO] (162): 30-31. (Apr.

1990)

NAL Call #:  

aHD1751.A42; ISSN: 0099-1066

Descriptors:  

wildlife/ habitats/ land

management/ farm surveys/ farm income/ United States/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ farm costs and returns surveys

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

156. Declining survival of ring-necked pheasant

chicks in Illinois during the late 1900s.

Warner, Richard E.; Mankin, Philip

C.; David, Larry M.; and Etter, Stanley L.

Journal of Wildlife

Management 63

(2): 705-710. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X.

Notes: Project Number: IL W-103-R

Descriptors:  

Galliformes/ Phasianidae/ Phasianus

colchicus/ agricultural practices/ behavior/ birds/ broods/

brooding/ census/ survey methods/ Conservation Reserve Program/

ecosystems/ fledglings/ habitat alterations/ habitat management/

land use/ management/ physiology/ survival/ transect surveys/

wildlife/ pheasant, ring necked/ cultivated farmland/ broods and

brooding/  transect survey/ statistics/ wildlife habitat

relationships/ changes detrimental to wildlife/ common pheasant/

juvenile/ conservation/ mortality/ agriculture/ ring necked

pheasant/ North America/ United States/ Ford County/

Illinois

Abstract: Previous studies indicated that survival

of ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) chicks during the

first 6 weeks of life declined from the early 1950s through early

1980s in Illinois with the expansion of corn and soybean production

and associated clean farming practices. From the early 1980s

through mid-1990s intensive row-crop production was moderated by

farm programs such as the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and

annual set-aside, which diverted millions of hectares of cropland

from production. We evaluated the survival of pheasant chicks in

Illinois in relation to these recent land-use practices.

Specifically, our objectives were to determine if there were

changes in chick survival during the 1980s and 1990s, and if there

were regional differences in chick survival related to land-use

practices. We observed 574 broods along transect road routes on the

Sibley Study Area (SSA) in eastcentral Illinois, and 964 broods on

routes throughout the pheasant range in Illinois. In spite of the

increase in potential brood habitat on set-aside farmland, chick

survival remained low from 1982 to 1996. For example, there was a

5-fold increase in the amount of forage legumes and small grains on

the SSA from 1987-91 compared to 1975-81, with the average number

of chicks per brood at 4.3 (1987-91) and 4.2 (1975-81). For survey

routes throughout the Illinois pheasant range, the number of grassy

fields (primarily narrow, linear tracts) in 1990 was positively

correlated (r~2~ = 0.15 P < 0.02, n = 37) with chicks per brood,

but this relation explained only 15% of the variation. The lack of

improvement in chick survival in recent decades relates to the

pervasive clean farming practices in the Illinois pheasant range.

Moreover, most of the set-aside land in the Illinois pheasant range

was under annual contract and seeded late to monotypic oats, which

is cover of marginal value to foraging pheasant chicks.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

157. Density and fledgling success of grassland

birds in Conservation Reserve Program fields in North Dakota and

west-central Minnesota.

Koford, R. R.

Studies in Avian Biology

19: 187-195. (1999)

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Minnesota/ North Dakota

Abstract: Studied how CRP field habitat influences

grassland bird density and fledgling success.

158. Do artificial nests reveal meaningful

patterns of predation in Kansas grasslands?

Robel, R. J.; Hughes, J. P.;

Keane, T. D.; and Kemp, K. E.

Southwestern

Naturalist 48 (3): 460-464.

(2003)

NAL Call #:  

409.6 So8; ISSN: 0038-4909.

Notes: Number of References: 37; Publisher:

Southwestern Assn Naturalists

Descriptors:  

Environment/ Ecology/ duck nests/

success/ prairie/ fragmentation/ dickcissels/ habitats/ cropland/

density/ birds/ Iowa

Abstract: We determined the fates of artificial and

natural bird nests in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields in

northeastern Kansas from mid May through early August 1994. The CRP

fields had been planted to native grasses in 1988 or 1989.

Artificial nests contained Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) or

house sparrow (Passer domesticus) eggs in nest baskets in

bunchgrass clumps to simulate nests of dickcissels (Spiza

americana), the most common avian species nesting in the CRP

fields. Natural dickcissel nests were found by rope dragging and

intensive searches of the CRP fields. Losses among 562 artificial

nests did not differ by egg type; however, the 9.8% loss of

artificial nests was significantly lower than the 70.1% loss-level

among 97 natural dickcissel nests in those CRP fields. The daily

survival rate for artificial nests was 0.99, significantly more

than the 0.92 for natural dickcissel nests. An assessment of nest

depredation based on data from artificial nests might not be

representative of depredation on natural nests in

grasslands.

© Thomson ISI

159. Does habitat fragmentation influence nest

predation in the shortgrass prairie?

Howard MN; Skagen SK; and Kennedy

PL

Condor 103 (3): 530-536; 41 ref. (2001)

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

160. Duck nesting success on Conservation

Reserve Program land in the prairie pothole region.

Kantrud, H. A.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 48 (3):

238-242. (1993)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Regional conservation programs/ Prairie Pothole region

Abstract: Studied duck nesting success in Waterfowl

Production Areas and CRP tracts.

161. The dynamics of nongame bird breeding

ecology in Iowa alfalfa fields.

Frawley, B. J.

Ames, IA: Iowa State University,

1989.

Notes: M.S. Thesis

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Iowa

Abstract:  Nesting, abundance, and density of

nongame birds in Iowa alfalfa fields were addressed and linked to

CRP.

162. Eastern meadowlarks nesting in rangelands

and Conservation Reserve Program fields in Kansas.

Granfors, D. A.; Church, K. E.;

and Smith, L. M.

Journal of Field

Ornithology 67 (2): 222-235.

(1996)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 B534; ISSN: 0273-8570

Descriptors:  

Sturnella magna/ nests/ site

selection/ rangelands / old fields/ ecosystem management/ Kansas/

Birds/ United States

Abstract: Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna)

nesting habitat was studied to make management recommendations for

fields enrolled in a federal land retirement program. We compared

available microhabitat, nest-site selection, and nest success on

rangelands and Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields in eastern

Kansas. Daily nest survival rates and numbers fledged per female

did not differ significantly between land-use types, but the power

of these tests was low. Predation was the primary source of nest

failure throughout incubation, hatching, and nestling stages;

abandonment, trampling, inviability, and unknown causes also were

important during incubation. Mowing CRP fields was a source of nest

failure and also induced adults to abandon some fields. CRP fields

had a significantly higher percent, depth, and density of litter

cover; a taller herbaceous canopy; less herbaceous cover; and more

standing dead cover than rangelands. Differences in habitat

structure indicate that CRP has increased the diversity of

available nesting habitats. Eastern Meadowlarks selected nest sites

with significantly greater litter cover, higher proportion of

grass, more uncompacted litter, and more structural homogeneity

than available on random plots. Delay of mowing and prescribed

burning are recommended to enhance and maintain habitat suitability

for nesting Eastern Meadowlarks in CRP fields.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

163. Ecological impacts of federal Conservation

and Cropland Reduction Programs.

Abernathy, J. R.

Ames, IA: Council for Agricultural

Science and Technology (CAST); Task Force Report

Number 117, 1990.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States

Abstract:  Summarized history of agricultural

overproduction in the U.S. and recommended CRP changes related to

overproduction. [Addresses the ecological implications of several

programs established in the 1985 Food Security Act, including the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), Sodbuster, Swampbuster,

Conservation Compliance, and Acreage Reduction Program (ARP): from

publisher.]

164. Ecological impacts of federal conservation

and cropland reduction programs: Summary.

Council for Agricultural Science

and Technology.

Ames, Iowa: Council for

Agricultural Science and Technology; 8 p.: ill.: 1990.

 

Notes: Cover title. "September 1990." Includes

bibliographical references (p. 8).

NAL Call #:  S441.C771-1990

Descriptors:  

Agricultural ecology---United

States/ Agriculture and state---Environmental aspects---United

States/ Agricultural conservation---Government

policy---Environmental aspects---United States/ Environmental

policy---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


165. Effects of agriculture on raptors in the

western USA: An overview.

Young, L S.

In: Proceedings of the Western

Raptor Management Symposium and Workshop. (Held 26 Oct 1987-28 Oct 1987 at Boise, Idaho,

USA.)

Pendleton, B. G. (ed.)

Washington, D.C.: National

Wildlife Federation;

pp. 209-218; 1989.

Notes: ISSN: 1044-4971; Institute for Wildlife

Research, National Wildlife Federation, Scientific and Technical

Series No. 12; XI+317P

Descriptors:  

prey density/ foraging/

environmental disturbances/ habitat preservation/ enhancement/

conservation programs/ education/ Farm Bill/ Animals/ Birds/

Chordates/ Nonhuman Vertebrates/ Vertebrates/ Conservation Resource

Management/ Agronomy

© Thomson

166. Effects of Burning and Discing

Conservation Reserve Program Fields to Improve Habitat Quality for

Northern Bobwhite (Colinus Virginianus).

Greenfield, KC; Chamberlain, MJ;

Burger, LW; and Kurzejeski, EW

American Midland

Naturalist 149 (2):

344-353. (Apr. 2003)

NAL Call #:  

410 M58; ISSN: 0003-0031

Descriptors:  

Vegetation/ Wildlife

Abstract: Since 1985 considerable expanses of

highly erodible cropland have been enrolled in the Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP). Areas enrolled in CRP provide wildlife

habitat; however, habitat quality and specific resources on these

sites vary in relation to seasonal biological processes of target

wildlife species, planted cover and vegetation succession.

Throughout the southeastern United States habitat quality for early

successional species, such as northern bobwhite (Colinus

virginianus), may decline as CRP grasslands age. Although

disturbance may enhance and maintain habitat quality for bobwhite,

concerns regarding perceived conflicts between wildlife habitat and

soil erosion objectives of the CRP persist. During 1995 and 1996 we

evaluated effects of strip- discing or prescribed burning on

vegetation structure and composition and soil erosion in fescue

(Festuca arundiacea) dominated CRP fields in Mississippi. Fall

discing generally increased percentage bare ground and plant

diversity and decreased percentage litter cover and litter depth.

Fall discing enhanced bobwhite habitat quality, but responses

diminished by the second growing season post treatment. Burning

increased plant diversity and improved quality of habitat for

bobwhite. Soil loss for all treatments was within United States

Department of Agriculture tolerable limits. Discing or burning

intensity on CRP fields could be increased without compromising

soil erosion provisions of CRP.

© Thomson ISI

167. Effects of cattle grazing and haying on

wildlife conservation at National Wildlife Refuges in the United

States.

Strassmann, B. I.

Environmental

Management 11 (1):

35-44. ( 1987)

NAL Call #:  

HC79.E5E5

Descriptors:  

Domestic livestock/ environmental

impact/ wildlife conservation

Abstract: Examined the effects of cattle grazing

and haying on vegetative ecology and its correlation with wildlife

conservation efforts.

168. Effects of Conservation Reserve Program

field age on avian relative abundance, diversity, and

productivity.

Millenbah, K. F.; Winterstein, S.

R.; Campa, H.; Furrow, L. T.; and Minnis, R. B.

Wilson Bulletin

108 (4): 760-770. (1996)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 W692; ISSN: 0043-5643

Descriptors:  

Aves/ species richness/ abundance/

productivity/ fields/ age/ Michigan/ Birds/ United

States

Abstract: Introduced grass dominated Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) fields were monitored in summer 1992 in

Gratiot County, Michigan, to determine the relationship between

field age and avian relative abundance, diversity, and

productivity. Younger CRP fields (1-2 years old), best described as

a combination of forbs and bare ground, had the greatest diversity

and relative abundance of avian species. Older CRP fields (3-5/6

years old) were a combination of grasses and deep litter cover and

had the greatest avian productivity. We recommend that after 3-5

growing seasons CRP fields be manipulated to provide a variety of

successional stages to maintain simultaneously high avian relative

abundance, diversity, and productivity.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

169. Effects of Conservation Reserve Program

seeding regime on harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex), with implications

for the threatened Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma

cornutum).

McIntyre, N. E.

Southwestern

Naturalist 48 (2): 274-277.

(2003)

NAL Call #:  

409.6 So8; ISSN: 0038-4909.

Notes: Publisher: Southwestern Assn Naturalists;

Number of References: 25

Descriptors:  

Environment/ Ecology/ fire ants/

hymenoptera/ formicidae/ grassland/ birds

Abstract: I compared the presence and abundance of

nest-sites made by harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex), the primary prey

for the endangered Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum), among

restored grassland plots planted in different grass species and

indigenous prairie. The restored plots had been seeded as part of

the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) as exotic monocultures of

either Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum) or weeping

lovegrass (Eragrostis curvula), or as mixtures of native grasses

(both with and without buffalograss, Buchloe dactyloides). On

average, the fewest ant mounds were found on Old World bluestem

plots, whereas the indigenous grassland had the highest density of

harvester ant mounds. However, there were no significant

differences between native and exotic CRP plantings. Results

obtained from a simultaneous visual survey for Texas horned lizards

corroborate these findings. Thus, there is no evidence that CRP

plots planted in exotic grasses are significantly poorer habitat

for Texas horned lizards in terms of ant abundance than native

grass plantings.

© Thomson ISI

170. Effects of CRP field age and cover type on

ring-necked pheasants in eastern South Dakota.

Eggebo, S. L.; Higgins, K. F.;

Naugle, D. E.; and Quamen, F. R.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 31 (3): 779-785.

(2003)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648.

Notes: Number of References: 32;

Publisher: Wildlife

Society

Descriptors:  

Environment/ Ecology/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ cool season/ cover/ CRP/ habitat/ Phasianus

colchicus/ ring necked pheasant/ South Dakota/ warm season/

Conservation Reserve Program/ grassland bird conservation/

vegetation/ populations/ abundance/ models

Abstract: Loss of native grasslands to tillage has

increased the importance of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

grasslands to maintain ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

populations. Despite the importance of CRP to pheasants, little is

known about the effects of CRP field age and cover type on pheasant

abundance and productivity in the northern Great Plains. Therefore,

we assessed effects of these characteristics on pheasant use of CRP

fields. We stratified CRP grasslands (n=42) by CRP stand age (old

[10-13 yrs] vs. new [1-3 yrs] grasslands) and cover type (CP1

[cool-season grasslands] vs. CP2 [warm-season grasslands]) in

eastern South Dakota and used crowing counts and roadside brood

counts to index ring-necked pheasant abundance and productivity.

Field-age and cover-type effects on pheasant abundance and

productivity were largely the result of differences in vegetation

structure among fields. More crowing pheasants were recorded in old

cool-season CRP fields than any other age or cover type, and more

broods were recorded in cool- than warm-season CRP fields.

Extending existing CRP contracts another 5-10 years would provide

the time necessary for new fields to acquire the vegetative

structure used most by pheasants without a gap in habitat

availability. Cool-season grass-legume mixtures (CP1) that support

higher pheasant productivity should be given equal or higher

ratings than warm-season (CP2) grass stands. We also recommend that

United States Department of Agriculture administrators and field

staff provide broader and more flexible guidelines on what seed

mixtures can be used in CRP grassland plantings in the northern

Great Plains. This would allow landowners and natural resource

professionals who manage pheasant habitat to plant a mosaic of

cool- and warm-season CRP grassland habitats.

© Thomson ISI

171. Effects of Different Age Classes of Fields

Enrolled in The Conservation Reserve Program in Michigan On Avian

Diversity, Density, and Productivity.

Millenbah, Kelly

Francine

East Lansing, MI: Michigan State

University, 1994.

Notes: Degree: MS; Advisor: Winterstein, Scott R.;

ISSN: 0898-9095

Descriptors:  

Agriculture, Forestry and Wildlife/

Biology/ Ecology/ bird communities/ wildlife density/ agricultural

conservation/ landowners

Abstract:  Agricultural landowners have

enrolled lands in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) for

wildlife and economic benefits. Avian communities and vegetative

characteristics were examined on 6 age classes (1-6 growing

seasons) of CRP fields in Gratiot County, Michigan in 1991 and 1992

to determine the relationships between field age and

characteristics of avian communities. Younger CRP fields (1-3

growing seasons), characterized by forbs and bare ground, supported

greater avian densities and diversities than older fields (4-6

growing seasons). Older CRP fields, characterized by grasses and

high litter cover, supported greater avian productivity. Results

indicate that grassland birds in Michigan may require a diversity

of age classes of CRP fields in agricultural landscapes to meet

their habitat requirements. Continued enrollment of lands into the

program and periodic manipulation of these lands, will create a

mosaic of grassland successional stages important to a diversity of

avian species.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


172. Effects of emergency haying on duck

nesting in Conservation Reserve Program fields, South

Dakota.

Luttschwager, K. A.; Higgins, K.

F.; and Jenks, J. A.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 22 (3): 403-408.

(Fall 1994)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648 [WLSBA6]

Descriptors:  

Anas/ nesting/ reproduction/

population density/ habitats/ grasslands/ federal programs/ private

ownership/ South Dakota/ nesting success/ private land

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

173. Effects of habitat manipulations on Texas

horned lizards and their prey.

Fair, W. Scott and Henke, Scott

E.

Journal of Wildlife

Management 61 (4):

1366-1370 . ( 1997)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X

Descriptors:  

Phrynosoma cornutum/ amphibians/

reptiles/ ants/ Conservation Reserve Program/ fires/ burns/ foods/

feeding/ habitat alterations/ habitat use/ livestock/ Texas horned

lizard/ North America/ United States/ Texas/ Duval

County

Abstract: The effects of habitat manipulations on

Texas horned lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum) and their main prey,

harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex spp.) were studied in South Texas. The

relative abundance of lizards, their scat, and active harvester ant

mounds was assessed on 1-ha plots that were manipulated with either

prescribed burning, disking, burning and disking combination,

grazing, or land in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). We

determined differential habitat use or avoidance using Chi-square

analysis and Bonferroni Z-statistics to control the experiment-wise

error probability at 10%. Lizards used burned plots

disproportionately more, were neutral in their use of the disked

and grazed plots, and under-utilized the burned and disked

combination and CRP plots. Analysis of scat led to similar

conclusions in relation to burned, grazed, and CRP plots, but scats

were distributed on combination plots pro rata to availability and

were underrepresented on the disked plots. No difference was

detected in the relative abundance of active ant mounds among the 5

land management practices. Even though Texas horned lizards

preferentially used areas that were recently burned, the process of

burning may harm them due to the shallow depths in which they

hibernate.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


174. Effects of habitat on dickcissel abundance

and nest success in Conservation Reserve Program fields in

Kansas.

Hughes, John P.; Robel, Robert J.;

Kemp, Kenneth E.; and Zimmerman, John L.

Journal of Wildlife

Management 63

(2): 523-529. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X

Descriptors:  

Fringillidae/ Passeriformes/

 Spiza americana/ behavior/ birds/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ ecosystems/ edge habitat/ farmland/ habitat management/

habitat use/ management/ nesting sites/ nests/ nesting/

productivity/ wildlife/ wildlife/ habitat relationships/ wild

birds/ reproduction/ federal programs/ wildlife conservation/

Kansas/ spiza americana/ species abundance/ Natural Resources/ Land

Development, Land Reform, and Utilization (Macroeconomics)/

dickcissel/ North America/

United States/ Kansas: Riley

County

Abstract: Declining avian populations in the

Midwest have increased interest in various aspects of grassland

habitats and their effects on grassland birds. We studied the

effects of vegetation characteristics, woody field edges and

surrounding land use on abundance and daily nest survival of the

dickcissel (Spiza americana) in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

fields in the northeastern Kansas. We observed 873 dickcissels

during surveys on 11 CRP fields during the summers of 1994 and

1995. In those fields, we located 186 dickcissel nests of which

13.2% were successful in 1994 and 14.9% were successful in 1995.

The vertical density of vegetation in CRP fields, wooded area

surrounding the fields, and amount of woody edge bordering fields

were associated with dickcissel abundance (P = 0.001). Live and

dead canopy cover and litter cover were associated with daily nest

survival (P = 0.005). Therefore, the habitat quality of CRP fields

for dickcissels might be enhanced by modifying vegetation

characteristics. The outcome of any modifications of CRP habitat

for dickcissels should be judged on changes in the number and

success of their nests rather than on the abundance of

birds.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

175. Effects of Landscape Composition and

Multi-Scale Habitat Characteristics on the Grassland Bird

Community.

McCoy, T. D.

Columbia, MO: Univ. of

Missouri-Columbia, 2000.

Notes: Ph.D. Dissert.; Project Number: MO W0-013-R-54/Job 1/Study

43

Descriptors:  

habitat/ modeling/ grassland/

birds/ communities/ wildlife habitat relationships/ species

diversity/ conservation programs/ nests and nesting/ abundance/

sparrows/ reproduction/ statistics/ meadowlarks, blackbirds and

orioles/ population density/ vegetation/ North America/ United

States/ Missouri/ North central region/ Adair County/ Know County/

Linn County/ Macon County/ Shelby County

Abstract:  Measures of grassland bird

demography on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields were

compared and modeled at several spatial scales to identify habitat

factors associated with increased conservation value for grassland

birds. Grassland bird populations and species richness were

compared between fields located in landscapes with different

amounts of CRP habitat and total grassland. Multi-scale habitat

models were developed from and validated on two independent data

sets to identify the primary habitat features that could predict

the potential value of CRP and other idle grasslands for grassland

bird conservation.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

176. Effects of livestock grazing on

neotropical migratory landbirds in western North

America.

Bock, C. E.; Sabb, V. A.; Rich, T.

D.; and Dobkin, D. S.

In: Status and management of

neotropical migratory birds. (Held 21 Sep 1992-25 Sep 1992 at Estes Park,

Colorado.) Finch, D. M. and Stangel, P. W. (eds.)

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U.S. Dept. of

Agriculture; pp. 263-309; 1993.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Regional conservation programs

Abstract:  Examined the idea that moderate

haying/grazing of CRP coupled with livestock enclosures on public

land could enhance the value of public rangelands for

wildlife.

177. Effects of mammalian predator removal on

waterfowl and non-game birds in North Dakota.

Garrettson, P. R.; Rohwer, F. C.;

Zimmer, J. M.; Mense, B. J.; and Dion, N.

Transactions of the North

American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference 61: 94-101. (1996); ISSN: 0078-1355.

Notes: Conference: 61st North American Wildlife and

Natural Resources Conference: Facing Realities in Resource

Management, Tulsa, OK, 22-27 Mar 1996

Descriptors:  

Aquatic birds/ Predator control/

Environmental impact/ Nesting/ Bird eggs/ Nature conservation/

Habitat improvement (physical)/ Breeding sites/ Environment

management/ Aves/ North America/ Species interactions: general/

Conservation, wildlife management and recreation/ Freshwater/

Brackish water/ Marine environment

Abstract: Waterfowl managers have long been

concerned about low nest success on the North American prairies. A

review of duck nesting success shows that, despite great variation

between studies, there is a dramatic pattern of decline in nest

success in the past 50 years (Beauchamp et al. 1996). The linear

regression of success versus year shows that hatching rates dropped

from 33 percent in 1935 to only 10-percent nest success in 1992.

Low nest success, which reflects high nest predation, is viewed as

the most significant limitation on waterfowl productivity in the

prairies. Most of the management effort under the North American

Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) in the prairie region of the

United States and Canada is an attempt to elevate nest success for

upland-nesting ducks. Compounding habitat degradation is a major

shift in numbers types of nest predator on the prairies.

Extirpation of wolves (Canis lupus) and reduction of coyotes (Canis

latrans) has allowed medium-sized predators, such as red fox

(Vulpes vulpes), skunk (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoon (Procyon

lotor); to flourish. Raccoons are a recent arrival to much of the

prairies, though they now are abundant and the dominant nest

predator for many prairie ducks. Abundance of medium-sized mammals

and scarcity of nesting cover has been a very detrimental

combination for breeding ducks. Most a tempts to increase duck

nesting success have focused on ways to make nests less accessible

to predators. Dense nesting cover has been the dominant management

on United States Waterfowl Production Areas (WPA) and on NAWMP

areas in Canada, yet this strategy typically has improved nest

success by only a few percentage points, with highly variable

results. Improved nest success associated with the Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) suggests that landscape-level additions of

nesting cover improve recruitment, but habitat improvement on this

scale is not economically feasible for wildlife groups. Intensive

management efforts to make nests inaccessible, such as construction

of islands and predator barrier fences, can increase nest success,

but costs are high.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

178. Effects of supplemental prey, vegetation,

and time on success of artificial nests.

Vander, Lee Bruce a; Lutz, R

Scott; Hansen, Leslie A; and Mathews, Nancy E

Journal of Wildlife

Management 63

(4): 1299-1305. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X.

Notes: methods and equipment: artificial-nests;

predation-; supplemental-prey; vegetation-density;

Conservation-Reserve-Program

Abstract: Despite intensive management on many

grassland areas, nest loss to predators continues to result in low

nest-survival rates. Management efforts are complicated by complex

relationships among habitat, predators, and prey resources. We

monitored the fates of artificial nests (908 in 1993, 827 in 1994)

on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plots from April to July to

test effects of prey supplementation, vegetation density, and time

(month) on nest survival in agricultural and range landscapes in

northwest Texas. Supplemental prey had the greatest effect on

artificial nest survival and increased nest survival in both sparse

and dense vegetation. Prey supplementation may be useful when used

in conjunction with habitat management for dense nesting cover or

in areas that already have dense vegetation. Nest survival was

highest early in the nesting season, emphasizing the importance of

available nesting cover during this period. Although least

important, dense vegetation increased artificial nest survival.

When evaluating management options, managers should consider

logistical and economic costs of using supplemental prey, as well

as potential effects on predator population dynamics.

© Thomson

179. Effects of the Conservation Reserve

Program on selected wildlife populations in southeast

Nebraska.

King, Justin W.

Lincoln, NE: University of

Nebraska, 1991.

Notes: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Nebraska,

Lincoln--Forestry, Fisheries, and Wildlife, 1991. Includes

bibliographical references.

NAL Call #:  NBU LD3656-1991-K564

Descriptors:  

Wildlife conservation---Nebraska/

Wildlife management---Nebraska/ Conservation of natural

resources---Nebraska

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

180. Effects of the Conservation Reserve

Program On Wildlife Habitat in The Great Plains.

Baker, Bryan Douglas University of

Minnesota, 1992.

Notes: Degree: PhD; Advisor: Gersmehl, Philip J.;

Cited in: DAI-A 52(08): p. 3026, February 1992; Volumes I and

II.

Descriptors:  

Geography/ Agriculture, Forestry

& Wildlife/ birds/ climate/ behavior conservation/ predators/

erosion/ wildlife/ conservation practices/ agricultural practices/

South Dakota/ Nebraska/ Kansas/ Texas

Abstract:  The Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP), a ten-year federal agricultural land retirement program,

returned several million acres of the Great Plains to grass by

1989. Improvement of wildlife habitat was a secondary but important

rationale for the program. Enrollments are concentrated in the

southern High Plains and the northern glaciated Plains. CRP fields

increase in size from east to west, with many counties exceeding

320 acres for mean contract size. A study of Plains land use,

soils, geology, and climate helped construct a list of expected

effects of the CRP on the mammals and breeding birds. The list was

revised based on comments from Plains biologists. Most of the

species on the Plains depend on woodlands, wetlands, or other cover

the CRP does not provide. Some species that use grassland or

agricultural land will gain habitat, mainly for nesting.

Nine-section study areas in six Plains counties detailed land cover

changes associated with the CRP. Most areas have seen a net

increase in cropland since the late 1960s despite the CRP

retirements. In some counties, especially far western ones, CRP

land is in larger blocks, isolated from woodland and shrubs. These

areas favor small to medium sized grassland birds and mammals. CRP

parcels in other counties, especially to the east, are

well-interspersed with other cover. Mosaic species using grassland,

cropland and woodland should benefit there. These include bobwhite

quail, white-tailed deer, and some predators. A dynamic programming

model was developed to help investigate the effects of landscape

pattern on animal behavior and survival. A preliminary version

calculated winter survival of bobwhite quail. Small demonstration

areas selected from the study areas suggested that the

configuration of CRP fields could be improved to maximize wildlife

benefits. Many of the wildlife benefits of the CRP could vanish

after the program expires if farmers return CRP fields to cropland.

Other long-term alternatives could prove less costly. Limited

federal buy-outs of erosion-prone land may be feasible, especially

in expansion of National Grassland. Easements, purchase of

cultivation rights, and subsidies for alternative agricultural

practices are other tools for encouraging long-term conservation on

the Great Plains.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

181. Effects of the Conservation Reserve

Program on wildlife in southeast Nebraska.

King, J. W. and Savidge, J.

A.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 23 (3): 377-385.

(Fall 1995)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648 [WLSBA6]

Descriptors:  

wild birds/ species diversity/

population density/ seasonal variation/ agricultural land/ federal

programs/ wildlife conservation

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

182. The effects of the Conservation Reserve

Program on wildlife in southeastern Wyoming.

Wachob, Douglas Glenn.

University of Wyoming,

1997.

Notes: Degree: PhD; October 1997; Cited: DAI-B 58(04):

p. 1651, October 1997; ISBN: 0-591-39611-4

Descriptors:  

Biology, Ecology/ Agriculture,

Forestry & Wildlife/ Urban & Regional Planning/ alfalfa/

aves

Abstract:  The primary objective of this study

was to identify the vegetation and spatial characteristics of CRP

that influence habitat use by non-game birds, small rodents,

sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), raptors,

carnivores, and big game in a CRP/agricultural landscape. The study

was conducted in Laramie, Platte, and Goshen counties in

southeastern Wyoming, during 1993-5. The study area was dominated

by intensively grazed native range land and winter wheat (Triticum

sp.); CRP comprised 15% of the study area. Non-game bird use was

higher in CRP with an alfalfa component, compared to CRP without

alfalfa in 1994, but not in 1993. Fine scale selection by birds for

specific vegetation structure was detected in 1994 but not in 1993.

Bird use of CRP was independent of the spatial characteristics of

CRP patches. Small mammal use of CRP and range lands was higher

than winter wheat lands. Vegetation species richness, vegetation

height, standard deviation of vegetation cover, and patch area were

significant predictors of small mammal use of CRP patches. This

small mammal community selected habitat at the landscape and patch

scale but not at the intrapatch scale. I investigated use of CRP

lands by sharp-tailed grouse during nesting and brood-rearing

seasons. All nests were located in CRP. Hens selected nest sites in

larger CRP patches. Hens with broods used CRP and irrigated alfalfa

patches more often and wheat and rangeland patches less often than

they were available. Hens with broods used CRP patches with high

coverage of broad leafed weeds and annual grasses more often and

patches without alfalfa less often than these patch types were

available. I found that CRP was the vital reproduction habitat for

sharp-tailed grouse in southeastern Wyoming. Sharp-tailed grouse

dancing grounds (leks) were located closer to CRP and had greater

coverage of CRP within 1 km, compared with the entire study area. I

also found that CRP patch size, percent cover of CRP, and CRP patch

number predicted the number of leks and the number of males at

leks, at a scale of 100 km$/sp2$. I investigated the spatial

relationship of CRP fields to bird and mammal species richness

using computer simulations. I used observations of 28 common

species as model input data. Computer simulations of a hypothetical

landscape showed that species richness increased rapidly as CRP

coverage increased from 0-15%, and less rapidly as CRP coverage

increased from 15-50%.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

183. Effects of the CRP on wildlife habitat:

Emergency haying in the Midwest and pine plantings in the

Southeast.

Hays, R. L. and Farmer, A.

H.

Transactions of the North

American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference (55th): 30-39. maps. (1990)

NAL Call #:  

412.9-N814; ISSN: 0078-1355 [NAWTA]

Descriptors:  

afforestation/ farmland/ forest

plantations/ haymaking/ nature reserves/ pinus/ planting/

remuneration/ colinus virginianus/ southeastern states of USA/

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

184. Effects of the U.S. Conservation Reserve

Program on Landscape Structure in Southwest Kansas.

Egbert, S. L.; Park, S.; Peterson,

D.; Stewart, A. M.; and Price, K. P.

In: 133rd Annual Meeting of the

Kansas Academy of Science. (Held 6 Apr 2001-7 Apr 2001 at Lawrence. KS

(USA).); 2001.

Notes: Conference Sponsor: Kansas Academy of Science;

World Meeting Number 000-5622

Descriptors:  

Multidisciplinary

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

185. Effects of Thinning CRP Pine Stands on

Nesting Songbirds in Georgia.

Schaefbauer, M. K. and Schweitzer,

S. H.

In: 7th Annual Conference of the

Wildlife Society. (Held 12 Sep 2000-16 Sep 2000 at Nashville, TN

(USA).); 2000.

Notes: Conference Sponsor: The Wildlife Society; World

Meeting Number 003 0833

Descriptors:  

Biology

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

186. Effects of two haying provisions on duck

nesting in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields in South

Dakota.

Luttschwager, K. A.

Brookings, SD: South Dakota State

University, 1991.

Notes: M.S. Thesis

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ South Dakota

Abstract:  Evaluated the effects of emergency

haying on duck nesting success in CRP fields.

187. Environmental Quality Incentives Program:

Program summary and potential for wildlife benefits.

Esser, A.; Molleur, R.; Buck, P.;

and Rewa, C.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: U.S. Department of

Agriculture, 2000; pp. 125-134

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Environmental Quality Incentives

Program/ conservation/ conservation buffers/ farming systems/

nutrient management/ erosion control / wildlife

management


188. Evaluating potential effects of CRP on

bobwhite quail in Piedmont Virginia.

Stauffer, Dean F.; Cline, Gerald

A.; and Tonkovich, Michael J.

North American Wildlife and

Natural Resources Conference, Transactions 55: 57-67. (1990);

ISSN: 0078-1355.

Notes: WR 222

Descriptors:  

Galliformes/ Odontophoridae/

Colinus virginianus/ Conservation reserve programs/ habitat

classification/ habitat management/ management/ modeling/ wildlife/

bobwhite/ habitat/ dispersion/ North America/ United States/

Virginia

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

189. Evaluation of select CRP lands as bobwhite

quail habitat.

Burger, L. W.; Kurzejeski, E. W.;

Dailey, T. V.; and Ryan, M. R.

Proceedings of the Forage

and Grassland Conference :

27-30. (1991)

NAL Call #:  

SB193.F59; ISSN: 0886-6899.

Notes: Meeting held April 1-4, 1991, Columbia,

Missouri. Includes references.

Descriptors:  

quails/ colinus virginianus/

habitats/ conservation areas/ Missouri/ Conservation Reserve

Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

190. Evaluation of the effect of CRP on duck

recruitment in the prairie pothole joint venture area of Fish &

Wildlife Service Region 6.

Reynolds, R.

Bismark, ND: U.S. Fish &

Wildlife Service, 1992.  U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service

Progress Report.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Regional conservation programs/ State conservation programs/

Prairie pothole region/ Montana/ South Dakota/ North

Dakota

Abstract:  Reported the 1992 results of a

pilot effort to evaluate waterfowl production in CRP grasslands

compared to Waterfowl Production Areas.

191. Factors influencing mourning dove nest

success in CRP fields.

Hughes, John P.; Robel, Robert J.;

and Kemp, Kenneth E.

Journal of Wildlife

Management  64

(4): 1004-1008. (2000)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X

Descriptors:  

Zenaida macroura/ dove, mourning/

zenaida macroura/ nests and nesting/ conservation programs/

grassland/ land use/ mating grounds/ survival/ cultivated farmland/

cover/ vegetation/ reproduction/ habitat management for wildlife/

mourning dove/ nest/ habitat/ agriculture/ ecological requirements/

Riley County/ Kansas/ United States

Abstract: Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) nest

primarily in trees. However, ground nesting is prevalent in the

Great Plains region where mourning dove numbers have increased

since the mid 1980s when the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was

initiated. We monitored mourning dove nest success in CRP fields in

Kansas during 1994 and 1995 to determine if that habitat could be a

source for the increased numbers. Mourning dove nest success

averaged 56% (n = 90) in our CRP fields. Daily nest survival rates

in CRP fields were associated positively with height of live

vegetation (P = 0.011) and negatively with percent grass cover (P =

0.001) and percent live vegetation cover (P = 0.005). Management

practices that produce sparse overall cover but tall vegetation

height may increase mourning dove nest success in CRP

fields.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

192. Field evaluation of the northern bobwhite

habitat suitability index model with implications for the

Conservation Reserve Program.

Tonkovich, Michael

Joseph

Blacksburg, Va.: Virginia

Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1995.

Notes: Thesis (Ph. D.); Bibliography: leaves

182-203.

NAL Call #:  ViBlbV

LD5655.V856-1995.T665

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

193. The first distributional record of the

least weasel, Mustela nivalis, in Northeastern Missouri.

Mock OB; Sells GD; Ellis LS; and

Easterla DA

Transactions of the

Missouri Academy of Science

35: 7-11. (2001)

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

194. GIS analysis of the effects of habitat

configuration and the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on the

abundance of ringnecked pheasants, gray partridge, and

meadowlarks.

Lockman, Drake J. and Kimmel, R.

O.

In: MN DNR Farmland Wildlife

Population and Research Unit Report, 1994; pp. 33-39

Descriptors:  

Phasianus colchicus/ Aves/ Perdix

perdix/ common pheasant/ birds/ partridge/ dispersion/ prairie/

GIS/ United States/  geographic information systems

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


195. Grassland bird conservation: CP1 vs. CP2

plantings in Conservation Reserve Program fields in

Missouri.

McCoy, Timothy D; Ryan, Mark R;

and Burger, Loren W Jr

American Midland

Naturalist 145 (1):

1-17. (Jan. 2001)

NAL Call #:  

410 M58; ISSN: 0003-0031

Descriptors:  

Conservation/ Conservation

measures/ Reproduction/ Reproductive productivity/ Ecology/

Population dynamics/ Habitat/ Terrestrial habitat / Land and

freshwater zones/ Nearctic region/ North America/ United States/

Aves/ Habitat management/ Reproductive productivity/ Nesting

success/ Fecundity/ Community structure/ Population density/ Nests/

Grassland/ Cool season and warm season grass fields/ nesting

success and fecundity/ conservation implications/ Missouri/ Knox

County/ Macon County/ Linn County/ Conservation biology/ Birds/

Chordates/ Vertebrates

Abstract: To determine the relative value of

different Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plantings for breeding

grassland and winter birds we measured vegetation structure, avian

abundance and reproductive success, and estimated fecundity during

1993-1995 on CP1 (cool-season grass) and CP2 (warm-season grass)

plantings in 16 fields in northern Missouri. CP1 fields had been

planted to cool-season grasses or cool-season grass-legume mixtures

and CP2 fields had been seeded with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

Species richness, abundance and nesting success of grassland birds

during the breeding season and total bird use in the winter did not

differ between CPs. During the breeding season CP1 fields had

higher abundances of grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum),

eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus

henslowii) and American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis), whereas

common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) were more abundant in CP2

fields. Fecundity of dickcissels (Spiza americana) and nesting

success and fecundity of red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius

phoeniceus) were higher on CP2 than on CP1 habitat, but both CPs

were likely sinks ([lambda] < 1) for these species. Both CPs

were likely source ([lambda] > 1) habitat for grasshopper

sparrows, whereas only CP1 habitat was likely a source for eastern

meadowlarks and American goldfinches. In winter American

goldfinches were more abundant in CP1 fields than CP2 fields. The

shorter, more diverse, cool-season grass fields were equal or

better habitat than taller, more vertically dense,

switchgrass-dominated fields for grassland birds, including several

species of high conservation concern. Single-species plantings of

warm- or cool-season grasses should be avoided to increase the

potential wildlife benefits of CRP and other grassland

habitats.

© Thomson

196. Grassland bird use of Conservation Reserve

Program fields in the Great Plains.

Johnson, D. H.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, Wildlife

Habitat Management Institute, 2000; pp. 19-33

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

wildlife habitats/ wildlife management/ birds

197. Grassland Birds: Development and Testing

of Models to Predict Species Richness, Abundance, and Reproductive

Success at Local and Landscape Levels.

Schultz, J.

Columbia, MO: Missouri Dept. Of

Conservation, Wildlife and Research Div.; PB2001104751XSP, 2000.

180 p.

Notes: Study No. 43; Final Report to Research and

Survey Projects as Required by Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration

Act, Missouri, Federal Aid Project no. W-13-R-54. (2000). Contains

Dissertation of Timothy McCoy on Effects of Landscape Composition

and Multi-Scale Habitat Characteristics on the Grassland Bird

Community; Prepared in cooperation with Missouri Univ.-Columbia.

Graduate School.; Sponsored by Fish and Wildlife Restoration

Program, Washington, DC

Descriptors:  

Endangered species/ Models/

Abundance/ Reproduction Biology/ Conservation/ Habitats/

Landscapes/ Birds/ Wildlife management/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ Grassland birds/ Natural resources and earth sciences/

Natural resource management/  Medicine and biology/

Ecology

Abstract:  Measures of grassland bird

demography on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields were

compared and modeled at several spatial scales to identify habitat

factors associated with increased conservation value for grassland

birds. Grassland bird populations and species richness were

compared between fields located in landscapes with different

amounts of CRP habitat and total grassland. Multi-scale habitat

models were developed from and validated on two independent data

sets to identify the primary habitat features that could predict

the potential value of CRP and other idle grasslands for grassland

bird conservation.


198. Habitat associations of grasshopper

species (Orthoptera : Acrididae) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum

L.) and adjacent rangeland.

Gillespie, R. L. and Kemp, W.

P.

Journal of the Kansas

Entomological Society 68

(4): 415-424. (1995); ISSN: 0022-8567

Descriptors:  

Acrididae/ Triticum aestivum/

rangelands/ species composition/ population density/ United States/

Orthoptera/ Populations & general ecology/ Insects

Abstract: Thirty-one species of grasshoppers were

collected in either winter wheat or adjacent rangeland/CRP, at ten

study sites for three years. Eighteen species were collected in

winter wheat fields while 29 species were collected in adjacent

reseeded native rangeland or newly seeded Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) land, seeded to crested wheatgrass (Agropyron

cristatum (L.) Gaertn. and alfalfa Medicago sativa L.). In native

rangeland these two species were reseeded into Stipa comata Trin.

and Rupr., Bouteloua gracilis (H.B.K). habitat. Melanoplus

sanguinipes, M. bivittatus, and M. packardii, pest species of crops

and rangeland in the Northern Great Plains, were the predominant

species in winter wheat and together with Aulocara elliotti were

the predominant species in adjacent rangeland or CRP. The number of

M. sanguinipes collected per unit of effort in CRP was the same as

the number collected in "established" reseeded rangeland. Fewer A.

elliotti were collected per unit effort in CRP when compared to

"established" reseeded rangeland. The results suggest that CRP

supports a lower population of A. elliotti than "established"

reseeded rangeland or there has been an insufficient span of time

for A. elliotti to disperse into these areas.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

199. Habitat use, home ranges, and survival of

swift foxes in a fragmented landscape: Conservation

implications.

Kamler, J. F.; Ballard, W. B.;

Fish, E. B.; Lemons, P. R.; Mote, K.; and Perchellet, C.

C.

Journal of Mammalogy

84 (3): 989-995. (2003)

NAL Call #:  

410 J823; ISSN: 0022-2372.

Notes: Number of References: 33; Publisher: Alliance

Communications Group Division Allen Press

Descriptors:  

Animal Sciences/ habitat use/ home

range/ survival/ swift fox/ Texas/ Vulpes velox/ Joaquin kit foxes/

arid land foxes/ vulpes velox/ western Kansas/ North America/

mortality/ macrotis/ rates/ size

Abstract: Habitat loss might be one of the primary

reasons for the decline of the swift fox (Vulpes velox) in the

western Great Plains of North America. From 1998 to 2001, we

monitored 42 swift foxes in a landscape interspersed with native

short-grass prairies, nonnative grasslands enrolled in the

Conservation Reserve Program, irrigated agricultural fields, and

dryland agricultural fields. Survival estimates ranged from 0.52 to

0.66 for both adults and juveniles, and the primary causes of death

were vehicle collisions (42% deaths) and coyote (Canis latrans)

predation (33%). Annual home-range size was similar for males and

females (10.8 and 10.5 km(2), respectively). Within the study area,

swift foxes selected only short-grass prairies and had

lower-than-expected use or complete avoidance of all other habitat

types. Our results indicate swift foxes are more specialized in

habitat selection than other North American canids; thus,

protection of native short-grass prairies might be necessary for

their long-term existence.

© Thomson ISI

200. History and economics of farm bill

legislation and the impacts on wildlife management and

policies.

Harmon, K. W.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

105-108.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

land diversion/ wildlife/

legislation/ revegetation/ habitats/ pheasants/ resource

conservation/ soil conservation/ erosion control/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ food security act of 1985

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

201. The history, status and future needs of

fish and wildlife management on private lands as related to USDA

agricultural programs.

Heard, L Pete; Allen, Arthur W;

Best, Louis B; Brady, Stephen J; Burger, Wes; Esser, Anthony J;

Hackett, Ed; Helinski, Ronald R; Hohman, William L; Johnson,

Douglas H; Pederson, Roger L; Reynolds, Ronald E; Rewa, Charles;

and Ryan, Mark R

Transactions of the North

American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 66: 54-67 . (2001)

NAL Call #:  

412.9 N814; ISSN: 0078-1355.

Notes: From: Sixty-sixth North American Wildlife and

Natural Resources Conference, Washington, DC, USA, March 16-20,

2001

Descriptors:  

1985 Food Security Act [Farm Bill]/

Conservation Reserve Program [CRP]/ Environmental Quality Incentive

Program [EQIP]/ Wetland Reserve Program [WRP]/ Wildlife Habitat

Incentives Program [WHIP]/ agricultural programs/ compliance

provisions/ highly erodable land/ land retirement programs/ private

land management/ wildlife conservation/ wildlife management: future

needs, history, status/ wildlife responses

© Thomson

202. Home ranges of ring-necked pheasants in

northwestern Kansas.

Applegate, Roger D; Flock, Brian

E; Gipson, Philip S; Mccoy, Matthew W; and Kemp, Kenneth

E

Prairie Naturalist

34 (1-2): 21-29. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

QH540 .P7; ISSN: 0091-0376

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program [CRP]/

adaptive kernels/ brooding behavior/ habitat density/ home range

size/ minimum convex polygons/ nesting behavior/ travel distance/

Animals/ Birds/ Chordates/ Nonhuman Vertebrates/ Vertebrates/

Phasianus colchicus [ring necked pheasant] (Galliformes): female,

male

Abstract: We studied the home ranges of 29 female

and 9 male ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) in

northwestern Kansas during 1994 to 1995. Home ranges for hens

varied from an average of 127 ha in high-density (25%) Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) to 155 ha on low-density (8 to 11%) CRP

sites. Home ranges for cocks averaged 179 ha on the high-density

CRP site and 105 ha on the low-density CRP site. The amount of CRP

in areas where home ranges were located had no detectable effect on

size of home ranges. Our estimates of hen home ranges during

nesting and brooding periods were larger than reported from other

regions. This might reflect the need for hens to travel greater

distances in northwestern Kansas in order to obtain adequate food

and cover for themselves and their broods.

© Thomson

203. Illinois Wildlife Enhancement Bonus

Program: Analysis of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources

and Illinois Quail Unlimited Conservation Program.

Hasstedt, S. C.

Edwardsville, IL: Southern

Illinois University at Edwardsville, 2002.

Notes: Report numbers: CI01316, ADA398508XSP; Thesis

Descriptors:  

Natural resources/ Theses/

Population/ Preservation/ Birds/ Agriculture/ Farms/ Land areas/

Illinois/ Silviculture/ Conservation/ Habitats/ Wildlife/ Bobwhite

quails/ IWEBP/ wildlife enhancement bonus programs/ Natural

resources and earth sciences/ Natural resource management/

 Medicine and biology/ Botany/ Zoology/ Ecology

Abstract:  In 1998 the Illinois Department of

Natural Resources (IDNR), Division of Wildlife Resources, Habitat

Stamp Fund in conjunction with Illinois Quail Unlimited (QU)

initiated the Illinois Wildlife Enhancement Bonus Program (IWEBP) .

Financial incentives are available to property owners for

implementation of wildlife friendly practices on land enrolled in

the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) and non-CRP acres are eligible under a fescue

(Festuca arundinaceae) conversion initiative. Mail surveys

following the Total Design Method (Salant and Dillman 1994) were

used to gauge both land owner I operator and Natural Resources

Conservation Service (NRCS) professional's perceptions regarding

IWEBP efficacy in improving wildlife habitat, administrative costs

of IWEBP, and characteristics of enrolled participants.

Proportional response histograms and higher order analyses revealed

IWEBP participants place a high intrinsic value on both habitat and

the presence of wildlife on their land, and the financial incentive

is most important to offset the high cost of re-establishing native

grasses and forbs. NRCS personnel generally believe, compared to

other state conservation programs, IWEBP provides similar or better

habitat benefits for wildlife in general and is particularly

beneficial to bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Land owners and

NRCS personnel alike appreciate the relative simplicity of IWEBP

enrollment procedures, but further education efforts regarding the

singular importance of habitat (Brennan 1991, Jenkins 2000) in

improving upland wildlife populations could further the success of

this program.

204. The impact of CRP on avian wildlife: A

review.

Ryan, M. R.; Burger, L. W.; and

Kurzejeski, E. W.

Journal of Production

Agriculture 11 (1):

61-66. (Jan. 1998-Mar. 1998)

NAL Call #:  

S539.5.J68; ISSN: 0890-8524 [JPRAEN]

Descriptors:  

wildlife / wild birds/ habitats/

government policy/ populations/ grasslands/ species diversity/

nests/ population growth/ literature reviews/ land banks/ wildlife

conservation/ Conservation Reserve Program

Abstract: We reviewed the literature to assess the

impact of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) on bird

populations in the central USA. The CRP replaced production

agriculture fields with grassland habitat used by more than 90

species of birds. At least 42 bird species nested in CRP habitats.

Bird species richness in CRP fields was similar to that in rowcrop

fields, but relative abundance was 1.4 to 10.5 times higher in CRP

plantings. Nest abundance was 13.5 times higher in CRP than crop

fields, although nesting success of songbirds was only slightly

higher in CRP fields (40% vs. 36% in crops). Limited evidence

suggests that the CRP has positively affected the population growth

rates of several nongame grassland bird species. Waterfowl nest

densities and nesting success in CRP fields were similar to these

occurring in grassland habitats managed specifically for waterfowl.

The presence of CRP grassland has been postulated to have improved

the quality of existing duck nest habitat by dispersing nests over

a larger area. Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L.)

populations seemingly increased substantially with CRP acres.

Little evidence of positive population response by northern

bobwhites (Colinus virginianus L.) to the CRP is available.

Overall, grassland birds known to be declining throughout North

America were seemingly the most benefitted by the CRP.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

205. The impact of haying Conservation Reserve

Program lands on productivity of ducks nesting in the Prairie

Pothole Region of North and South Dakota.

Renner, R. W.; Reynolds, R. E.;

and Batt, B. D. J.

Transactions of the North

American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference 60: 221-229. (1995)

NAL Call #:  

412.9-N814; ISSN: 0078-1355 [NAWTA6].

Notes: Meeting held March 24-29, 1995, Minneapolis,

Minnesota

Descriptors:  

anatidae / prairies/ conservation

areas/ haymaking/ reproductive performance/ nature reserves/ land

banks/ North Dakota/ South Dakota

Abstract: Compared nest success and duck production

in hayed and non-hayed CRP fields.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

206. Impact of Haying CRP Lands on Duck Nesting

in the Prairie Pothole Region.

Renner, R. W. and Reynolds, R.

E.

In: 60th North American Wildlife

and Natural Resources Conference. (Held 24 Mar 1995-29 Mar 1995 at Minneapolis,

MN (USA).); 1995.

Notes: Conference Sponsor: Wildlife Management

Institute (Washington, DC); World Meeting Number 951

0315

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

207. Impact of the Conservation Reserve Program

on duck recruitment in the U.S. Prairie Pothole Region.

Reynolds, R. E.; Shaffer, T. L.;

Renner, R. W.; Newton, W. E.; and Batt, B. D. J.

Journal of Wildlife

Management 65

(4): 765-780. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X

Descriptors:  

Breeding success/ Recruitment/ Land

use/ Wildlife management/ Conservation Reserve Program/ Habitat

improvement/  Breeding sites/ Food availability/ Hunting/

 Aquaculture/ Anas/ Montana/ South Dakota/ North Dakota/

Prairie Pothole Region/ Prairie Pothole Region/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ Dabbling ducks/ Management/ Culture of other

aquatic animals/ United States

Abstract: The U.S. Department of Agriculture

(USDA)'s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) resulted in the

conversion of about 1.9 million ha of cropland to perennial grass

cover in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, South Dakota,

and northeastern Montana by 1992. Many wildlife managers believed

this cover would provide benefits to wildlife, including upland

nesting ducks. During 1992-1995, we evaluated success of 5 duck

species nesting in CRP fields and nearby Waterfowl Production Areas

(WPA) throughout the region. We examined relationships between

daily survival rates (DSR) of duck nests in CRP cover and

landscape-level habitat and population parameters. We computed DSR

of duck nests in other major cover types in our study area from

data collected during 1980-1984 (pre-CRP) and 1990-1994 (CRP)

periods. We then applied recruitment models to estimate duck

production in our study area during peak CRP years (1992-1997) and

compared these results with those that simulated the scenario in

which cropland was in place of CRP cover (i.e., the CRP had not

occurred). DSR were higher in all habitats combined during the CRP

period compared to the pre-CRP period. Regressions of DSR in CRP

cover on the percent of each study plot in perennial cover and

geographic location were significant (P< 0.01) for 4 of 5 duck

(Anas spp.) species. Estimated nest success and recruitment rates

for the 5 species combined during 1992-1997 were 46% and 30%

higher, respectively, with CRP cover on the landscape compared to a

scenario where we simulated cropland in place of CRP. Our model

estimated an additional 12.4 million recruits from our study area

to the fall flight as a consequence of the CRP during 1992-1997.

Our results document benefits to 5 duck species in the northern

plains associated with a farm program that provided financial

incentives to landowners for planting undisturbed grass cover as an

alternative to annual crops.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

208. Impact of the Conservation Reserve Program

on wildlife conservation in the Midwest.

Ryan, M. R.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, Wildlife

Habitat Management Institute, 2000; pp. 45-54

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

wildlife habitats/ wildlife management

209. The importance of Conservation Reserve

Program fields to breeding grassland birds at Buffalo Ridge,

Minnesota.

Leddy, Krecia L.; Higgins, Kenneth

F.; and Naugle, David E.

South Dakota Academy of

Science: Proceedings

76: 105-111. (1997); ISSN: 0096-378X.

Notes: Papers presented at The 82nd Annual Meeting of

the South Dakota Academy of Science, April 25-26, 1997, Northern

State University, Aberdeen, South Dakota. Editor: Higgins, Kenneth

F.

Descriptors:  

Passeriformes/ agricultural crops/

habits/ behavior/ birds/ breeding/ Conservation Reserve Program/

density/ ecosystems/ farmland/ grasslands/ habitat management/

habitat use/ management/ pastures/ species diversity/ wildlife/

North America/ United States/ Minnesota/

Minnesota, Southwestern

Abstract: Nongame birds were surveyed during summer

1995 at Buffalo Ridge in southwestern Minnesota, to evaluate the

importance of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands to

local avifauna. Bird abundance and composition were compared among

three habitat types (CRP grasslands, pasturelands, and croplands)

using an index to breeding bird density (i.e., number of singing

males/transect area), percent species composition, and total

species richness. Vertical height and density of vegetation were

measured early in the growing season (mid-May) and during the peak

of the growing season (mid-June) to determine whether vegetative

structure was related to bird use of vegetation. Conservation

Reserve Program fields had higher vegetation measurements and

supported higher bird densities and species richness than

pasturelands and croplands. Mean bird density (birds/100 ha) in CRP

grasslands was 312.5 compared to 166.7 in pasturelands and only

75.0 in croplands. Ten bird species were present in CRP grasslands

compared to eight in pasturelands and nine in croplands. The

presence of three native bird species (sedge wren, dickcissel, and

clay-colored sparrow) in CRP grasslands that were not found in

pasturelands or croplands indicated that CRP grasslands were an

important habitat type for maintaining avian diversity at Buffalo

Ridge.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

210. The Influence of Field Age On Mammalian

Relative Abundance, Diversity, and Distribution On Conservation

Reserve Program Lands in Michigan.

Furrow, Ly Thi

East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University, 1995.

Notes: Masters Thesis; Cited: Masters Abstracts

International 33 (05): p. 1442

Descriptors:  

Agriculture, Forestry &

Wildlife/ conservation/ wildlife distribution/ prairies/

meadows/ agricultural conservation

programs

Abstract:  Past research evaluating wildlife

use of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands have focused

primarily on avian populations as indicators of wildlife habitat

quality. In addition to avian species, mammals may also serve as

indicators of wildlife habitat quality and have not been adequately

evaluated on CRP lands. Relative small mammal abundance, species

composition, diversity, and vegetative characteristics were

examined on replicated CP1 fields of 6 age classes and on

agricultural fields in Gratiot County, Michigan in 1992 and 1993.

Additionally, predator scent stations were used to monitor medium

sized mammals associated with CRP fields. Results suggest that the

structure and composition of various age classes of CRP fields

influenced mammal abundance, richness, and diversity. Reverting CRP

lands to cropland may have significant impacts on a diversity of

mammal species that depend on habitat conditions provided by these

grasslands.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

211. Influence of the Conservation Reserve

Program on landscape structure and potential upland wildlife

habitat.

Weber, Whitney L; Roseberry, John

L; and Woolf, Alan

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 30 (3): 888-898.

(Fall 2002)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648

Descriptors:  

Conservation/ Conservation

measures/ Land and freshwater zones/ Nearctic region/ North

America/ United States/  Comprehensive Zoology/ Habitat

management/ Illinois: South and west central/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ landscape structure/  upland wildlife habitat/

Phasianidae: Galliformes, Aves/ Birds/ Chordates/

Vertebrates

© Thomson

212. The influence of the CRP on grasshopper

sparrow population trends in the mid-continental United

States.

Herkert, James R.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 26 (2): 227-231.

(1998)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648

Descriptors:  

Fringillidae/ Passeriformes/

 Ammodramus savannarum/ birds/ Conservation Reserve Program/

ecosystems/ habitat management/ land use/ land, private/

management/ population ecology/ techniques/ wildlife/ wildlife/

habitat relationships/ conservation programs/ sparrows/ abundance/

evaluation/ habitat changes/ grasshopper sparrow/ North America/

United States/ Northcentral States

Abstract: Data suggest that a balance of both

managed and undisturbed Conservation Reserve Program lands in the

northcentral United States would be most beneficial to a wide

variety of grassland birds, including the grasshopper

sparrow.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


213. Land-use changes and hunter participation:

The case of the Conservation Reserve Program.

Langner, L. L.

Transactions of the North

American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference (54th): 382-390. (1989)

NAL Call #:  

412.9-N814; ISSN: 0078-1355 [NAWTA]

Descriptors:  

erosion control/ land use/ soil

conservation/ wildlife management/ United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

214. Land-use patterns surrounding greater

prairie-chicken leks in northwestern Minnesota.

Merrill, M. D.; Chapman, K. A.;

Poiani, K. A.; and Winter, B.

Journal of Wildlife

Management 63 (1): 189-198.

(Jan. 1999)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X

Descriptors:  

Land use / Lek/ Wildlife

management/ Tympanuchus cupido / United States, Minnesota/ Greater

prairie chicken/ Management

Abstract: To better manage wildlife populations,

managers must know which combination of land uses creates optimal

habitat. We used spatial analysis at a landscape scale to describe

land-use patterns and patch characteristics surrounding leks of

greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus L.) in the

Agassiz Beach Ridges (ABR) landscape (2,467 km super(2)) in

northwest Minnesota. We hypothesized that types and patterns of

land use favorable to greater prairie-chickens would be associated

positively with lek versus non-lek points, and particularly more

stable (traditional) leks. Using a Geographic Information System

(GIS), we analyzed land-use proportions and patch characteristics

within an 810-ha area (1.6-km radius) surrounding traditional leks,

temporary leks, and randomly located non-lek points. We found

locations of greater prairie-chicken leks were strongly dependent

on land use as revealed by a multivariate analysis of variance

(MANOVA; P < 0.001). A discriminant function analysis and

univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that several

land-use characteristics were associated most strongly with leks:

smaller amounts of residential-farmstead, smaller amounts and

smaller patches of forest, and greater amounts of Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) lands. Comparisons between traditional and

temporary leks revealed that traditional leks were surrounded by a

lesser proportion of forest and cropland than were temporary leks

(P < 0.001). Univariate ANOVAs showed that traditional leks also

were associated with larger patches of grassland (P < 0.001),

and grassland (P = 0.016) and forest patches (P = 0.017) having

more irregular shapes. Our study suggests efforts to manage and

conserve greater prairie-chicken populations in the Tallgrass

Prairie Region should focus on landscape-scale land-use patterns in

addition to local habitat characteristics. Landscape-scale efforts

could include enlarging grasslands around traditional leks by

completing prairie restorations and CRP plantings, while

local-scale strategies should seek to improve the quality of

habitat in existing and new grassland areas.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

215. Male dickcissels feed nestlings in

east-central Illinois.

Maddox, J. D. and Bollinger, E.

K.

Wilson Bulletin

112 (1): 153-155. (Mar.

2000)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 W692; ISSN: 0043-5643

Descriptors:  

Feeding behavior/ Paternal

behavior/ Nests/ Food availability/ Illinois/ Spiza americana/

Dickcissel/ Birds/ United States

Abstract: We observed male Dickcissels (Spiza

americana) commonly feeding nestlings in Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) fields in 1997 in east-central Illinois. Male

Dickcissels fed nestlings at six of the eight nests we observed,

accounting for 37% of the total nest visits. Overall, females made

significantly more nest visits than males. However, at the six

male-assisted nests, the number of male and female nest visits did

not differ significantly. Male Dickcissel feeding behavior may have

been prompted by low food abundance. Males were not observed

feeding nestlings in 1998, when overall nest success was higher and

nestling starvation was less than in 1997.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

216. Mammalian species composition, diversity,

and succession in Conservation Reserve Program

grasslands.

Hall, D. L. and Willig, M.

R.

Southwestern

Naturalist 39: 11-10.

(1994)

NAL Call #:  

409.6 So8; ISSN: 0038-4909

Descriptors:  

Mammalia / species composition/

species diversity/ succession/ nature reserves/ Texas/

Conservation/ United States

Abstract: Species diversity and composition of

small mammals were each compared between Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) grasslands and native shortgrass prairie on the

Southern High Plains of Texas. Small mammals were livetrapped in

all four seasons during a one-year interval at six CRP sites (1, 2,

and 3 years of age) and two control sites. Two factors

(vegetational heterogeneity and age of habitat) known to affect

species diversity were analyzed by a variety of quantitative

methods. No significant differences in mammalian diversity

(Fisher's log series alpha) were found among sites, and diversity

was not significantly correlated with vegetational heterogeneity or

site age. Species composition (proportional density of species) was

significantly different among all sites in each season. Regardless

of season, a priori hierarchical comparisons revealed significant

differences in the proportional abundances of species between all

CRP sites as a group and in the control sites. The CRP grasslands

simulate shortgrass prairies in species diversity, but not in

species composition. Differences in species composition between CRP

grasslands and shortgrass prairie may be a result of the lack of

natural disturbances (i.e., grazing, fire) on the CRP

grasslands.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

217. Managing your CRP for wildlife.

United States Department of

Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service NRCS,

2002

http://www.kdwp.state.ks.us/news/content/download/977/4809/file/MnagngCRP.pdf

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States

Abstract:  Addressed the issue of wildlife

habitat management and enhancement practices to better target CRP

objectives.

218. Modeling the Effects of Conservation

Reserve Program Lands On the Diversity and Abundance of Wildlife

and Plant Species in A Temperate Agro-ecosystem.

Minnis, Richard B.

East Lansing, MI: Michigan State

University, 1996.

Notes: Degree: MSC; Cited: Masters Abstracts

International 34(05): p. 1842, October 1996

Descriptors:  

Agriculture, Forestry &

Wildlife/ Environmental Sciences/ conservation/ forest fauna/ land

use

Abstract:  The Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) provides the opportunity to model changes in wildlife and

plant species composition in agricultural landscapes when land use

practices are altered. Avian, mammalian, invertebrate, and

vegetation characteristics were examined in 5 age classes (1-5

growing seasons) of CRP fields in Gratiot County, Michigan in 1992.

Models developed from the data indicate that both field specific

and landscape variables are important in predicting wildlife

abundance and diversity. Field specific variables that describe the

successional changes in vegetation composition and structure of CRP

fields were important in predicting the relative abundance and

diversity of invertebrate and avian species. Landscape variables

such as the proportion and juxtaposition of different cover types

within the landscape also significantly (P $< $ 0.10) affected

wildlife diversity and abundance. Maintaining a diversity of CRP

age classes within a landscape, through enrollment or periodic

manipulation of fields, produces the highest and most stable

overall wildlife diversity.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


219. New Mexico's CRP and wildlife habitat

improvement.

Schmidt, Robert J. Jr.;

 Mullins, Charles J.; Woody, Monty; and Knight, Jim

North American Wildlife and

Natural Resources Conference, Transactions 55: 68-73 . (1990);

ISSN: 0078-1355.

Notes: WR 222

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Programs/

habitat management/ management/ wildlife/ North America/ United

States/ New Mexico

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

220. Nongame bird nesting on CRP lands in the

Texas Southern High Plains.

Berthelsen, Peter S. and Smith,

Loren M.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 50 (6):

672-675. 1995. (

1995)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561.

Notes: Special issue on wetlands.

Includes references.

Descriptors:  

Fringillidae/ Passeriformes/

 Agelaius phoeniceus/ Aimophila cassinii/ Ammodramus

savannarum/ Sturnella neglecta/ agricultural practices/ birds/

clutches/ communities/ conservation programs/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ distribution/ ecosystems/ grasslands/ habitat management/

land use/ management/ nesting sites/ nests/ nesting/  nongame

wildlife/ productivity/ species diversity/ Texas/ Texas, Southern/

wildlife/ agricultural land/ land diversion/ environmental impact/

permanent grasslands/ wild birds/ species/ diversity/ density/

habitats/ federal programs/ nest density/ agricultural economics

(general)/ land development, land reform, and utilization

(macroeconomics)/ natural resources land resources/ western

meadowlark/ red winged blackbird/  grasshopper sparrow/

Cassin's sparrow/ North America/ United States

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

221. Northern Prairie Science Center

Conservation Reserve Biblilography.

Allen, A. W., 2002

http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/literatr/crpbib/crpbib.htm


Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States

Abstract:  Bibliography of documents relating

to effects of CRP on wildlife.

222. Observations of avian nesting activity in

burned and non-burned weeping lovegrass CRP.

Oberheu, D.; Mitchell, R.;

Dabbert, B.; and Davis, S.

Texas Journal of

Agriculture and Natural Resources 12: 14-17. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

S1.T49; ISSN: 0891-5466.

Notes: Publisher: Agriculture Consortium of Texas /

Kingsville, Tx.

Descriptors:  

eragrostis curvula/ wild birds/

habitats/ nesting/ nature conservation/ nests/ prescribed burning /

species/ drought/ ground cover/ endangered species/

Texas

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

223. Opportunities for enhancing wildlife

benefits through the Conservation Reserve Program.

Isaacs, B. and Howell,

D.

Transactions of the North

American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference (53rd): 222-231. (1988)

NAL Call #:  

412.9-N814; ISSN: 0078-1355 [NAWTA]

Descriptors:  

wildlife conservation/ conservation

areas/ farmland/ windbreaks/ woody plants/ United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

224. Perceptions of wildlife damage by

Conservation Reserve Program contract holders in Riley County,

Kansas.

Hughes, J. P. and Gipson, P.

S.

Proceedings - Vertebrate

Pest Conference : 154-157. (1996)

NAL Call #:  

SB950.A1V4; ISSN: 0507-6773 [PVPCBM]

Descriptors:  

vertebrate pests/ crop damage/

surveys

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

225. Plow: Lessons Learned From CRP -

Counterpoint, Negative Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program

on Prairie Wildlife.

Bidwell, T. G.

In: 50th Annual Meeting of the

Society for Range Management. (Held 15 Feb 1997-20 Feb 1997 at Rapid City, SD

(USA).); 1997.

Notes: Conference Sponsor: South Dakota Section of the

Society for Range Management; HQ: Society for Range Management

(Denver, CO); World Meeting Number 971 0113

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

226. Population trends of the Henslow's sparrow

in relation to the Conservation Reserve Program in Illinois,

1975-1995.

Herkert, J. R.

Journal of Field

Ornithology 68 (2): 235-244.

(1997)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 B534; ISSN: 0273-8570

Descriptors:  

Ammodramus henslowii/ population

status/ agricultural practices/ government policy/ conservation/

Illinois/ Birds/ United States

Abstract: Data from Illinois' Spring Bird Count was

used to estimate long-term population trends of Henslow's Sparrows

in Illinois and to examine if the Conservation Reserve Program has

affected these trends. Spring Bird Count data suggest that

Henslow's Sparrow populations in Illinois have declined

significantly over the last 21 yr, with an estimated average rate

of decline of 7.1% per year between 1975-1995. These data

corroborate analyses of other long-term data sets and provide

additional support for the general impression that populations of

this species have declined in many parts of its range. Analyses of

the potential benefits of the Conservation Reserve Program for

Henslow's Sparrows revealed that recent population trends

(1987-1995) in counties with high enrollment in this program were

significantly greater than trends in counties with little

Conservation Reserve Program enrollment. Although these data

suggest that the Conservation Reserve Program may have benefitted

Henslow's Sparrows in Illinois, this benefit has been insufficient

to offset long-term declines due to other factors. Other

conservation actions, beyond those associated with efforts aimed at

reauthorizing and improving the Conservation Reserve Program, will

likely be needed to achieve adequate protection for this

species.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

227. Potential effects on grassland birds of

converting marginal cropland to switchgrass biomass

production.

Murray, L. D.; Best, L. B.;

Jacobsen, T. J.; and Braster, M. L.

Biomass and

Bioenergy 25 (2): 167-175.

(2003); ISSN:

0961-9534

Descriptors:  

Biotechnology & Applied

Microbiology/ biomass/ birds/ energy crops/ switchgrass (Panicum

virgatum)/ watershed/ wildlife/ Conservation Reserve Program/

habitat selection/ CRP fields/ communities/ abundance/

Missouri

Abstract: Habitat loss is a major reason for the

decline of grassland birds in North America. Five habitats

(pastures, hayfields, rowcrop fields, small-grain fields,

Conservation Reserve Program fields) compose most of the habitat

used by grassland birds in the Midwest United States. Growing and

harvesting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) as a biomass fuel would

create another habitat for grassland birds. Bird abundance

information from studies conducted in Iowa and adjacent states and

land-use data for the Rathbun Lake Watershed in southern Iowa were

used in a Geographic Information System to model the potential

effects on bird abundances of converting rowcrop fields to biomass

production. Abundances of bird species that are management

priorities increased in both biomass scenarios. Common yellowthroat

(Geothlypis trichas) abundance in the watershed also increased

greatly in both scenarios. Other species (e.g., horned lark

(Eremophila alpestris), killdeer (Charadrius vociferous)) were more

abundant in the existing land use than in the biomass scenarios,

and conversion of fields from rowcrop to biomass production could

be detrimental to these species. In general, biomass fields will

provide habitat for grassland birds that are management priorities,

but future monitoring of birds in such fields is needed as

conversion of rowcrop fields to biomass production

continues.

© Thomson

228. Predation rates on real and artificial

nests of grassland birds.

Davison, W. B. and Bollinger,

E.

Auk 117 (1): 147-153. (Jan. 2000)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 AU4; ISSN: 0004-8038

Descriptors:  

Nests/ Predation/ Site selection/

Human impact/ Grasslands/ Illinois/ Aves/ Birds/ Birds/ United

States

Abstract: We estimated nesting success at real and

artificial nests of grassland birds to test the influence of nest

type, nest position, and egg size on predation rates. We

distributed wicker nests and realistic woven-grass nests baited

with a clay egg and either a Northern Bobwhite (Colinus

virginianus) egg or a House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) egg in four

grasslands that were part of the Conservation Reserve Program in

east-central Illinois. Nesting success averaged 86.5% for 12 days

of exposure for artificial nests. For real nests, nesting success

was markedly lower, averaging 39% over the entire nesting cycle and

59% during approximately 12 days of incubation. Wicker nests were

depredated more often than woven-grass artificial nests (18% vs.

8%), and nests baited with House Sparrow eggs were depredated more

often than nests baited with Northern Bobwhite eggs (22% vs. 9%).

Elevated and ground nests were depredated at the same rate.

Patterns of nest predation on wicker nests were markedly different

from depredation patterns on real nests over time and among fields.

In contrast, patterns of nest predation on realistic woven-grass

nests corresponded much more closely with predation rates of real

nests over time and among fields. We suggest that future artificial

nest studies use nests and eggs that mimic as closely as possible

the real nests and eggs of target species. Use of unrealistic

artificial nests and eggs, at least in grasslands, may result in

patterns of predation that do not accurately reflect those of real

nests. Artificial nests of any type appear to underestimate

predation rates on nests of grassland birds, possibly because of a

lack of snake predation on artificial nests.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)


229. Predicting juniper encroachment and CRP

effects on avian community dynamics in southern mixed-grass

prairie, USA.

Coppedge, B. R.; Engle, D. M.;

Masters, R. E.; and Gregory, M. S.

Biological

Conservation  115 (3):

431-441. (2004)

NAL Call #:  

S900.B5; ISSN: 0006-3207.

Notes: Number of References: 66

Descriptors:  

Environment/ Ecology/ breeding bird

survey/ Conservation Reserve Program/ grassland/ juniper/ logistic

regression/ Oklahoma/ conservation reserve program/ great plains

grasslands/ woody plant invasion/ population trends/ breeding

birds/ North America/ United States/ cover type/ fields/

vegetation

Abstract: The probability of occurrence of 30 bird

species was modeled as a function of landscape covertype in

northwestern Oklahoma, USA. This grassland region has been

extensively fragmented by agricultural activity, and remnant

grassland patches are undergoing severe degradation from

encroaching juniper (Juniperus virginiana L.). In addition, many

marginal or highly erodable croplands have been placed into

perennial pasture dominated by exotic grasses under the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Based on temporal patterns of

landscape change observed between 1965 and 1995, we estimated the

covertype composition of the landscapes in the year 2015 under

various CRP administrative and juniper expansion/control scenarios.

We then used logistic regression to predict bird responses to these

landscape composition estimates. Our estimates suggest that at the

current rate of expansion, juniper will overtake substantial areas

of remnant grassland even with extensive control measures. As a

result, some obligate and facultative grassland birds are projected

to decline, while numerous species tolerant of or partially reliant

on woody vegetation will increase. Landscape dynamics due to

changes in the CRP might be significant and could be designed to

benefit declining grassland birds, but these benefits thus far are

relatively minor compared to the effects encroaching juniper

woodlands will have on the landscape and the avian community. (C)

2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

© Thomson ISI

230. Pronghorn use of agricultural land in

northwestern South Dakota.

Griffin, S. L.

Brookings, SD: South Dakota State

University, 1991.

Notes: M.S. thesis

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ South Dakota

Abstract:  Studied the seasonal use of CRP

grasslands by pronghorns.

231. Recreational opportunities on CRP

Lands.

Varnedoe, L. E.

Conservation Reserve

Program Forest Land Opportunities (13) (1995)

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States

Abstract: Compared consumptive and non-consumptive

uses of recreational lands, along with wildlife associated

recreation.

232. Relation of grassland bird abundance to

mowing of Conservation Reserve Program fields in North

Dakota.

Horn, D. J. and Koford, R.

R.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 28 (3): 653-659.

(2000)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648

Descriptors:  

Grasslands/ Mowing/ Conservation/

Population decline/ North Dakota/ Cistothorus platensis/

Passerculus sandwichensis/ Sedge wren/ Savannah sparrow/

Conservation/ Birds/ United States

Abstract: One factor that may be contributing to

declines of several grassland bird species is mowing of grassland

fields. We compared the relative abundance of birds in idled and

mowed portions of grassland fields to investigate the influence of

mowing in the previous summer on the grassland bird community. The

study occurred in central North Dakota in 12 reseeded cropland

fields enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program. Sedge wrens

(Cistothorus platensis) were more abundant in idled portions of

grassland fields, whereas savannah sparrows (Passerculus

sandwichensis) were more abundant in portions of fields that were

mowed the previous year. Our findings are similar to other studies

indicating that several grassland bird species in the central

United States and Canada respond consistently to mowing.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

233. Relationships of habitat patch size to

predator community and survival of duck nests.

Sovada, M. A.; Zicus, M. C.;

Greenwood, R. J.; Rave, D. P.; Newton, W. E.; Woodward, R. O.; and

Beiser, J. A.

Journal of Wildlife

Management 64

(3): 820-831. (2000)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X

Descriptors:  

Patches/ Habitat/ Predators/

Survival/ Nests/ United States, Minnesota/ United States, North

Dakota/ United States, South Dakota/ Community composition/ Aquatic

birds/ Breeding success/ Area/ Anatidae/ Mammalia/ United States,

Minnesota/ United States, North Dakota/ United States, South

Dakota/ Ducks/ Mammals/ patch size/ Prairie Pothole Region/

Mammals/ Environmental effects

Abstract: We studied duck nest success and predator

community composition in relation to size of discrete patches of

nesting cover in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United

States in 1993-95. We focused on nests in uplands that were seeded

to perennial grasses and forbs and enrolled in the Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

We estimated daily survival rates (DSRs) of upland duck nests and

indices of activity for red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), coyotes (Canis

latrans), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), striped skunks

(Mephitis mephitis), and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus

franklinii), and related these variables to habitat patch size. The

effect of patch size (small vs. large) on estimated annual mean DSR

was dependent on date of nest initiation (early vs. late) and year.

Examination of within-year comparisons for early and late nests

suggested that DSR was generally greater in larger habitat patches.

Activity indices for the 5 mammalian nest predators were influenced

differently by year, location, and patch size. Activity indices of

the red fox were greatest in small patches. Coyote indices were the

most inconsistent, demonstrating a year x location x patch size

interaction. Activity indices of the striped skunk and American

badger varied only among years. Franklin's ground squirrel indices

were affected by study area location, with higher indices in the

southeast than the northwest. Red fox activity was weakly

correlated with that of the striped skunk and coyote. Although a

positive relationship between habitat patch size and nest success

probably exists, we believe the experiment to fully test this

hypothesis will continue to be elusive.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

234. Reproductive success of grasshopper

sparrows in relation to edge.

Delisle, Jennifer M and Savidge,

Julie A

Prairie Naturalist 28 (3): 107-114.

(1996)

NAL Call #:  

QH540 .P7; ISSN: 0091-0376

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

ecology/ edge relation/ reproductive success/ Southeast Nebraska/

wildlife management/ animals/ birds/ chordates/ nonhuman

vertebrates/ vertebrates/ animal (Animalia Unspecified)/

grasshopper sparrow (Passeriformes)/ Ammodramus savannarum

(Passeriformes)

Abstract: Using an index based on observations of

breeding behaviors, we estimated reproductive success of 31

territorial grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum) on

Conservation Reserve Program fields in southeast Nebraska.

Reproductive success was 52%, and no difference was detected

between birds holding interior (gt 100 m from the edge) vs. edge

territories. However, grasshopper sparrows appeared to avoid

nesting within 50 m of edge habitats. Territories ranged from

0.36-1.24 ha, and territory size did not differ between successful

and unsuccessful males.

© Thomson

235. Reuse of annual set-aside lands:

Implications for wildlife.

Frawley, B. J. and Walters,

S.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 24 (4):

655-659. (Winter 1996)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648 [WLSBA6]

Descriptors:  

agricultural land/ land management/

wildlife/ conservation/ Indiana/ Conservation Reserve

Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

236. Ring-necked pheasant nesting ecology and

production on CRP lands in the Texas Southern High

Plains.

Berthelsen, Peter S.; Smith, Loren

M.; and George, Ronnie R.

North American Wildlife and

Natural Resources Conference, Transactions 55: 46-56. (1990);

ISSN: 0078-1355.

Notes: WR 222

Descriptors:  

Galliformes/ Phasianidae/ Phasianus

colchicus/ birds / behavior/ Conservation Reserve Programs/

management/ nests/ nesting/ productivity/ wildlife/ common

pheasant/ fertility/ recruitment/ density/ North America/ United

States/ Texas/

Texas, Northwestern

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

237. The Role of the Conservation Reserve

Program in Relation to Wildlife Enhancement, Wetlands and Adjacent

Habitats in the Northern Great Plains.

Higgins, K. F.; Nomsen, D. E.; and

Wentz, W. A.

In: General Technical Report RM;

Vol. 159.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1987.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

Regional conservation programs/ Northern Great Plains

Abstract:  Focused on the value of CRP

grasslands directly related to wetlands and their associated

wildlife (primary migratory birds).

238. The role of trees and shrubs as economic

enterprises and wildlife habitat development in the Great

Plains.

Hoefer, P. and Bratton, G.

F.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

109-112.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains,"

held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver,

Colorado.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ resource

conservation/ revegetation/ erosion control/ shrubs/ trees/

wildlife/ habitats/ northern plains states of USA/ southern plains

states of USA/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

239. The role of wildlife as an economic input

into a farming or ranching operation.

Bryant, F. C. and Smith, L.

M.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

95-98.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

farming/ wildlife/ wildlife

management/ economic impact/ Texas/ Conservation Reserve Program/

high plains/ rolling plains

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

240. Rural economic effects of the Conservation

Reserve Program in North Dakota.

Bangsund DA; Leistritz FL; and

Hodur NM

Fargo, N.D.: Department of

Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University,

2002. viii; 117 p. Agribusiness and Applied Economics

Report (AAER).

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

241. Seasonal use of Conservation Reserve

Program fields by white-tailed deer in eastern South

Dakota.

Gould, J.

Brookings, SD: South Dakota State

University, 1991.

Notes: M.S. Thesis

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ South Dakota

Abstract:  CRP land cover and maintenance

practices, where white-tailed deer populations nested in eastern

South Dakota, were examined.

242. Seasonal use of Conservation Reserve

Program lands by white-tailed deer in East-Central South

Dakota.

Gould, Jeffrey H. and Jenkins,

Kurt J.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 21 (3): 250-255.

(1993)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648.

Notes: WR 240; Project Number: SD W-075-R/Study 7541

Descriptors:  

Odocoileus virginianus/ behavior/

Conservation Reserve Programs/ habitat use/ management/ mammals/

season/ wildlife/ odocoileus virginianus/ habitat selection/

seasonal variation/ diurnal variation/ conservation areas/

telemetry/ natural resources/ agriculture (general)/ deer, white

tailed/ land, private/ cultivated farmland/ policies and programs/

habitat/ utilization/ seasons/ seasonal activities/ white tailed

deer/ North America/ United States/ South Dakota/ East central

region/ Brookings County/ Kingsbury County/ Lake County/

United States

Abstract: Objectives were to describe variation in

deer use of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands by season,

diel period, and deer activity class as a means of assessing

seasonal importance of CRP fields to white-tailed deer in the

agricultural midwest. Use of CRP fields was determined by locating

radiomarked female deer from 15 September 1989 to 31 December

1990.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

243. Seed availability in grazed pastures and

Conservation Reserve Program fields during winter in

Kansas.

Klute, D. S.; Robel, R. J.; and

Kemp, K. E.

Journal of Field

Ornithology 68 (2): 253-258.

(1997)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 B534; ISSN: 0273-8570

Descriptors:  

grasslands/ seeds/ abundance/

winter/ agricultural practices/ government policy/ Kansas/

Management/ United States

Abstract: Studies have documented the importance of

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields to breeding birds, but

few have examined them as food sources for wintering birds. We

compared the biomass of seeds in CRP fields to that in grazed

native grass pastures in northeastern Kansas during two winters.

Log transformed total seed biomass was significantly lower in

grazed pastures than in CRP fields during the first winter but not

the second. Total seed biomass in CRP fields was highly variable,

and decreased between November and February. Seeds that were

typically abundant in CRP fields are important food items of

wintering grassland birds. In conclusion, CRP fields are superior

to grazed native grass pastures in northeastern Kansas as winter

foraging habitat for birds.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

244. Selection of flooded agricultural fields

and other landscapes by female northern pintails wintering in

Tulare Basin, California.

Fleskes, J. P.; Jarvis, R. L.; and

Gilmer, D. S.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 31 (3): 793-803.

(2003)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648.

Notes: Number of References: 49

Descriptors:  

Environment/ Ecology/ Anas acuta/

California/ habitat selection/ northern pintail/ San Joaquin

Valley/ Tulare Basin/ San Joaquin Valley/ habitat use/ sacramento

valley/ feeding ecology/ waterfowl/ ducks/ shorebirds/ movements/

wetlands

Abstract: Habitat selection and use are measures of

relative importance of habitats to wildlife and necessary

information for effective wildlife conservation. To measure the

relative importance of flooded agricultural fields and other

landscapes to northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Tulare

Basin (TB), California, we radiotagged female pintails during late

August-early October, 1991-1993 in TB and other San Joaquin Valley

areas and determined use and selection of these TB landscapes

through March each year. Availability of landscape and field types

in TB changed within and among years. Pintail use and selection

(based upon use-to-availability log ratios) of landscape and field

types differed among seasons, years, and diel periods. Fields

flooded after harvest and before planting (i.e., pre-irrigated)

were the most available, used, and selected landscape type before

the hunting season (Prehunt). Safflower was the most available,

used, and-except in 1993, when pre-irrigated fallow was

available-selected pre-irrigated field type during Prehunt.

Pre-irrigated barley-wheat received 19-22% of use before hunting

season, but selection varied greatly among years and diel periods.

During and after hunting season, managed marsh was the most

available, used, and, along with floodwater areas, selected

landscape type; pre-irrigated cotton and alfalfa were the least

selected field types and accounted for less than or equal to13% of

pintail use. Agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds, sewage

treatment ponds, and reservoirs accounted for 42-48% of flooded

landscape available but were little used and least selected. Exodus

of pintails from TB coincided with drying of pre-irrigated fallow,

safflower, and barley-wheat fields early in winter, indicating that

preferred habitats were lacking in TB during late winter.

Agriculture conservation programs could improve TB for pintails by

increasing flooding of fallow and harvested safflower and grain

fields. Conservation of remaining wetlands should concentrate on

increasing the amount and productivity of marsh that is

shallow-flooded as pre-irrigated grain fields dry. If pintails were

provided with adequate preferred field and marsh habitats,

including hunt-day sanctuaries, contaminant risks associated with

exposure to drainwater evaporation ponds probably should remain low

for these waterfowl even if their abundance in TB

increased.

© Thomson ISI

245. Short-Term Bird Response to Harvesting

Switchgrass for Biomass in Iowa.

Murray, LD and Best, LB

Journal of Wildlife

Management 67 (3):

611-621. (July 2003)

NAL Call #:  

410 J827; ISSN: 0022-541X

Descriptors:  

Biomass/ Birds/ Energy Crops/

Grassland/ Iowa/ Nest Success/ Panicum Virgatum/ Switchgrass/

Conservation Reserve Program/ Grassland Birds/ Nest Success/ North

Dakota/ CRP Fields/ Abundance/ Habitat/ Vegetation/

Pheasants/ Survival

Abstract: Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

provides habitat for grassland birds, but as contracts expire, some

CRP fields might be returned to rowcrop production. One alternative

to returning CRP fields to rowcrops is to produce switchgrass

(Panicum virgatum) for use as a biomass fuel. Because the biomass

is harvested during the fall and winter, breeding birds would not

be directly affected by mowing the fields but might be influenced

by changes in vegetation structure resulting from the harvest. We

evaluated bird abundances and nest success in totally, harvested,

partially harvested (alternating cut and uncut strips), and

nonharvested CRP switchgrass fields in southern Iowa, USA, in 1999

and 2000. Species richness did not differ among harvest treatments.

Abundances of most species (16 of 18) were not affected by the

harvesting of switchgrass fields, and strip width did not affect

bird numbers in strip- harvested fields. Grasshopper sparrows

(Ammodramus savannarum) were more abundant in harvested portions of

fields, and more sedge wrens (Cistothorus platensis) were recorded

in nonharvested areas. The residual vegetation in nonharvested

areas provided nest cover for species that begin nesting early in

the season (e.g., northern harrier [Circus cyaneus] and ring-necked

pheasant [Phasianus colchicus]). Nest success rates of grasshopper

sparrows and common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) were similar

to those reported by other studies in switchgrass fields and might

be sufficient to maintain stable populations. In general,

switchgrass biomass fields create breeding habitat for some

grassland birds, and a Mixture of harvested and nonharvested fields

would be more beneficial to grassland birds than totally harvesting

or partially harvesting all switchgrass fields.

© Thomson ISI

246. Small mammal populations occurring in a

diversified winter wheat cropping system.

Olson RA and Brewer MJ

Agriculture, Ecosystems and

Environment

95 (1): 311-319; 33 ref.

(2003)

NAL Call #:  

S601 .A34

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

247. Spring burning: Resulting avian abundance

and nesting in Kansas CRP.

Robel, R. J.; Hughes, J. P.; Hull,

S. D.; Kemp, K. E.; and Klute, D. S.

Journal of Range

Management 51 (2):

132-138. (Mar. 1998)

NAL Call #:  

60.18-J82; ISSN: 0022-409X [JRMGAQ]

Descriptors:  

fire ecology/ prescribed burning/

brush control/ wild birds/ nests/ Kansas

Abstract: Spring burning is used to control

invasion by woody vegetation of rangelands in eastern Kansas and

also of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields planted to native

grasses. We measured the effects of spring burning of CRP fields on

vegetation structure and avian populations in northeastern Kansas

during the summers of 1992 through 1995. Several vegetation

characteristics differed between burned and unburned CRP fields in

May, but few differed in July. Mean avian abundance on burned CRP

fields was 5.6 birds km-1 of survey transect, significantly less (P

< 0.01) than the 8.6 km-1 on unburned fields. The

avian-assemblages on burned and unburned fields differed more in

May/June [Morisita's Index to Similarity (MIS) = 0.86] than in

June/July or July/August (MIS = 0.98 and 0.97, respectively). Avian

species richness ranged from 12 to 21 on burned fields and from 10

to 19 on unburned fields. A total of 27 nests was found on burned

fields, significantly less (P < 0.01) than the 372 found on

unburned fields. The 22.2% nesting success on burned fields was not

significantly different (P = 0.205) than the 34.1% success on

unburned fields. Spring burning reduced bird-nest numbers in the

summer of the same year, but did not reduce significantly (P =

0.235) the number of nests found in those fields the following

summers nor the abundance of birds or nesting success. Avoidance of

annual burning would reduce adverse impacts on bird populations

relying on CRP fields for nesting habitat.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

248. Status and management of the greater

prairie-chicken Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus in North

America.

Svedarsky, W. D.; Westemeier, R.

L.; Robel, R. J.; Gough, S.; and  Toepher, J. E.

Wildlife Biology

6 (4):  277-284. (Dec.

2000);

ISSN: 0909-6396

Descriptors:  

Management/ Biogeography/

Grasslands/ Conservation/ North America/ Tympanuchus cupido

pinnatus/ Management

Abstract: Greater prairie-chickens Tympanuchus

cupido pinnatus are grouse of the tallgrass prairie of North

America. Their range expanded greatly following the spread of early

European agriculture into the grasslands and logging in forested

areas. When the optimum mix of cropland and grass was exceeded,

their range generally contracted to the regions where climatic

and/or soil factors favoured the retention of grassland.

Historically they probably occurred in 20 states of the United

States and four Canadian provinces, but presently they only occur

in 11 states and no longer in Canada. Their current status

throughout the range varies considerably depending on habitat

conditions, population levels, management capabilities and local

land-use economic factors. A variety of conservation efforts,

including translocation, are underway in the states where they

occur, the intensity of which is generally inverse to numbers

remaining. Noteworthy, is the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

which has increased grassland cover on private land through

incentive payments.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

249. Strategies for biodiversity

protection.

Bean, Michael J.

In: Precious heritage: The status

of biodiversity in the United States/ Stein, Bruce A.; Kutner, Lynn

S.;

and Adams, Jonathan S.

New York: Oxford, 2000; pp.

255-273

Descriptors:  

Wetlands Reserve Program/

biodiversity protection/ conservation interests/ conservation land

acquisition/ land trusts/ land use/ water use/ wildlife refuges/

Animals/ Plants/ animal (Animalia)/ plant (Plantae)

© Thomson

250. Structural characteristics of vegetation

in CRP fields in Northern Missouri and their suitability as

bobwhite habitat.

Burger, Loren W.; Kurzejeski, E.;

Dailey, Thomas V.; and Ryan, Mark R.

North American Wildlife and

Natural Resources Conference, Transactions 55: 74-83. (1990);

ISSN: 0078-1355.

Notes: WR 222

Descriptors:  

Galliformes/ Odontophoridae/

Colinus virginianus/ Conservation Reserve Program/ habitat

classification/ habitat surveys/ management/ wildlife/ bobwhite/

cultivated farmland/ habitat/ vegetation/ conservation programs/

cover/ habitat management for wildlife/ land, private/

 agriculture/ North America/ United States/

 Missouri

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

251. Success of artificial nests in CRP fields,

native vegetation, and field borders in southwestern

Montana.

Clawson, M. R. and Rotella, J.

J.

Journal of Field

Ornithology 69 (2): 180-191.

(1998)

NAL Call #:  

413.8 B534; ISSN: 0273-8570

Descriptors:  

Nests/ Survival/ Site selection/

Environment management/ Grasslands/ United States, Montana/ Aves/

Birds/ Management/ Birds

Abstract: In 1993-1994, we used artificial nests to

study relationships between nest success and various spatial,

temporal, and vegetation variables in three grassland types:

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields, field borders and

watercourses, and native vegetation. Nest success was higher and

vegetation was structurally more complex in CRP fields than in

other grassland types. Nest success was 63% in CRP fields but only

24% in native vegetation. Results of univariate and multivariate

analyses indicated that nests surrounded by taller, thicker cover

were more likely to survive than nests with less concealing

vegetation. Nests initiated later in the season, when vegetation

volume was greater, survived at higher rates than nests initiated

earlier. Spatial variables were not strongly related to nest

success. Field size was directly related to nest success in CRP

fields but not in other grassland types. However, field size not

included in the most parsimonious, multivariate model of factors

related to nest success in CRP fields. Similarly, proximity to

field borders was not related to nest success in any grassland

type. Our results suggest that CRP fields, which cover a large area

in the Northern Great Plains and attract a greater diversity of

grassland birds than the cropfields they replaced, provide secure

nesting cover for ground-nesting species.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

252. Summer avian abundance, invertebrate

biomass, and forbs in Kansas CRP.

Hull, Scott D; Robel, Robert J;

and Kemp, Kenneth E

Prairie Naturalist

28 (1): 1-12. ( 1996)

NAL Call #:  

QH540 .P7; ISSN: 0091-0376

Descriptors:  

invertebrate biomass/ Kansas

Conservation Reserve Program/ species abundance/ species richness/

terrestrial ecology/ bird (Aves Unspecified)/ Aves (Aves

Unspecified)/ animals/ birds/ chordates/ nonhuman vertebrates/

vertebrates

Abstract: Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields

planted to native grasses have the potential to provide summer

habitat for grassland bird populations in the Great Plains. Forbs

in native grasslands are thought to increase the suitability of

grasslands for birds. We measured invertebrate biomass (summer food

for birds) and avian abundance in Kansas CRP fields planted to

native grasses to determine if they were correlated with forb

abundance in those fields. Sweep nets were used to collect

invertebrate samples and avian abundance was estimated along line

transects in six CRP fields from May through August 1992.

Correlation analysis did not detect a statistically significant

relationship between forb abundance and invertebrate biomass or

avian abundance, or between avian abundance and invertebrate

biomass. Avian species richness did not vary with forb abundance

and the avian community assemblages on CRP fields with low and high

forb abundance were similar.

© Thomson

253. Surveys and Investigations Projects as

Required by Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act,

Missouri.

Kurzejeski, E. W.

Columbia, MO: Missouri Dept. Of

Conservation; PB97170112XSP, 1996. 64 p.

Notes: Final Report; Includes Study No. 1, Job No. 1,

and Job No. 2; Sponsored by Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington,

DC

http://www.monwtf.org/attitudesurvey.pdf

-->

Descriptors:  

Grasses/ Population/ Reproduction

Biology/ Birds/ Vegetation/ Missouri/ Conservation Reserve Program/

Medicine and biology/ Ecology/ Zoology/ Natural resources and earth

sciences/ Natural resource management

Abstract:  During 1993-1995, we monitored

vegetative conditions and avain abundance, composition, and

productivity on 8 blocked sites in northern Missouri containing CP1

(cool-season grass), CP2 (warm-season grass), and rowcrop fields.

Total bird abundance (P less than 0.0001 in 1994), grassland bird

abundance (P less 0.05 in 1994 and 1995), nest density (P less than

0.001 each year), and number of nesting species (P less than 0.05

each year) were all lower on crop fields than on CRP fields. The

bird community using crop fields markedly differed from that of CRP

fields, with short-grass and open-ground feeding birds predominant

on crop fields. Grassland bird species richness (P equals 0.057 in

1993, P less than 0.0001 each year), Henslow's sparrows (Ammodramus

henslowii) (P less than 0.001 in 1993 and 1995), meadowlarks

(Sturnella spp.) P less than .01 in 1993 and 1995, and American

goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) (P less than 0.01 in 1994 and 1995)

were higher on the structurally diverse than on CP2 fields. CP2

fields were tall, dense warm-season grass monocultures having

higher abundances of red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) (P

less than 0.05 in 1994) and common yellowthroats (Geothylpis

trichas) P less than 0.001 each year than CP1 fields. Difference in

nesting success and nest densities of species between CP1 and CP2

fields, although rarely significant, were similar to those of

relative abundance. The conservation value of CRP fields for

declining grassland bird species was higher for CP1 fields than for

CP2 fields; species of concern were either more abundant in both CP

types. Monotypic stands of both warm-season and cool-season grasses

should be avoided to increase the potential wildlife benefits of

CRP and other idle grassland habitats.

254. Using Conservation Reserve Program Maps

Derived From Satellite Imagery to Characterize Landscape

Structure.

Egbert, SL; Park, S; Price, KP;

Lee, RY; Wu, JP; and Nellis, AD

Computers and Electronics

in Agriculture 37 (1-3):

141-156. (Dec. 2002)

NAL Call #:  

S494.5.D3C652; ISSN: 0168-1699

Descriptors:  

Remote Sensing/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ Landscape Metrics/ Wildlife Habitat/ Great Plains/

Agriculture/ Patch Size/ Accuracy/ Land/ GIS/ Geographic

Information Systems

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

instituted one of the largest and most rapid land use/land cover

conversions in US history. Approximately 14.8 million ha (36.5

million acres) of cropland were converted to grassland, woodland,

and other conservation uses between 1986 and 1995. As policy makers

continue to evaluate the future of the program and as scientists

examine its effects, it is critical that the impact of CRP on

landscape structure be considered because of its potential

influence on wildlife populations. Utilizing multi- seasonal

Landsat thematic mapper imagery in an unsupervised classification

technique, we produced highly accurate maps of cropland and

grassland for 1987 and 1992 for Finney County, Kansas.

Post-classification differencing identified regions of cropland

that had been converted to CRP. We then used the Finney County CRP

map to examine changes in landscape structure caused by the

introduction of CRP. Using the FRAGSTATS spatial pattern analysis

program, we calculated the number of patches, mean patch size,

patch density, edge density, mean shape index, nearest neighbor

distance, and an interspersion/juxtaposition index. In addition, we

calculated total grassland area and percent of area in grassland

for the pre- and post-CRP enrollment years. We found that the total

grassland area and the percent area in grassland in Finney County

increased due to CRP and that mean grassland patch size also

increased. The total number of grassland patches decreased,

however, due to coalescence of smaller grassland patches. Patch

density, edge density, mean shape index, nearest neighbor distance,

and the interspersion/juxtaposition index all showed relatively

small changes. These small changes appear to reflect geographic

differences in CRP effects within the county-large aggregating

patches in the northeast were offset by a number of isolated

patches of CRP in other areas. The implication of these findings

for wildlife managers is that, for species that require large areas

of grassland habitat, especially habitat that is contiguous, CRP in

Finney County represents a substantial increase in potential

habitat. This holds for species at all levels of management

interest. ranging from economically valuable species to species

that are rare. threatened, and endangered. These findings emphasize

the importance of CRP for wildlife conservation and should further

inform ongoing debate concerning the importance of the CRP. (C)

2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

© Thomson ISI

255. Valuation of agriculture's multi-site

environmental impacts: An application to pheasant

hunting.

Hansen, L.; Feather, P.; and

Shank, D.

Agricultural and Resource

Economics Review  28

(2): 199-207. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

HD1773.A2N6; ISSN: 1068-2805

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

256. The value of buffer habitats for birds in

agricultural landscapes.

Best, L. B.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, Wildlife

Habitat Management Institute, 2000; pp. 75-94

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

wildlife habitats/ conservation

buffers/ agricultural land

257. Value of the Conservation Reserve Program

to birds in the Texas southern high plains.

Berthelsen, P. S.

Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech

University, 1989.

Notes: M.S. Thesis

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Texas

Abstract:  Examined what habitat type would

provide the greatest potential benefit of the CRP to avian wildlife

species in the Texas southern high plains.

258. Vegetation Management Practices on

Conservation Reserve Program Fields to Improve Northern Bobwhite

Habitat Quality.

Greenfield, KC; Burger, LW;

Chamberlain, MJ; and Kurzejeski, EW

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 30 (2):

527-538. (Summer 2002)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648

Descriptors:  

Agriculture/ CRP/ Colinus

Virginianus/ Conservation Reserve Program/ Habitat/ Northern

Bobwhite/ RUSLE(C)/ Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation/ Missouri/

Wildlife

Abstract: Since 1985, an annual average of more

than 14 million ha of very erodible cropland has been removed from

production and enrolled in perennial grass practices under the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The rate of changes in plant

communities on CRP fields can be modified (intentionally or

accidentally) by disturbance-management regimes. Throughout the

Midwest and Southeast, habitat quality for early successional and

grassland species may decline as CRP grasslands age, but

premeditated disturbance regimes may enhance and maintain habitat

quality for these species. However, concerns regarding perceived

conflicts between wildlife habitat and soil erosion objectives of

the CRP persist among United States Department of Agriculture

(USDA) and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) personnel.

Therefore, we evaluated effects of strip- discing on vegetation

structure and composition and soil erosion in tall fescue (Festuca

arundiacea) and orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) CRP fields in

Missouri. We interpreted vegetation response in the context of

habitat quality for a socially and economically important species,

the northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Fall discing

generally increased percentage bare ground and plant diversity and

decreased percentage litter cover and litter depth. However, plant

community response and duration of effects differed between fescue

and orchard grass fields. Gains in habitat quality in fescue fields

were minimal and short-lived, whereas enhancements in orchard grass

fields were substantial and longer-lived. Overall, fall discing

enhanced bobwhite habitat quality, but responses diminished by the

second growing season post-treatment, especially in CRP fields

planted to fescue. Soil-loss potential, as estimated by the Revised

Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), was well within USDA

tolerable limits for all treatments. Our findings indicated that

discing intensity on CRP fields could be increased by 2-3 times

without compromising soil erosion provisions of CRP. Therefore, we

suggest that strip-discing on a 2- to 3-year rotation should be a

permissible and encouraged practice to maintain early succession

plant communities on CRP fields in the Midwest and

Southeast.

© Thomson ISI

259. Vegetation Structure and Avian Species

Composition in Diverted Farmland: Evaluation of Vegetation

Structure on CRP Lands in Northern Missouri/Avian Species in

Diverted Farmland.

Kurzejeski, E. W.

In: Missouri Department of

Conservation Annual Report, 1996. 62 p.

Notes: Final Report; Project Number: MO

W-013-R-50/Jobs 1&2/Study 1; Unpublished Wildlife Report; ISSN:

0085-3496

Descriptors:  

cultivated farmland/ conservation

programs/ vegetation/ birds/ abundance/ reproduction/ grassland/

sampling/ nests and nesting/ population density/ species diversity/

statistics/ North America/ United States/ Missouri/ Northern

central region/ Knox County/ Macon County/ Linn County

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


260. Waterfowl responses to the Conservation

Reserve Program in the Northern Great Plains.

Reynolds, R. E.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, Wildlife

Habitat Management Institute, 2000; pp. 35-43

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

wetlands/ waterfowl/ wildlife habitats/ wildlife

management

261. Why haven't pheasant populations in

western Kansas increased with CRP?

Rodgers, Randy D.

Wildlife Society

Bulletin 27 (3): 654-665.

(1999)

NAL Call #:  

SK357.A1W5; ISSN: 0091-7648.

Notes: Project Number: KS FW-009-P; KS

W-039-R

Descriptors:  

Galliformes/ Phasianidae/ Phasianus

colchicus/ birds / conservation programs/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ ecosystems/ grasslands/ habitat management/ management/

status/ wildlife/ wildlife/ habitat relationships/ phasianus

colchicus/ population density/ land management/ federal programs/

Kansas/ Natural Resources/ Land Development, Land Reform, and

Utilization (Macroeconomics)/ pheasant, ring necked/ population

loss/ food crops/ habitat management for wildlife/ changes

detrimental to wildlife/ cultivated farmland/ surveys/

 summer/ burning/ pesticides/ habitat changes/ food supply/

land, private/ winter/ common pheasant/ ecological requirements/

habitat change/ agriculture/ loss of habitat/ population dynamics/

reserve / biocide/ vegetation/ ring necked pheasant/ North America/

United States/ Kansas/ Kansas, Western/ western region/ United

States Kansas / United States Kansas

Abstract: Ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus

colchicus) populations in western Kansas declined an average of 65%

from 1966-75 to 1986-95, particularly in the 1980s. Although

686,000 ha of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands have

been added to the western Kansas landscape since 1985, pheasant

populations have not recovered. Summer observations suggested that

CRP was used proportionally more by pheasant broods than indicated

by its relative availability. Overwinter pheasant use of CRP (a

habitat gained) averaged just 37% of that in weedy wheat stubble (a

habitat being lost). Widespread deterioration of abundant wheat

stubble habitats, largely from increased herbicide use, represents

an overwhelming habitat loss in western Kansas for which CRP could

not compensate. In addition, anticipated pheasant benefits from CRP

were not fully realized due to inadequate plant diversity, poor

stand maintenance, and large field size. The habitat value of

established CRP can be enhanced by strip-disking fireguards around

the margins of fields to facilitate occasional controlled burns,

stimulate growth of broad-leaved annuals, and increase edge.

Interseeding perennial legumes and other forbs into recently burned

grass stands also can be effective. Interspersion of grass-legume

strips on intensively farmed croplands through the continuous

signup of CRP offers great potential to improve pheasant

habitat.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


262. Wildlife and federal cropland retirement

programs.

Berner, A. H.

In: When Conservation Reserve

Program contracts expire: The policy options; Ankeny, IA: Soil and

Water Conservation Society, 1994.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States

Abstract:  Reviewed studies of wildlife

responses to cropland retirement programs from 1956 to 1984 and

discussed the future of cropland retirement programs.


263. Wildlife and Vegetative Response to

Diverted Agricultural Land in Gratiot County, Michigan.

Campa, H.; Winterstein, S. R.;

Minnis, R. B.; and Pearks, A. J.

In: Michigan Department of Natural

Resources: Annual Report, 1995. 50 p.

Notes: Project Number: MI W-127-R

Descriptors:  

birds/ blackbirds and cowbirds/

changes detrimental to wildlife/ conservation programs/ cultivated

farmland/ cutting/ grassland/ land use / modeling/ pheasant, ring

necked/ productivity/ vegetation/ abundance/ cover/ habitat

management/ history/ statistics/ North America/ United States/

Michigan/ Gratiot County

Abstract:  Project is composed of two separate

studies. For the first study, vegetation characteristics of

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields and the differences in

avian relative abundance, diversity, and productivity between CRP

and agricultural fields were evaluated. For the second study,

effects of various methods of mowing on vegetation characteristics

and avian populations were examined, and information was gathered

to evaluate habitat suitability index (HSI) models of selected

avian species. Both studies provide management recommendations for

a diversity of wildlife species on CRP fields.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.


264. Wildlife benefits of the Conservation

Reserve Program: A national perspective.

Allen, A. W.

Land and Water 38: 23-25 . (1994)

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States

Abstract: Provided a synopsis of the wildlife

benefits of CRP and discussed how the pattern of CRP land

distribution within a watershed would influence

wildlife.


265. Wildlife benefits of the Conservation

Reserve Program in Ohio.

Swanson, D. A.; Scott, D. P.; and

Risley, D. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 54

(1): 390-394. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

Wildlife management/ Agricultural

land/ Habitat utilization/ Nests/ Ohio/ Aves/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ Birds/ Conservation/ United States

Abstract: Federal agriculture programs

significantly impact a variety of wildlife species. Grassland

birds, in particular, should benefit from establishment of

permanent vegetative cover through conservation initiatives like

the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Evaluation of current

conservation programs is needed to help shape future initiatives

and ensure the long-term continuation of beneficial programs. The

vegetative and physical characteristics of CRP fields in Ohio were

quantified, the timing and extent of disturbances during the

nesting season noted, avian use of these habitats measured, and

indices of avian use related to field characteristics. It was found

that more than half of the sampled fields were disturbed, primarily

by mowing, during the nesting season (May to July). These same

fields, however, were used by 43 avian species. Use of CRP fields

by several grassland-dependent species was related to the amount of

grassland habitat provided by the field and/or adjacent grasslands.

Age of permanent cover and field size were not related, however, to

total species richness. Eliminating disturbance of vegetative cover

during the nesting season could significantly add to the wildlife

value of these habitats. Policy options that include establishment

of larger fields or grassland cover near existing grasslands should

positively benefit the widest array of grassland birds.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

266. Wildlife habitat criteria in relation to

future use of CRP lands.

Allen, A. W.

Proceedings of the Great

Plains Agricultural Council : 41-88. (1993)

NAL Call #:  

282.9-G7992; ISSN: 0434-5835.

Notes: Meeting held June 2-4, 1993, Rapid City, South

Dakota. Includes references.

Descriptors:  

wildlife / habitats/ land

diversion/ selection criteria / federal programs/ United States/

Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

267. Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program: A

summary of accomplishments, 1998-1999.

Hackett, E.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, Wildlife

Habitat Management Institute, 2000; pp. 117-124

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program

[WHIP]/ wildlife habitats/ wildlife management/ endangered species/

ecological restoration/ landowners/ Colinus virginianus/ Salmo

salar/ conservation programs

268. Wildlife management on Conservation

Reserve Program land: The farmer's view.

Miller, E. J. and Bromley, P.

T.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 44

(5): 438-440. ill. (Sept. 1989-Oct.

1989)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

wildlife management/ soil

conservation/ natural resources/ farmers' attitudes

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

269. Wildlife management on Virginia

Conservation Reserve Program land: The farmer's view.

Miller, E. J.

Blacksburg, VA: Virginia

Polytechnic Institute and State University, 1989.

Notes: M.S. Thesis

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Virginia

Abstract:  Surveyed land owners/farmers to

ascertain their views on the CRP and its implementation.

270. Wildlife responses to the Conservation

Reserve Program in the Southeast.

Burger, W.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, Wildlife

Habitat Management Institute, 2000; pp. 55-73

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

wildlife habitats/ wildlife management

271. Wildlife responses to wetland restoration

and creation: An annotated bibliography.

Rewa, C.

In: A comprehensive review of Farm

Bill contributions wildlife conservation, 1985-2000/ Heard, L. P;

Hohman, W. L.; Halloum, D. J.; and Wildlife Habitat Management

Institute (U.S.); Series: Technical Report

USDA/NRCS/WHMI.

Madison, MS: USDA, NRCS, Wildlife

Habitat Management Institute, 2000; pp. 135-150

NAL Call #:  aS604.6 .C66 2000

Descriptors:  

wetlands / constructed wetlands/

water quality/ wildlife habitats

272. Will conversion of Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) lands to pasture be detrimental for grassland birds

in Kansas?

Klute, David S.; Robel, Robert J.;

and Kemp, Kenneth E.

American Midland Naturalist

137(2): 206-212. (1997)

NAL Call #:  

410 M58; ISSN: 0003-0031

Descriptors:  

Ammodramus savannarum/ Bartramia

longicauda/ Molothrus ater/ Spiza americana/ Sturnella magna/

agricultural practices/ behavior/ birds/ conservation/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ ecosystems/ farmland/ grasslands/ habitat use/

land use/ management/ nest parasitism/ nests/ nesting/ pastures/

productivity/ public relations/ status/ wildlife/ federal programs/

wild birds/ nature conservation/ natural resources/ agricultural

economics (general)/ land development, land reform, and utilization

(macroeconomics)/ dickcissel/ grasshopper sparrow/ meadowlark/

brown headed cowbird/ upland sandpiper/ North America/ United

States/ Kansas/ Riley County

Abstract: Most Conservation Reserve Program

contracts expire in 1997 and approximately 70 per cent of CRP

fields in Kansas may be converted into pastures. The authors

compared bird use of CRP fields to their use of pastures. Total

avian abundance was greater in pastures than on CRP fields. Data on

five species using these habitats are provided.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

[Table of Contents]


Other Environmental

Effects

273. After the CRP contract expires.

Cacek, T.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 43 (4): 

291-293. (1988)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

erosion/ soils/ conservation/

vegetation/ landslides and erosion

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program will

convert 40 million to 45 million acres of highly erodible cropland

to perennial vegetation and will become one of the most important

conservation and commodity supply control programs in U.S. history.

Its overall impact, however, will depend largely on the fate of the

land after the 10 year contracts expire. The Soil Bank of the late

1950s and early 1960s serves as a model of what could happen but

which conservationists must not allow to happen with CRP. The Soil

Bank enrolled several million acres of hayland and established an

additional 21 million acres of cover under multi-year contracts. Of

this, just over 2 million acres were planted to trees. When the

contracts expired, virtually all of this land, with the exception

of the acreage in tress, was returned to crop production. While the

Soil Bank provided a decade of soil erosion control and superb

pheasant hunting, it produced few long-term benefits on most

acres.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

274. Agricultural Conservation: Status of

Programs That Provide Financial Incentives.

General Accounting

Office

Washington, DC: GAO; 60 p.

(1995)

Notes: Report No.: GAO/RCED-95-169

http://www.gao.gov/archive/1995/rc95169.pdf

Descriptors:  

USA/ economics/ land use/

agriculture/ conservation/ federal programs/ economic analysis/

sociological aspects/ soil conservation/ erosion control/

environmental protection/ pollution control/ habitat improvement/

farms/ water pollution control/ wildlife conservation/

Environmental action/ Protective measures and control/ Watershed

protection

Abstract:  The Agriculture Department (USDA)

administers 17 programs that provide financial incentives to

farmers and ranchers who use conservation measures. Under 10 of the

programs, USDA, through direct payments or low-cost loans, helps

defray the cost of implementing conservation practices. Under the

other seven programs, USDA purchases easements or rents land in

order to retire it from agricultural production. The

incentive-based conservation programs are intended to encourage

voluntary efforts to reduce soil erosion, lessen water pollution,

enhance fish and wildlife habitat, and address other conservation

concerns. This report provides information on these incentive-based

programs since fiscal year 1992, including information on their

budgets and levels of activity and on the primary purposes of the

conservation measures taken under the programs. GAO also identifies

potential options for consolidating them.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

275. Agricultural conservation: USDA needs to

better ensure protection of highly erodible cropland and wetlands:

Report to the ranking Democratic member, Committee on Agriculture,

Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate.

United States. General Accounting

Office.

U.S. General Accounting Office,

2003.

Notes: Cover title./ "April 2003."/ Chiefly tables./

Includes bibliographical references (p. 106).

http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03418.pdf

Descriptors:  

Agricultural conservation---United

States/ Soil conservation---United States/

      Wetland conservation---United

States

276. Alfalfa persistence under infrequent

cutting.

Sheaffer, C. C.; Grimsbo Jewett,

J.; Barnes, D. K.; Lueschen, W. E.; Swanson, D. R.; and Matthison,

R.

Journal of Production

Agriculture 10 (4): 558-561.

(Oct. 1997-Dec. 1997)

NAL Call #:  

S539.5.J68; ISSN: 0890-8524 [JPRAEN]

Descriptors:  

medicago sativa/ cultivars/ phleum

pratense/ crop mixtures/ fodder crops/ cutting frequency/

persistence/ survival/ stand characteristics/ disease resistance/

clavibacter Michiganensis subsp insidiosus/ fusarium oxysporum f sp

medicaginis/ colletotrichum trifolii/ bacterial diseases/ fungal

diseases/ federal programs/ Minnesota/ phytophthora medicaginis/

Conservation Reserve Program

Abstract: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars

have been developed for modern forage production systems with three

or four cuts per year. Little is known about persistence of alfalfa

cultivars in unharvested systems such as Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) fields. Our objective was to determine the stand

persistence of alfalfa cultivars that were not harvested or

harvested once per year. Twenty-three alfalfa cultivars

representing a range of fall dormancy and disease resistance were

established in binary mixture with timothy (Phleum pratense L.) at

Becker, Grand Rapids, Morris, Rosemount, and Waseca, MN. Cutting

treatments, which included a single cut per year (about 1 August)

or no cutting were applied for 3 yr. Cutting treatment effects at

Rosemount, Becker, Grand Rapids, and Waseca suggest that annual

cutting of alfalfa-grass mixtures on CRP land would enhance alfalfa

persistence, but stand survival of many cultivars was lower than

that normally observed in cultivar trial plots cut three or four

times per year. At Becker and Morris, fall dormancy was a good

predictor of stand survival. There was no relationship between

stand survival and disease resistance of cultivars. Annual mowing

should be considered as a tool for maintaining alfalfa in CRP

fields at some locations, but cultivars designed for the CRP

program, which normally does not allow cutting, are

needed.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

277. America's Conservation Reserve Program:

Rural planning or just another subsidy.

Daniels, T. L.

Journal of Rural

Studies 4 (4): 405-411.

(1988)

NAL Call #:  

HT401.J68; ISSN: 0743-0167

Descriptors:  

rural planning/ land diversion/

eroded soils/ federal programs/ erosion control/ United

States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

278. Applying input-output models to natural

resource problems: The Conservation Reserve Program.

Bernat, G. A. Jr. and Johnson, T.

G.

In: Evaluating natural resource

use in agriculture/ Robertson, T.; English, B. C.; and Alexander,

R. R.

Ames, IA: Iowa State University

Press, 1998;

pp. 297-317.

Notes: ISBN: 0813829585; 1st ed.; Paper presented at

the Atlantic Economic Society's Thirtieth International Conference,

Oct 11-14, 1990, Williamsburg, Virginia

NAL Call #:  S22.E835-1998

Descriptors:  

input output analysis/ federal

programs/ mathematical models

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

279. Boll weevil overwintering in CRP grasses

on the Texas High Plains.

Carroll, S. C. and Rummel, D.

R.

Proceedings - Beltwide

Cotton Production Research Conferences : 297-299. (1990)

NAL Call #:  

SB249.N6 [BCOPB].

Notes: Meeting held January 9-14, 1990, Las Vegas,

Nevada. Includes references.

Descriptors:  

anthonomus grandis/ overwintering/

survival/ winter/ grasses/ gramineae/ grasslands/ nature

conservation/ conservation areas/ eragrostis curvula/ quercus/

litter plant/ Texas/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

280. Broadleaf weed control in Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) grass plantings.

Adams, E. B. and Swan, D.

G.

Research Progress Report -

Western Society of Weed Science : 367. (1988)

NAL Call #:  

79.9-W52R; ISSN: 0090-8142

Descriptors:  

lawns and turf/ descurainia

pinnata/ sisymbrium altissimum/ salsola iberica/ herbicide

application/ herbicide mixtures/ Washington

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

281. Changes in ecosystem structure and

function along a chronosequence of restored grasslands.

Baer, S G; Kitchen, D J; Blair, J

M; and Rice, C W

Ecological

Applications 12 (6):

1688-1701. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

QH540.E23; ISSN: 1051-0761

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

aboveground vegetation/ chronosequence/ ecosystem structure/

restored grasslands/ soil characteristics/ tallgrass prairie/

vegetation composition

Abstract: Changes in aboveground vegetation, roots,

and soil characteristics were examined from a 12-yr chronosequence

of formerly cultivated fields restored to native C4 grasses through

the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Following 6-8 yr in the

CRP, the native grasses dominated vegetation composition, and the

presence of forbs was negligible. Productivity of the restored

grasslands did not exhibit any directional changes with the number

of years in the CRP, and productivity was generally higher than

native prairie in this region. Over time, the restored grasslands

accumulated root biomass of decreasing quality as indicated by

increasing root biomass and C:N ratio of roots along the 12-yr

chronosequence. Root biomass, root C:N ratio, C storage in roots,

and N storage in roots of restored grasslands approached that of

native tallgrass prairie within the 12 yr of restoration.

Establishment of the perennial vegetation also affected soil

physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Soil bulk

density in the surface 10 cm decreased with time since restoration.

Total C, microbial biomass C, and C mineralization rates increased

as a function of time since restoration. The greatest change in

total C occurred in the surface 5 cm, where total C was 26% greater

in 12- vs. 2-yr restored grasslands. Extractable soil nitrate and

soil N transformations (i.e., net N mineralization rates and net

nitrification rates) declined over the restoration chronosequence,

but these values were not representative of steady-state conditions

due to the high variability in these measures among the native

prairies. Although complete restoration of ecosystem structure and

function was not the primary intention of the CRP, this study

demonstrates that establishment of the matrix vegetation (i.e.,

native C4 grasses) drives ecosystem processes in the trajectory of

the original system. Moreover, restoration may hasten the recovery

of soil C pools relative to formerly cultivated systems undergoing

natural succession.

© Thomson

282. Conservation Reserve Program: Alternatives

are available for managing environmentally sensitive cropland:

Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry,

U.S. Senate.

United States. Congress. Senate.

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. and United

States. General Accounting Office.

Washington, D.C.: U.S. General

Accounting Office; 68 p.: ill., maps. (1995)

Notes: Cover title. "February 1995." "GAO/RCED-95-42."

"B-258910"--P. [1]. Includes bibliographical references. SUDOCS: GA

1.13:RCED-95-42.

NAL Call #:  S624.A1C66--1995

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Soil conservation---Government

policy---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

283. The Conservation Reserve Program: An

economic perspective.

Bartlett, E. T. and Trock, W.

L.

Rangelands 9 (4): 147-148. (Aug. 1987)

NAL Call #:  

SF85.A1R32; ISSN: 0190-0528

Descriptors:  

soil and water conservation/

environmental legislation/ no-tillage/ wildlife conservation/

agricultural economics/ grasses/ legumes/ woody plants/ state

government/ reserves/ United States/ Texas/ Colorado

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

284. Conservation Reserve Program:

Implementation and accomplishments, 1986-87.

Dicks, Michael R.; Llacuna,

Felix.; Linsenbigler, Michael.; and United States. Dept. of

Agriculture. Economic Research Service.

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of

Agriculture, Economic Research Service; v, 119 p. (1988)

Notes: Cover title. "January 1988" --P. i. Bibliography: p.

10.

NAL Call #:  1-Ag84St-no.763

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---Evaluation/ Soil conservation---Law and

legislation---United States/ Soil Bank program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

285. The Conservation Reserve Program Montana

perspective.

Johnson, J. B.

Proceedings of the Great

Plains Agricultural Council : 109-121. (1986)

NAL Call #:  

282.9-G7992; ISSN: 0434-5835 [PGPCA]

Descriptors:  

land capability/ erosion/

 rents/ legislation/ agricultural crises/ agricultural and

rural law/ input output analysis/ Montana/ food and security act of

1985

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

286. Conservation Reserve Program: North Dakota

Enhancement Program.

United States. Farm Service

Agency.

Washington, D.C.: USDA, Farm

Service Agency; Series: Fact sheet (United States. Farm Service

Agency). (2001)

Notes: Title from caption. Ed. statement on html

version only. "January 2001."

NAL Call #:  aHD1775.N9-C65-2001

http://www.fsa.usda.gov/pas/publications/facts/html/crepnd01.htm

Descriptors:  

North Dakota Enhancement Program/

Conservation of natural resources---Economic aspects---North

Dakota/ Water quality management---Economic aspects---North Dakota/

Agriculture---Economic aspects---North Dakota

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

287. Conservation Reserve Program: Tree

thinning.

United States. Farm Service

Agency.

Washington, D.C.: USDA, Farm

Service Agency; Series: Fact sheet (United States. Farm Service

Agency). (1999)

Notes: Electronic ed.; Title from caption. Ed.

statement on html version only. "July 1999."

NAL Call #:  aS930-.C659-1999

http://www.fsa.usda.gov/pas/publications/facts/html/crp%5Ftreethinning99.htm

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Forest thinning---United States/

Conservation of natural resources---United States/ Wildlife habitat

improvement---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

288. The Conservation Reserve Program: Where

are we heading?

Goetz, H.

Rangelands 11 (6): 251-252. (Dec. 1989)

NAL Call #:  

SF85.A1R32; ISSN: 0190-0528

Descriptors:  

resource conservation/ programs/

impact/ environmental impact

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

289. Conservation reserve tree planting: Can we

improve upon success?

West, A. J.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 43 (1):

66-67 . (1988)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

conservation/ wildlife/ habitats/

trees/ ecology/ Basic approaches, Concepts and Theory

Abstract: If one thing is certain, it is that the

Conservation Reserve Program presented foresters and landowners

with both an opportunity and a challenge. Of a vast array of

practices that can be applied on CRP acres, including grasses,

windbreaks, trees, wildlife habitat, diversions, structures, and

shallow water areas for wildlife, only one of these--tree

planting--has a goal that's etched in the language of the law

itself.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

290. Contribution of the Conservation Reserve

Program to General Landscape Structure in Illinois.

Weber, W. L.; Roseberry, J. L.;

and Woolf, A.

In: 16th Annual Symposium of

US-International Association of Landscape Ecology. (Held 25 Apr 2001-29 Apr 2001 at Temple, AZ

(USA).); 2001.

Notes: Conference Sponsor: The National Endowment for

the Arts, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Landscape Ecology

Branch) Arizona Commission on the Arts; World Meeting Number 000

5525

Descriptors:  

Biology/ Environmental

Science

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

291. CRP: Evaluating the options.

Ohlenbusch, Paul D.; Langemeier,

Michael R.; and Watson, Steve L.

Cooperative Extension Service,

Kansas State University, 1995.

Notes: 24 pp.: ill.; Cover title. "March 1995"--P. [4]

of cover. Includes bibliographical references (p. 9).

(application/pdf)

NAL Call #: S544.3.K2K3-no.2078

http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/library/crpsl2/mf2078.pdf

292. The CRP in Oregon's Columbia basin: A

local perspective.

Carlson, Louis and Bedell, Thomas

E.

In: The Conservation Reserve:

Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow, Symposium Proceedings. (Held 14 Jan 1991 at Washington, D.C.); pp.

63-65; 1991 .

Notes: U.S. For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM No. 203; WR

238

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Programs/

conservation programs/ public relations/ North America/ United

States/ Oregon

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

293. Das Conservation Reserve Program der USA:

Eine Moeglichkeit zur effizienten Entlohnung von Umweltleistungen

der Landwirtschaft?

Mello, Inken; Heissenhuber, Alois;

and Kantelhardt, Jochen

Berichte ueber

Landwirtschaft 80 (1):

85-93. (Mar. 2002); ISSN: 0005-9080.

Notes: Language: German

Descriptors:  

American Conservation Reserve

Program/ agricultural environmental program/ environmental

protection/ farmer service reward system/ national economy/ private

farm management/ program transfer potential

Abstract: When implementing agricultural

environmental programmes, the main problems frequently revolve

round the expense and the rake-off effects. If these programmes are

too general in nature, they generate high rake-off effects, if they

are too detailed, the costs of control and implementation rise.

With the "Conservation Research (sic) Program", the USA appears to

have succeeded in developing an efficient environmental programme,

and in readying it for practical implementation. This article

describes the programme, discussing its implementation on a private

farm and looking into its ecological consequences for the national

economy. In conclusion, the author points to the potential for

transferring this programme to Germany.

© Thomson

294. Early results from an old-field loblolly

pine spacing study in the Georgia Piedmont with competition

control.

Pienaar, L. V. and Shiver, B.

D.

Southern Journal of Applied

Forestry 17 (4): 193-196.

(Nov. 1993)

NAL Call #:  

SD1.S63; ISSN: 0148-4419 [SJAFD9]

Descriptors:  

pinus taeda/ seedlings/ stand

establishment/ marginal land/ plant competition/ vegetation

management/ stand density/ growth/ survival/ diameter/ volume/

plant height/ Georgia

Abstract: The study reported here provides

information on the yield potential of improved loblolly pine

seedlings planted on marginal agricultural cropland in the Georgia

Piedmont with control of herbaceous competition. Early growth rates

greatly exceed those in existing plantations established on cutover

and mechanically site-prepared land in this region without

additional control of competing vegetation. After 8 growing

seasons, average tree height, average dbh, basal area per acre, and

stem volume per acre were all influenced by planting density, but

the mean annual increment of merchantable volume (trees 4.0 in. dbh

and bigger to a 2.0 in. top diameter) at age 8 yr, for planting

densities of 400 to 1000 trees/ac, was 230 ft3, or approximately 3

cords/ac/yr. This is more than twice the average growth rate in

this region of cutover and mechanically site-prepared loblolly

plantations without additional vegetation control. These results

should be of particular interest to prospective participants in the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP).

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

295. Economic and environmental impacts of

planting flexibility and conservation compliance: Lessons from the

1985 and 1990 Farm Bills for future farm legislation.

Wu, S.; Walker, D. J.; and

Brusven, M. A.

Agricultural and Resource

Economics Review  26

(2): 216-228. (Oct. 1997)

NAL Call #:  

HD1773.A2N6; ISSN: 1068-2805

Descriptors:  

watersheds/ agricultural policy/

legislation/ economic impact/ environmental impact/ federal

programs/ program participants/ conservation/ planting/ farm

income/ profitability/ deficiency payments/ erosion/ farmers'

attitudes/ integer programming/ Idaho/ food security act of 1985/

food, agriculture, conservation and trade act of 1990

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

296. Economic assessment of a nationwide

forestry cost-share program: The case of the U.S. Forestry

Incentives Program.

Ellefson, P. V. and Risbrudt, C.

D.

Resource Management and

Optimization 4

(2): 167-177. (1987); ISSN: 0142-2391

Descriptors:  

federal programs/ economics/

forestry/ natural resources

Abstract: Major federal natural resources program,

Forestry Incentives Program, was evaluated. Program internal rate

of return ranged from 8.3 percent to 10.9 percent, depending on

costs included. Retention of forest practices established 8 years

prior was excellent. Evaluation challenges include dispersion of

programs benefits throughout rural U.S., evaluating benefits

accruing many years in future (75-100 years), and multiple agency

involvement in program administration.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

297. The economics of a public fund for

environmental amenities: A study of CRP contracts.

Babcock, B. A.; Lakshminarayan, P.

G.; Wu, J. J.; and Zilberman, D.

American Journal of

Agricultural Economics  78 (4): 961-971. (Nov. 1996)

NAL Call #:  

280.8-J822; ISSN: 0002-9092 [AJAEBA]

Descriptors:  

amenity and recreation areas/

federal programs/ environmental protection/ land management/ land

diversion/ productivity/ profitability/ Gini coefficient/ wind

erosion/ water erosion/ surface water/ water quality/ habitats/

budgets/ acreage/  Conservation Reserve Program/ Lorenz curve/

environmental benefits / environmental quality

Abstract: The problem of targeting CRP purchases to

buy environmental amenities under productivity and environmental

heterogeneity is considered. Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves

are used to measure the effectiveness of spending under alternative

targeting criteria. The environmental benefits considered are water

erosion, wind erosion, surface water quality, and wildlife habitat.

The three alternative targeting criteria examined include

purchasing land according to (i) the benefit-to-cost ratio, (ii)

the level of benefits, and (iii) the level of cost. Results

indicate that the degree of variability and correlation determine

the extent to which suboptimal targeting achieves a significant

portion of available environmental benefits.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

298. Effects of CRP on windbreak

planting.

Bratton, J. and Hoefer,

P.

Proceedings of the Society

of American Foresters National Convention : 195-198. (1988)

NAL Call #:  

SD143.S64; ISSN: 0899-370X.

Notes: "Economic and Social Development: A Role for

Forests and Forestry Professionals,"

October 18-21, 1987, Minneapolis,

Minnesota.

Descriptors:  

windbreaks/ plant establishment/

programs/ conservation areas/ Conservation

Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

299. The effects of different production

systems, technology mixes, and farming practices on farm size and

communities: Implications for the Conservation Reserve

Program.

Flora, J. L. and Flora, C.

B.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

75-83.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

rural communities/ farming/

 economic impact/ farm size/ farming systems/ resource

conservation/ soil conservation/ erosion control/ programs/

northern plains states of USA/ southern plains states of USA/

community vitality / Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

300. Effects of emergency haying on vegetative

characteristics within selected Conservation Reserve Program fields

in the northern Great Plains.

Allen, A. W.; Cade, B. S.; and

Vandever, M. W.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 56

(2): 120-125. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

land banks/ grasslands/ haymaking/

vegetation/ botanical composition/ grasses/ medicago sativa/

legumes/ weeds/ nature conservation/ North Dakota/ South

Dakota

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

301. Effects of grazing and haying on arthropod

diversity in North Dakota Conservation Reserve Program

grasslands.

Hoernemann, C. K.; Johnson, P. J.;

and Higgins, K. F.

Proceedings of the South

Dakota Academy of Science 80: 283-308. (2001); ISSN: 0096-378X

Descriptors:  

Species diversity/ Agricultural

practices/ Grazing/ Catching methods/ Formicidae/ Diplopoda/

Hymenoptera/ Coleoptera/ Diptera/ Ants/ Populations & general

ecology

Abstract: A study of arthropod populations in North

Dakota CRP grasslands was conducted to determine the impact of

grazing and haying management practices on the arthropod fauna.

Four sampling methods were used to collect arthropods: flight

intercept traps, pitfall traps, sweep net, and soil samples. The

three study sites occurred in Bowman, Ward, and Stutsman counties,

North Dakota. Each site consisted of three pastures under a

twice-over rotation grazed system, one pasture grazed seasonlong, a

hayed field, and an idle area which served as a control. Shannon's

Index showed there were no significant differences in diversity

among pastures or county sites. Correspondence analysis (COA)

showed Diplopoda (millipedes) and Formicidae (ants) were correlated

to idle and hayed treatments in which both groups had a higher mean

abundance. Stutsman County had the highest mean abundance of

millipedes. Two beetle families, Elateridae (click beetles) and

Curculionidae (weevils), showed a trend toward the idle area from

COA, but neither group had a significantly higher mean abundance in

idle areas. Ward County had the highest mean abundance of both

click beetles and weevils. Miridae (plant bugs) showed a strong

trend to hayed fields where they had a significantly higher mean

abundance. A significantly higher mean abundance of plant bugs was

found in Bowman County. Acrididae (grasshoppers) were found equally

abundant in all pasture types in 1995, but fewer were found in idle

areas in 1996. The lowest mean abundance of grasshoppers was

collected in Ward County. Grasshopper densities did not reach

threatening levels in either year of this study. Based on the

overall results grazing and haying appear to be viable options for

post-contract uses of CRP lands with regard to management of

arthropod populations.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

302. Environmental quality incentives program

as part of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act (The

1996 Farm Bill): Environmental risk assessment final.

United States. Dept. of

Agriculture.

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of

Agriculture; v, 151, A-W p.: ill., maps. (1997)

Notes: Cover title. "February 11, 1997." Includes

bibliographical references (p. A-C).

NAL Call #:  aTD171.E58-1997

Descriptors:  

United

States---Federal---Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996/

Environmental protection---United States/ Environmental

policy---United States/ Environmental quality/ Environmental

law---United States/ Environmental risk assessment---United States/

Risk assessment/ ORACBA/ methodology/ ecology

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

303. Establishing clovers on Conservation

Reserve Program land.

Rasnake, M. and Lacefield,

G.

In: Proceedings of the American

Forage and Grassland Council. (Held 8 Mar 1998-10 Mar 1998 at Indianapolis,

Indiana.); Vol. 7.

Georgetown, Tex.: American Forage

and Grassland Council; pp. 64-65; 1998.

NAL Call #:  SB193.F59

Descriptors:  

trifolium pratense/ crop

establishment/ Kentucky

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

304. Establishment of native and introduced

range plants in the Central Great Plains.

McGinnies, W. J. and Hassell, W.

G.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

35-41.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

replanting/ grasses/ sowing/

seedbed preparation/ environmental factors/  Colorado/ Kansas/

Nebraska/ Wyoming/ Conservation

Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

305. Establishment of shrubs and forbs in the

Southern Plains region.

Ueckert, D. N.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

47-51.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

revegetation/ shrubs/ grasses/

replanting/ establishment/ southern plains states of USA

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

306. Evaluating Nonpoint Pollution Policy Using

a Tightly Coupled Spatial Decision Support System.

Bennett, D. A. and Vitale, A.

J.

Environmental

Management 27 (6): 825-836.

(2001)

NAL Call #:  

HC79.E5E5; ISSN: 0364-152X

Descriptors:  

Agriculture/ Pollution control/

Policies/ Soil erosion/ Sediment transport/ Land use/ Legislation/

Nonpoint pollution/ Decision support systems/ Water pollution

control/ Government regulations/ United States/ Illinois/ Cypress

Creek/ Nonpoint Pollution Sources/ Environmental Quality/ Erosion/

Land Management/ Prevention and control/ Environmental action/

Water quality control

Abstract: Policy makers often must rely on the

cumulative impact of independent actions taken by local landowners

to achieve environmental goals. The connection between policy,

regulation, and local action, however, is often not well understood

and, thus, the impact of proposed policies may be difficult to

predict. In this study we evaluate the effectiveness of alternative

policy scenarios for agricultural set aside programs (e.g., the

Conservation Reserve Program administered by the United States

Department of Agriculture) in reducing nonpoint pollution. Two

alternative policy scenarios are developed and analyzed; one based

on the erodibility index (detachment), the other sediment yield

(transport). An estimate of the cumulative impact of associated

land use change on nonpoint pollution is made using the AGNPS

distributed parameter watershed model. This work is completed

within the Cypress Creek watershed in southern Illinois. An

analysis of the resulting data suggests that the most efficacious

regulatory strategy for achieving nonpoint water pollution goals

depends, in part, on place-specific land use patterns. This

conclusion provides a solid argument for place-based regulatory

strategies.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

307. Evaluating soil properties of CRP land

using remote sensing and GIS in Finney County, Kansas.

Wu, J.; Nellis, M. D.; Ransom, M.

D.; Price, K. P.; and Egbert, S. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 52

(5): 352-358. (Sept. 1997-Oct.

1997)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

United States, Kansas, Finney

County/ Remote Sensing/ Geographic Information Systems/ Evaluation/

Soil Properties/ Soil Erosion/ Land Use/ CRP/ NRCS/ Watershed

protection

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

began in 1986 with the primary purpose of reducing soil erosion. It

also was intended to help the development of sustainable

agriculture and associated environmental harmony. However, its

effectiveness has been questioned because of the large costs and

extensive staff required to conduct the program. The objectives of

our study were to test procedures for integrating remote sensing

and geographic information systems (GIS) techniques to evaluate the

present CRP in terms of its main goal, and to give recommendations

for the future of the program in Finney County, Kansas. Three

seasonal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images were used to derive

the land-use/land cover (LULC) map. This information was

incorporated with spatial dimensions of soil surface horizon

thickness, surface horizon texture, soil family, soil subgroup, and

soil erodibility index (EI), all of which were extracted or

calculated from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)

soil survey geographic (SSURGO) data base. With GIS techniques,

calculation of EI was more efficient and the value was more

accurate than that calculated by hand. We found the average EI of

the county to be 20, with the highest EI of 77 in the southwest

portion of the study area. CRP land had higher soil fertility and a

lower EI than land currently used for farming; therefore, the CRP

for this county did not necessarily include the lands most

susceptible to erosion. We suggest continuing the CRP program in

Finney County, because the soils are generally at serious risk of

erosion. We also suggest modifying the eligibility rules of the

program in order to target the most environmentally sensitive

lands.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

308. Evaluating the cost effectiveness of land

retirement programs.

Khanna, M.; Yang, W.; Farnsworth,

R.; and Onal, H.

Selected papers from the

annual meeting of the American Agricultural Economics

Association (2002)

NAL Call #:  

HD1405-.A44.

Notes: Supplemental online access through http://agecon.lib.umn.edu. Meeting held July 28-31, 2002, in

Long Beach, California. Includes references.

Descriptors:  

land diversion/ land use/ cost

benefit analysis/ cost effectiveness analysis/ watersheds/

environmental impact/ mathematical models/ program evaluation/

Illinois/ Lower Sangamon Watershed/ Cass County, Illinois/

Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

309. Factors associated with loblolly pine

mortality on former agricultural sites in the Conservation Reserve

Program.

Mitchell, R. J.; Runion, G. B.;

Kelley, W. D.;

Gjerstad, D. H.; and Brewer, C.

H.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 46

(4): 306-311. (July 1991-Aug.

1991)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

pinus taeda/ seedlings/ mortality/

sulfometuron/ phytotoxicity/ fungal diseases/ insect pests/ plant

parasitic nematodes/ carbofuran/ herbicide residues/ land use/

agricultural land/ afforestation/ erosion control/

Georgia

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

310. Farm bill environmental program may

threaten native prairie habitat.

Baker, B.

Bioscience 50 (5): 400. (May 2000)

NAL Call #:  

500-Am322A; ISSN: 0006-3568 [BISNAS]

Descriptors:  

federal programs/ land management/

prairies/ environmental policy/ United States/ Conservation Reserve

Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

311. A farm program with incentives to do

good.

Reichelderfer, K.

In: Yearbook of Agriculture;

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1987.

pp. 267-271. ill.,

maps.

Notes: ISSN: 0886-7690

NAL Call #:  1-AG84Y

Descriptors:  

conservation/ farmers/ farms/

erosion/ crops/ wetlands/ United States/ Conservation Reserve

Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


312. Federal and State Forestry Cost-Share

Assistance Programs: Structure, Accomplishments, and Future

Outlook.

Haines, T.

New Orleans, LA: Southern Forest

Experiment Station; FSRPSO295; PB96152251XSP, 1995. 21

p.

Notes: Forest Service research paper SO295

http://216.48.37.129/pubs/rp/rp_so295.pdf

Descriptors:  

Structural timber/ State

government/ National government/ Conservation/ Planting/

Harvesting/ Productivity/ Revenue/ Financing/ Forestry management/

Forestry/ Cost sharing/ Government policies/ NIPF/ Nonindustrial

private forest/ NIPF lands/ Private land/ Natural resources and

earth sciences/ Forestry/ Natural resource management/ Problem

solving information for state and local governments/ Environment/

Urban and regional technology and development/ Environmental

management and planning

Abstract:  Cost-share assistance programs have

been an effective policy mechanism for increasing productivity on

nonindustrial private forest (NIPF) lands. In light of reduced

harvests from Federal lands, timber productivity on these lands has

become increasingly important to ensure sufficient timber supplies

in the future. Productivity of other forest resources has also been

enhanced through these programs. Four Federal programs, the

Forestry Incentives Program, the Agricultural Conservation Program,

the Stewardship Incentives program, and the Conservation Reserve

Program, provided cost-share assistance for tree planting on

467,000 acres in 1993. During the course of this study, the

provisions of the individual State programs, funding levels,

accomplishments, and outlook for continuation or expansion, were

examined. Federal programs were reviewed as well, with respect to

their interaction with State-level programs. The results of the

study are presented in this paper.

313. Forestation and the CRP.

Mixon, J. and Thompson,

L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 44 (5): 437.

(Sept. 1989-Oct. 1989)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

afforestation/ soil

conservation

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

314. The future of Alabama's CRP grasslands:

AAES study examines prospective uses of CRP grasslands in the Black

Belt.

Goodman, B.; Miller, M.; Gimenez,

D.; Milam, B.; Flynn, K.; and Best, T.

Highlights of Agricultural

Research (Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station) 42 (4): 19-20. (Winter 1995)

NAL Call #:  

100-Al1H; ISSN: 0018-1668 [HARAAS]

Descriptors:  

grasslands/ conservation areas/

erosion control/ program participants/ production possibilities/

hunting/ multiple land use/ landowners/ regional surveys/

demography/ Alabama/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

315. Future of the Conservation Reserve

Program: Joint hearing before the Subcommittee on Environment,

Credit, and Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture,

House of Representatives, and the Subcommittee on Agricultural

Research, Conservation, Forestry, and General Legislation of the

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, U.S. Senate, One

Hundred Third Congress, second session, September 1, 1994,

Aberdeen, SD.

United States. Congress. House.

Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on Environment, Credit and

Rural Development. United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on

Agriculture Nutrition and Forestry. Subcommittee on Agricultural

Research Conservation Forestry and General Legislation.

Washington: U.S. G.P.O.; vi, 192

p.: ill., maps. (1995)

Notes: Distributed to some depository libraries in

microfiche. Shipping list no.: 95-0090-P. "Serial no. 103-92."

Includes bibliographical references (p. 117). SUDOCS: Y 4.AG

8/1:103-92.

NAL Call #:  KF27-.A3338-1995; ISBN: 0160468345

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program U.S/

Soil conservation---Economic aspects---United States/ Agricultural

subsidies---United States/ Agriculture and state---United

States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


316. Future use of Conservation Reserve Program

acres: A national survey of farm owners and operators.

Osborn, C. Tim.; Schnepf, Max;

Keim, Russ.; and Soil and Water Conservation Society

(U.S.).

Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water

Conservation Society; 47 p.: ill. (1994)

Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.

29).

NAL Call #:  S624.A1O87--1994

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Agricultural conservation---United States/

Land use---Rural---United States/ Agricultural contracts---United

States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

317. GIS-based spatial indices for

identification of potential phosphorous export at watershed

scale.

Giasson, E.; Bryant, R. B.; and

DeGloria, S. D.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 57

(6): 373-381. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

318. Grazing Lands and the Conservation Reserve

Program.

Winrock International Institute

for Agricultural Development.

Morrilton, AR: Winrock

International, 1988. 8 p.

Notes: Original Title: "Grazing Lands and the

Conservation Reserve Program: executive summary: third forum,

Harpers Ferry, WV, October 11-13, 1988."

NAL Call #:  HD241.G73

Descriptors:  

Grazing Lands and the Conservation

Reserve Program/ Grazing districts---United States/ Agricultural

conservation---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

319. Grazing warm-season grasses on

post-contract CRP land in Colorado.

Hart, Charles R. and Colorado

State University. Cooperative Extension Service.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Colorado

State University Cooperative Extension; XCM-194, 1996.

47 p. Bulletin.

Notes: "January 1996." Includes bibliographical

references (p. 29).

NAL Call #:  HD241.G75--1996

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Grazing---Colorado/

Grasses---Colorado---Growth

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


320. Growth responses of warm-season

tallgrasses to dormant-season management.

Schacht, W. H.; Smart, A. J.;

Anderson, B. E.; Moser, L. E.; and Rasby, R.

Journal of Range

Management 51 (4):

442-446. (July 1998)

NAL Call #:  

60.18-J82; ISSN: 0022-409X [JRMGAQ]

Descriptors:  

panicum virgatum/ andropogon

gerardii/ schizachyrium scoparium/ tillering/ harvesting date/

prescribed burning/ mowing/ grazing intensity/ stocking rate/

grassland improvement/ plant height/ growth stages/

Nebraska

Abstract: A study on Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) land was established in southeastern Nebraska to determine

the effect of dormant-season management on subsequent-year growth

rates and yields of tallgrasses. The purpose of the management

practices was removal of standing dead material and litter that

negatively impact plant growth and grazing efficiency. Treatments

consisted of a control with no residue manipulation and 5 residue

manipulation practices including (1) October shredding and leaving

residue; (2) October haying; (3) October intensive grazing; (4)

March intensive grazing; and (5) spring prescribed burning. The

study was conducted in 1994/95 and 1995/96 on a switchgrass

(Panicum virgatum L.) monoculture and mixed stand of warm-season

tallgrasses dominated by big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman)

and little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash]. The

manipulation treatments effectively removed standing dead material

without reducing yields in the growing season following

application. Marked switchgrass tillers on the control plots

increased (P < 0.1) in height at a more rapid rate than

switchgrass on other treatments until late summer in both years.

Rate of morphological development was similar (P > 0.1) for all

treatments in 1995 and 1996. Rate of height increase and

morphological development in big and little bluestem on the mixed

grass site generally was comparable or slower on the manipulation

treatments than the control in both years; however, big and little

bluestem tillers grew relatively rapidly at the end of the 1995

growing season. Because the manipulation treatments generally did

not increase tiller growth rates of the dominant grass species,

potential harvest dates would be similar to those of untreated

areas.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

321. Hand planting versus machine planting of

bottomland red oaks on former agricultural fields in Louisiana's

Mississippi Alluvial Plain: Sixth-year results.

Michalek AJ; Lockhart BR; Dean TJ;

Keeland BD; and McCoy JW

In: General Technical Report,

Southern Research Station, SRS 48/ Outcalt KW; Outcalt PA; and

Tucker RB, 2002. pp. 352-357.

Notes: Conference: Proceedings of the Eleventh

Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference, Knoxville,

Tennessee, 20-22 March 2001.

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.


322. Herbaceous energy crop production

feasibility using Conservation Reserve Program acreage.

Nelson, R. G.; Langemeier, M. R.;

and

Ohlenbusch, P. D.

Proceedings of the Annual

Conference - American Solar Energy Society : 326-331. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

TJ810.A54; ISSN: 1062-4910.

Notes: Meeting held June 25-30, 1994, San Jose,

California. Includes references.

Descriptors:  

fuel crops/ tripsacum dactyloides/

andropogon gerardii/ sorghastrum nutans/ bioenergy/ energy cost of

production/ crop production/ nitrogen fertilizers/ transport/

pyrolysis/ feasibility/ economic analysis/ federal programs/ United

States/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

323. Historical development of native

vegetation on the Great Plains.

Stubbendieck, J.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

21-28.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

vegetation types/ botanical

composition/ environmental factors/ history/ northern plains states

of USA/ southern plains states of USA

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

324. History of cropland set aside programs in

the Great Plains.

Bedenbaugh, E. J.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

14-17.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

resource conservation/ soil

conservation/ land diversion/ history/ northern plains states of

USA/ southern plains states of USA/ food security act of 1985/

Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

325. History of grassland plowing and grass

planting on the Great Plains.

Laycock, W. A.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

3-8.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

grasslands/ land use/ plowing/

revegetation/ resource conservation/ history/ northern plains

states of USA/ southern plains states of USA

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

326. How to determine when your Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) pine plantation is ready to thin.

Londo AJ; Traugott TA; Dicke SG;

and Roberts SD

In: General Technical Report,

Southern Research Station, SRS 48/ Outcalt KW; Outcalt PA; and

Tucker RB USDA Forest Service,  2002. pp. 159-162.

Notes: Conference: Proceedings of the Eleventh

Biennial Southern Silvicultural Research Conference, Knoxville,

Tennessee, 20-22 March 2001.

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.


327. Impact of leafy spurge on

post-Conservation Reserve Program land.

Hirsch, S. A. and Leitch, J.

A.

Journal of Range

Management 51 (6):

614-620. (Nov. 1998)

NAL Call #:  

60.18-J82; ISSN: 0022-409X [JRMGAQ]

Descriptors:  

euphorbia esula/ conservation

areas/ weed control/ species diversity/ economic impact/ grazing/

carrying capacity/ wildlife/ North Dakota

Abstract: Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.), a

noxious weed infests some of the 1.2 million hectares of

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land in North Dakota. Once

established a leafy spurge monoculture will reduce expected CRP

benefits and impact returns to some post-CRP land uses. The study

estimated statewide direct economic impacts of about $351,000 on

post-CRP land maintained in vegetative cover, $1.118 million on

post-CRP grazing land, and negligible (assumed $0) on post-CRP

cropland, for a total of $1.469 million. Total annual direct and

secondary economic impacts to North Dakota's economy were estimated

to be $4.665 million, which would support about 57 jobs.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

328. Impact of post-CRP alternatives on cotton

production in the Texas High Plains.

Johnson, P.; Segarra, E.; and

Ervin, R. T.

Proceedings - Beltwide

Cotton Conferences

1: 500-502. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

SB249.N6; ISSN: 1059-2644.

Notes: Meeting held January 5-8, San Diego,

California. Includes references.

Descriptors:  

cotton/ gossypium/ economic

analysis/ crop production/ land policy/ erosion/ soil conservation/

Texas/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

329. Implications of changes in the regional

ecology of the Great Plains.

Joyce, L. A. and Skold, M.

D.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

115-127.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

resource conservation/ soil

conservation/ erosion control/ land use/ programs/ USDA/ landscape/

northern plains states of USA/ southern plains states of USA/

Conservation

Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

330. Insects as indicators of land use in three

ecoregions in the prairie pothole region.

Anderson, D. J. and Vondracek,

B.

Wetlands 19 (3): 648-664. (1999)

NAL Call #:  

QH75.A1W47; ISSN: 0277-5212

Descriptors:  

Prairies / Agricultural practices/

Indicator species/ Light traps/ Species diversity/ Species

richness/ United States, North Dakota/ Land Use/ Invertebrates/

 Insects/ Wetlands/ Agriculture/ Ecological Effects/ Insecta/

Populations & general ecology/ Effects on water of human

nonwater activities

Abstract: We sampled populations of insects in the

prairie pothole region of North Dakota, USA, to determine whether

relationships existed between community- or taxon-level indicators

and 11 land-use types. Our goal was to determine if agricultural

impacts were reflected in measurable differences for insect

indicators: abundance, taxa richness, and diversity. Insects were

sampled with light traps at 126 wetland basins in three ecoregions.

Sampling was conducted three times each year during the spring and

early summer of 1995 and 1996. Sites were selected based on the

proportion of cropland to grassland, hayland, and Conservation

Reserve Program land surrounding wetland basins at 50 and 400 m

radii. Other land-use types included in our analyses were woodland,

roadways, and five wetland types: permanent, semi-permanent,

seasonal, temporary, and riverine. In both years, taxa richness,

abundance, and diversity were greater for the second (June) and

third (July) sampling periods than for the first period (May), and

indicators were greater in the Drift Plain and Red River Valley

ecoregions than in the Missouri Coteau ecoregion. Our analyses

indicated several significant associations between insect

indicators and land-use types; however, r super(2) values were

generally low. Much more of the variance in insect measures was

explained by temperature, seasonal, and ecoregion effects. Several

associations were significant within individual ecoregions (i.e.,

abundance of aquatic insects, Caenidae, Scarabaeidae, and

Lepidoptera and number of Ephemeroptera families). However, no

indicators were found in common for all three ecoregions. Several

significant associations with land use were identified across all

sites (i.e., all ecoregions combined). A small number of the

significant relationships found across all sites were related to

agricultural land use, and several indicated a negative

relationship with grasslands. However, we observed several positive

relationships between our insect indicators and riverine wetlands

across sites and in the Red River Valley ecoregion for both years

and spatial scales (i.e., the abundance of Caenidae, Scarabaeidae,

Ceratopogonidae, Hydropsychidae, and Hydroptilidae).

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

331. Landscape cover type and pattern dynamics

in fragmented southern Great Plains grasslands, USA.

Coppedge, B. R.; Engle, D. M.;

Fuhlendorf, S. D.; Masters, R. E.; and  Gregory, M.

S.

Landscape Ecology

16 (8): 677-690. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

QH541.15.L35L36; ISSN: 0921-2973

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

332. Local socioeconomic impacts of the

Conservation Reserve Program.

Hodur NM; Leistritz FL; and

Bangsund DA

Fargo, N.D.: Department of

Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University;

Agribusiness and Applied Economics Report (AAER) 476, 2002. 16

p.

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

333. Long-term harmful effects of crested

wheatgrass on Great Plains grassland ecosystems.

Lesica, P. and DeLuca, T.

H.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 51

(5): 408-409. (Oct. 1996)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

ecological effects/ species

diversity/ vegetation/ soil erosion/ erosion control/ United

States, Great Plains/  exotic species/ crested wheatgrass/

Watershed protection

Abstract: Many Eurasian grasses have been

intentionally introduced throughout temperate North America,

primarily for hay and pasture. The most commonly planted exotic

grass in western North America is crested wheatgrass (Agropyron

cristatum, A. desertorum). There are between 15 and 26 million

acres of crested wheatgrass on this continent. The conversion of

native prairie to crested wheatgrass primarily occurred after the

drought of the late 1920s and 1930s when large areas of marginal

cropland were abandoned and then seeded with non-native grasses to

reduce soil erosion potential. Today, crested wheatgrass continues

to be planted over large areas of the Northern Great Plains. Since

1985 several million acres of crested wheatgrass have been planted

on idled cropland as part of the Conservation Reserve

Program.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

334. A look at CRP land: Returning to cotton

production.

Johnson, J.; McGregor, K.; and

Dabney, S.

Proceedings - Beltwide

Cotton Conferences

2: 1351-1352. (1996)

NAL Call #:  

SB249.N6; ISSN: 1059-2644

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

335. Maximizing the environmental benefits per

dollar expended: An economic interpretation and review of

agricultural environmental benefits and costs.

Poe, Gregory L. and New York State

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Dept. of Agricultural,

Resource and Managerial Economics.

Ithaca, NY: Dept. of Agricultural,

Resource, and Managerial Economics, College of Agriculture and Life

Sciences, Cornell University; 45 p. (1997)

Notes: Cover title. "July 1997." Includes

bibliographical references (p. 32-42).

NAL Call #:  HD1775.N7-E25-no.-97-10

http://purl.org/net/nysl/nysdocs/37497244

Descriptors:  

Agriculture---Economic aspects/

Agriculture---Environmental aspects/ Environmental

protection---Cost effectiveness

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

336. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project

1994 establishment cost data.

Downing, M.; Pierce, R.; and

Kroll, T.

Oak Ridge, Tenn.  Oak Ridge

National Laboratory; ORNL TM12914, 1996. 58 p.

Notes: DE96010091XSP; Sponsored by Department of

Energy, Washington, DC.; Contract: AC0596OR22464

Descriptors:  

Economic Analysis/ Energy Source

Development/ Socio Economic Factors/  Biomass Plantations/

Minnesota/ Poplars/  Wood Fuels/ Business and economics/

Energy reserves/ Energy policies, regulations and studies/

Fuels

Abstract:  The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up

Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the

spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor

economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale

commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research

plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising,

high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid

poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners

involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of

their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will

expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for

the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is

undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which

they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the

wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood

industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5

years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per

cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could

be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates

have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy

including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an

additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and

agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets

for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a

tremendous amount of local and international interest in the

project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP,

a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the

Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently

underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring

1995.


337. National Survey of Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) Participants on Environmental Effects, Wildlife

Issues, and Vegetation Management on Program Lands.

Allen, A. W. and Vanderever, M.

W.

Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Geological

Survey, Fort Collins Science Center; USGS BSR 2003-001, 2003. 56

p.

Notes: ADA418145XSP; Biological Sciences Report;

Prepared in cooperation with Johnson Controls World Services, Inc.,

Fort Collins, CO 80526-8118.

http://www.fort.usgs.gov/products/publications/21075/21075.pdf

Descriptors:  

Ground water/ Air quality/ Soil

erosion/ Wildlife/ Plants Botany/ Fire hazards/ Surveys/ Long range

Time/ Environmental impact/ Land use/ Conservation Reserve Program/

Natural resources and earth sciences/ Agriculture and food/

Agricultural equipment facilities and operations/ Medicine and

biology/ Ecology/ Environmental pollution and control

Abstract:  A national survey of Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) contractees was completed to obtain

information about environmental and social effects of the program

on participants, farms, and communities. Of interest were

observations concerning wildlife, attitudes about long-term

management of program lands, and effectiveness of U.S. Department

of Agriculture (USDA) assistance in relation to these issues.

Surveys were delivered to 2,189 CRP participants with a resultant

response rate of 64.5%. Retired farmers represented the largest

category of respondents (52%). Enhanced control of soil erosion was

the leading benefit of the CRP reported. Over 73% of respondents

observed increased numbers of wildlife associated with lands

enrolled in the program. The majority of respondents reported CRP

benefits, including increased quality of surface and ground waters,

improved air quality, control of drifting snow, and elevated

opportunities to hunt or simply observe wildlife as part of daily

activities, income stability, improved scenic quality of farms and

landscapes, and potential increases in property values and future

incomes also were seen as program benefits. Negative aspects,

reported by a smaller number of respondents, included seeing the

CRP as a source of weeds, fire hazard, and attracting unwanted

requests for trespass. Over 75% of respondents believed CRP

benefits to wildlife were important. A majority of respondents

(82%) believed the amount of assistance furnished by USDA related

to planning and maintaining wildlife habitat-associated with CRP

lands was appropriate. Nearly 51% of respondents would accept

incorporation of periodic management of vegetation into long-term

management of CRP lands to maintain quality of wildlife habitats.

Provision of funds to address additional costs and changes in CRP

regulations would be required to maximize long-term management of

program lands.

338. North Dakota's CRP Grazing and Haying

Demonstration Project.

Printz, J. L.

Rangelands 15 (4): 163-165. (Aug. 1993)

NAL Call #:  

SF85.A1R32; ISSN: 0190-0528

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ grazing/

 hay/ grazing systems/ stocking rate/ herbage/ North Dakota/

Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

339. Noxious weed control in Conservation

Reserve Program grass stands.

Ohlenbusch, P. D.

In: L: Cooperative Extension

Service, Kansas State University, 816 (April 1990); Manhattan,

Kan.: Cooperative Extension Service,

Kansas State University, 1990. 4

p.

NAL Call #:  275.29-K13LE

Descriptors:  

weed control/ grasslands/ cover

crops/ herbicides/ Kansas

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


340. Overwintering by the boll weevil

(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Conservation Reserve Program grasses

on the Texas High Plains.

Carroll, S. C.; Rummel, D. R.; and

Segarra, E.

Journal of Economic

Entomology 86 (2): 382-393.

(Apr. 1993)

NAL Call #:  

421-J822; ISSN: 0022-0493 [JEENAI]

Descriptors:  

anthonomus grandis/ diapause/

habitats/ overwintering/ plains/ plateaus/ survival/ conservation

areas/ grasses/ Texas

Abstract: Scarcity of suitable overwintering

habitat is a major obstacle to the establishment of the boll

weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, in cotton-producing

counties of the Texas High Plains (THP). After introduction of the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in 1985, a 3-yr study was

conducted to investigate the overwintering potential of the boll

weevil in two CRP grass habitats on the THP. Overwintering survival

of the boll weevil in leaf litter of sand shinnery oak, Quercus

havardii (Rydberg), in the Texas Rolling Plains (TRP) served as a

comparison. CRP grasses provide marginal overwintering habitat when

compared with sand shinnery oak leaf litter. For a given level of

winter severity, total winter survival and effective emergence

(emergence after approximately 15 June in the study area) were

consistently lower in the CRP grasses than in sand shinnery oak

leaf litter. Even with lower survival rates in THP grasses,

economically damaging boll weevil infestations could follow mild

winters if large diapausing populations develop in the fall.

Pheromone traps located in CRP pastures on the THP indicated a

relatively low level of overwintered boll weevil emergence during

all three study years.

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

341. Perennial wheat germ plasm lines resistant

to eyespot, Cephalosporium stripe, and wheat streak

mosaic.

Cox, C. M.; Murray, T. D.; and

Jones, S. S.

Plant Disease 86 (9): 1043-1048. (Sept.

2002)

NAL Call #:  

1.9-P69P; ISSN: 0191-2917

Descriptors:  

Plant diseases/ Wheat germ/ Disease

resistance/ Eye spot/ Stripe/ Streak/ Eyespot/ Wheat streak mosaic

virus/ Cephalosporium gramineum/ Tapesia yallundae/

Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides/ Thinopyrum ponticum/

Thinopyrum intermedium/ Washington/ Susceptibility & virus

multiplication/ General/ United States

Abstract:

A perennial wheat cropping system

on the Palouse Prairie of eastern Washington may provide an

alternative to the Federal Conservation Reserve Program and reduce

soil erosion while providing a harvestable crop for growers.

Twenty-four perennial wheat germ plasm lines resulting from crosses

between wheat and wheatgrass were evaluated under controlled

environment conditions for resistance to Wheat streak mosaic virus

(WSMV), Cephalosporium gramineum, and Tapesia yallundae (anamorph

Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides var. herpotrichoides).

Perennial wheat lines SS452, SS103, SS237, MT-2, and PI 550713 were

resistant to all three pathogens. Eight lines (33%) were resistant

to WSMV at 21 degree C and 25 degree C; AT3425 was resistant to

WSMV at 21 degree C but not at 25 degree C. Thirteen lines (54%)

were highly to moderately resistant to C. gramineum. Thirteen lines

(54%) were resistant to T. yallundae in each experiment, but the

reactions of four lines differed between experiments. The

wheatgrasses Thinopyrum intermedium (PI 264770) and Thinopyrum

ponticum (PI 206624) are reported as new sources of resistance to

T. yallundae. Perennial wheat must have resistance to these

diseases in order to be feasible as a crop in the Pacific

Northwest.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

342. Pine and CRP as alternative cropland uses:

An application of the southeast land allocation model.

Atwood, J. D.; English, B. C.; and

Robertson, T.

Southern Journal of

Agricultural Economics  21 (1): 189. (July 1989)

NAL Call #:  

HD101.S6; ISSN: 0081-3052

Descriptors:  

pines/ land use/ farmland/ crop

mixtures/ south eastern states of USA

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

343. Plow: Lessons Learned From CRP -

Point.

Mitchell, J. E.

In: 50th Annual Meeting of the

Society for Range Management. (Held 15 Feb 1997-20 Feb 1997 at Rapid City, SD

(USA).); 1997.

Notes: Conference Sponsor: South Dakota Section of the

Society for Range Management; HQ: Society for Range Management

(Denver, CO); World Meeting Number 971 0113

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

344. Post-contract grassland management and

winter wheat production on former CRP fields in the southern Great

Plains.

Dao, T. H.; Stiegler, J. H.;

Banks, J. C.;

Bogle Boerngen, L.; and Adams,

B.

Agronomy Journal

92 (6): 1109-1117.

(Nov. 2000-Dec. 2000)

NAL Call #:  

4-AM34P; ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT]

Descriptors:  

triticum aestivum/ grassland

management/ abandoned land/ semiarid climate/ land management/

efficacy/ bothriochloa ischaemum/ gossypium hirsutum/ fertilizers/

application rates/ regrowth/ conservation tillage/ herbicides/

no-tillage/ land banks/ Oklahoma/ Conservation Reserve

Program

Abstract: Integrated management guidelines for

postcontract land use Conservation Reserve Program lands in

semiarid regions are generally lacking. We determined the relative

efficacy of four systems of transitional conservation practices for

producing 'Old World' bluestem (OWB) (Bothriochlora ischaemum L.)

and dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cotton (Gossypium

hirsutum L.) on former CRP fields. The sites were located on

Dalhart fine sandy loam (Aridic Paleustalf) and La Casa-Aspermont

clay loam (Typic Paleustoll) near Forgan and Duke, OK,

respectively. Removing old growth increased cumulative OWB yields

between 1994 and 1997. Applications of 67 kg N and 16.5 kg P ha(-1)

increased yields by 0, 70, and 180% at Forgan and 290, 70, and 280%

at Duke in 1995 to 1997, respectively. Removing the old dry matter

and regrowth vigor also enhanced chemical suppression and killing

of the grass, the performance of conservation tillage, and

achieving a uniform crop stand. Early OWB suppression conserved

stored water that was vital to cool-season crop production in the

year the contract expired. First-year wheat yields averaged 970,

490, and 1002 kg ha(-1) at Forgan and 1590, 600, and 830 kg ha(-1)

at Duke under unfavorable weather conditions (i.e., drought, late

freeze) of 1995 through 1997, respectively. No-till generally

produced higher yields, averaging 10 and 35% greater than

conservation systems at Forgan and Duke, respectively. In variable

semiarid environment, the chance of success for agronomic

production decreased in the order of grass production, NT wheat,

tilled wheat, and dryland cotton on former CRP lands.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

345. Post-CRP land management and sustainable

production alternatives for highly erodible lands in the Southern

Great Plains.

Dao, T. H. Sustainable Agriculture

Research and Education SARE research projects Southern Region.

 1995. 35 p.

Notes: Author Affiliation: USDA, ARS, Conservation

& Production Research Laboratory, Bushland, TX; SARE Project

Number: LS94-58

NAL Call #:  S441.S8552

Descriptors:  

triticum aestivum/ gossypium

hirsutum/ conservation tillage/ tillage/ no-tillage/ bothriochloa

ischaemum/ prescribed burning/ crop density/ crop management/ land

management/ federal programs/ crop yield/ Texas/ Oklahoma/

Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

346. RCA III influence of social trends on

agricultural natural resources: Community, social capital, and

conservation.

Washington D.C.: NRCS, USDA, 1997.

vii, 61 p.: map; 28 cm.

NAL Call #:  aS930.U6 R23 1997

Descriptors:  

Agriculture---Social

aspects---United States/ Community development---United States/

Conservation of natural resources---United States

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

347. RCA III influence of social trends on

agricultural natural resources: Property rights, conservation, and

ecosystem-based assistance.

Washington, D.C.: NRCS, USDA,

1997. vii,

17 p.; 28 cm.

NAL Call #:  aHD255 .R23 1997

Descriptors:  

Agricultural ecology---United

States/ Right of property---United States/ Ecosystem

management---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

348. Resource conservation: Hearing before the

Subcommittee on Forestry, Conservation, and Rural Revitalization of

the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United

States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, first session ... June

6, 1995.

United States. Congress. Senate.

Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry. Subcommittee on

Forestry Conservation and Rural Revitalization.

Washington: U.S. G.P.O.; iv, 151

p.: ill.; Series: United States. Congress. Senate.

S. Hrg. 104-496. (1996)

Notes: Distributed to some depository libraries in

microfiche. Shipping list no.: 97-0026-P. Includes bibliographical

references. SUDOCS: Y 4.AG 8/3:S.HRG.104-496.

NAL Call #:  Fiche--S-133-Y-4.AG-8/3:S.HRG.104-496-;

ISBN: 0160535514

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Conservation of natural

resources---Government policy---United States/ Agriculture and

state---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

349. Revamped CRP growing again.

Osborn, T.

Agricultural Outlook

[AO] (175): 22-25. (June

1991)

NAL Call #:  

aHD1751.A42; ISSN: 0099-1066

Descriptors:  

federal programs/ land diversion/

erosion control/ legislation/ United States/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ food, agriculture, conservation and trade act of

1990

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

350. Reverting Conservation Reserve Program

lands to wheat and livestock production: Effects on ground beetle

(Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages.

French, B. W.; Elliott, N. C.; and

Berberet, R. C.

Environmental

Entomology 27 (6):

1323-1335. (Dec. 1998)

NAL Call #:  

QL461.E532; ISSN: 0046-225X [EVETBX]

Descriptors:  

carabidae/ insect communities/

community ecology/ species diversity/ population density/ pastures/

conservation areas/ reserved areas/ bothriochloa bladhii/ land use/

agricultural land / triticum aestivum/ minimum tillage/ no-tillage/

livestock/ grazing/ Oklahoma/ species composition/ species

abundance

Abstract: Highly erodible lands enrolled in the

Conservation Reserve Program soon will revert to agricultural

production. This study was designed to determine the effects of

reversion of Conservation Reserve Program lands to wheat and

livestock production on ground beetle assemblages. Reversion

strategies included no reversion of Conservation Reserve Program

grass (unmanaged bluestem), simulated grazing of Conservation

Reserve Program grass (managed bluestem), minimum-tillage practices

for wheat production, and no-tillage practices for wheat

production. A randomized block experimental design was established

with 4 replicates. More ground beetles were captured in pitfall

traps in 1995 than in 1996, and abundances within years differed

among reversion strategies. Of the 73 ground beetle species

collected, 9 species accounted for 61.7% of total abundance.

Abundances of these 9 species differed with respect to reversion

strategy. Species diversity and evenness differed among the

reversion strategies in 1995, but only evenness differed in 1996.

Canonical correspondence analysis showed that annual and monthly

variation were the predominant factors in separating ground beetle

assemblages. Lack of rainfall may have accounted for a large

portion of differences in abundances between years. A partial

canonical correspondence analysis showed that simulated grazing and

no-tillage wheat were the predominant reversion strategies in

separating ground beetle assemblages. These treatments represent

disturbance levels intermediate to unmanaged bluestem and

minimum-tillage wheat.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

351. Review of the Conservation Reserve

Program, Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, and other

conservation matters affecting U.S. agriculture: Hearing before the

Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities, Resource Conservation,

and Credit of the Committee on Agriculture, House of

Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, second session, March

31, 2000, Mankato, MN.

United States. Congress. House.

Committee on Agriculture. Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities,

Resource Conservation and Credit.

Washington: U.S. G.P.O.;

 iii, 119 p.: ill.,

maps. (2000)

Notes: Distributed to some depository libraries in

microfiche. Shipping list no.: 2000-0275-P. "Serial no. 106-49."

SUDOCS: Y 4.AG 8/1:106-49.

NAL Call #:  KF27-.A3452-2000a; ISBN: 0160606020

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Conservation Reserve Enhancement

Program---United States/ Wetland mitigation banking---Minnesota/

Wetland conservation---Minnesota/

Soil

conservation---Minnesota

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

352. RIM and CRP: Two marginal cropland

retirement programs.

Taff, Steven J.

St. Paul, Minn.: University of

Minnesota, Institute of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics,

1987.

16 p.: ill.

Notes: Staff paper P, 0090-1334; P87-21.; "July 1987."

Bibliography: p. 15.

NAL Call #:  HD1761.A1M5-no.87-21

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

353. The role of the Conservation Reserve

Program in controlling rural residential development.

Johnson, J. and Maxwell,

B.

Journal of Rural

Studies 17 (3): 323-332.

(July 2001)

NAL Call #:  

HT401.J68; ISSN: 0743-0167

Descriptors:  

land use / residential areas/ rural

development/ federal programs/ land policy/ land management/

prediction/ Montana/  

Three Forks, Montana

Abstract: Rural population growth in the form of

residential development frequently results in the loss of

agricultural productive land as well as loss of adjacent open space

that often characterizes rural communities. A land-use prediction

model was used to determine what influence the USDA Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) may have on urban sprawl and rural community

sustainability. The model demonstrated that the projected mean

rural residential growth rate was almost half the growth rate with

CRP as compared to without CRP in the local land management mix. In

addition, ecosystem integrity on the land surrounding a rural

community was sharply increased with the introduction of CRP.

However, community economics and subsequent social character of the

community may have been significantly impacted by CRP. In order to

partially mitigate CRP-induced community impacts we propose future

CRP guidelines support the establishment of within-production field

scale ecological refuges. These refuges would satisfy the

conservation requirements of the program, return a level of

traditional agricultural production to the land management mix, and

provide the adjacent community with aesthetic and recreational

amenities that are frequently associated with modern rural

economies.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

354. Russian thistle control in Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) grass plantings.

Adams, E. B. and Swan, D.

G.

Research Progress Report -

Western Society of Weed Science : 368. (1988)

NAL Call #:  

79.9-W52R; ISSN: 0090-8142

Descriptors:  

lawns and turf/ salsola iberica/

herbicide application/ Washington

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

355. Russian wheat aphid (Homoptera :

Aphididae) performance on perennial grasses.

Mowry, T. M.; Halbert, S. E.; and

Pike, K. S.

Journal of Economic

Entomology 88

(3): 635-639. (1995)

NAL Call #:  

421 J822; ISSN: 0022-0493

Descriptors:  

grasses/ Diuraphis noxia/

Aphididae/ Homoptera/ survival/ fecundity/ host plants/ Relations

to plants

Abstract: Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia

(Kurdjumov), survival and fecundity on 25 perennial grasses in

their 1st yr of growth was measured in greenhouse experiments.

Thirteen grasses that had survived heading, seed set, and induced

dormancy were tested for aphid host suitability of plants in their

2nd yr of growth. In general, wheatgrasses were the most suitable

Russian wheat aphid hosts in both 1st- and 2nd-yr growth

experiments. Siberian wheatgrass P-27 and crested wheatgrass

'Ephraim' were better hosts for the Russian wheat aphid 1 yr after

establishment than in the 1st yr; however, there was no difference

in host suitability between concurrently tested 1st- and 2nd-yr

plants. Great Basin wildrye 'Magnar' was a less suitable host in

the second year, but this perennial grass was a poor host over all

plant ages. These greenhouse results support the conclusion that

certain perennial grasses that are suitable for Russian wheat aphid

survival and fecundity in the 1st yr of growth remain so in second

and subsequent years following establishment. For acreage set aside

in the Conservation Reserve Program, it is advisable to plant

perennial grasses that are poor Russian wheat aphid hosts from the

outset.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

356. Selected Effects of the Conservation

Reserve Program on Program Participants: A Report to Survey

Respondents.

Vandever, M. W.; Allen, A. W.; and

Sexton, N. R.

Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Geological

Survey, Fort Collins Science Center; USGSOFR02476, 2003. 30

p.

Notes: USGS Open file rept. 2476; Sponsored by Farm

Service Agency, Lakewood, CO

http://www.fort.usgs.gov/products/publications/10023/10023.pdf

Descriptors:  

Surveys/ Natural resources

conservation/ Conservation/ Wildlife/ Habitats/ Social effect/

Public opinion/ Conservation Reserve Program/ Natural resources and

earth sciences/ Natural resource management/ Agriculture and food/

Agricultural economics

Abstract:  In the summer of 2001, we drew a

random sample of 2,212 persons holding active Conservation Reserve

Program (CRP) contracts across all USDA Farm Production Regions

because we wanted information from people intimately familiar with

the program's effects on their land and communities, we did not

send surveys to contracts held in the name of trusts, banks, or

other non-personal ownership (49 contracts). To carry out the

survey, we followed a dependable step-by-step process designed to

maximize the quality and quantity of responses for mail surveys

(Dillman 1978, 2000). As a result, the overall response rate for

the survey was 65%. Of the 35% who did not respond, only 1% (29

people) formally refused to participate. We were able to summarize

the survey results nationally and by USDA Farm Production

Region.

357. Slippage effects of the Conservation

Reserve Program.

Wu, J. J.

American Journal of

Agricultural Economics  82 (4): 979-992. (Nov. 2000)

NAL Call #:  

280.8-J822; ISSN: 0002-9092 [AJAEBA]

Descriptors:  

land use/ land diversion/ federal

programs/ conservation/ agricultural land/ environmental impact/

regression analysis/ erosion/ United States

Abstract: Each year, billions of dollars of public

funds are expended to purchase conservation easements on farmland.

One unintended impact of these programs is that they may bring

non-cropland into crop production. Such a slippage effect can be

caused by increased output prices and by substitution effects. This

article shows that for each one hundred acres of cropland retired

under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in the central United

States, twenty acres of non-cropland were converted to cropland,

offsetting 9% and 14% of CRP water and wind erosion reduction

benefits, respectively. Implications of these results for the

design of conservation programs are discussed.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

358. Spatial modeling of preferred wireworm

(Coleoptera : Elateridae) habitat.

Lefko, S. A.; Pedigo, L. P.;

Batchelor, W. D.; and Rice, M. E.

Environmental

Entomology 27 (2):

184-190. (Apr. 1998)

NAL Call #:  

QL461.E532; ISSN: 0046-225X [EVETBX]

Descriptors:  

elateridae/ insect pests/ spatial

distribution/ habitats/ models/ geographical information systems/

sampling/ soil water content/ pest management/ agricultural land/

federal programs/ Iowa/ habitat preference/ pest scouting/

Conservation Reserve Program

Abstract: Potential damage to crops after the

Conservation Reserve Program is widespread. One probable result is

the increased occurrence of soil-insect pests, primarily wireworms

(Coleoptera: Elateridae). The likelihood of wireworm problems in

the Iowa Conservation Reserve Program was compounded by the large

amount of land enrolled in the program and the economic importance

of corn, Zea mays L., the crop most often damaged by wireworms in

the state. As a result, farmers need to consider pest management

options that should include pest scouting. Wireworm

presence/absence data from 1995 and 1996, and estimates of soil

moisture from 89 Conservation Reserve Program fields were used to

estimate variables useful for identifying where wireworms are more

likely to occur. The most useful variables were a soil-moisture

threshold of 17% and a moisture analysis that included

meteorological data from only 1 yr before sampling occurred. These

variables were coupled with a hydrologic model and embedded in a

geographic information systems (GIS) framework. This computerized

habitat model was run on the study area, Story County, Iowa, and

generated a map indicating areas where wireworms were more likely

to occur and where scouting should begin. Results of the model run

indicate that most of Story County is suitable wireworm habitat and

that there were areas considered highly favorable. The map

generated by this computer model can be used as a guide for

directing scouting within a field but does not identify areas where

management tactics are necessary. The methodology used in this

study is relatively simple, yet it performs the difficult task of

combining time, space, and climatological variables to evaluate

wireworm habitat over a landscape. Moreover, it demonstrates one

application of GIS technology in a discipline where the subject has

characteristics that are inherently spatial.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

359. The supply of land for conservation uses:

Evidence from the Conservation Reserve Program.

Plantinga, A. J.; Alig, R.; and

Cheng, H. T.

Resources, Conservation and

Recycling 31 (3): 199-215. (2001)

NAL Call #:  

TP156.R38R47; ISSN: 0921-3449

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

360. A survey of CRP land in Minnesota: Legume

and grass persistence.

Jewett, J. G.; Sheaffer, C. C.;

Moon, R. D.; Martin, N. P.; Barnes, D. K.; Breitbach, D. D.; and

Jordan, N. R.

Journal of Production

Agriculture 9 (4):

528-534. (Oct. 1996-Dec. 1996)

NAL Call #:  

S539.5.J68; ISSN: 0890-8524 [JPRAEN].

Notes: Subtitle: [Part] I.

Descriptors:  

land diversion/ federal programs/

regional surveys/ permanent grasslands/ legumes/ grasses/

persistence/ soil fertility/ phosphorus/ potassium/ soil ph/

Minnesota/ Conservation Reserve Program

Abstract: The federal Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP), which had goals including reduced soil erosion and increased

wildlife habitat, funded diversion of land from annual crops into

permanent vegetation. The survival of grasses and legumes planted

in CRP fields was not known. Our objectives were to assess the

persistence and coverage of grasses and legumes in 6- to 8-yr-old

CRP fields and to determine changes in soil pH, P, and K levels. We

studied 151 CRP fields chosen from 10 counties in four geographical

regions of Minnesota: 108 in the conservation practice 1 (CP-1)

cover type (planted cool-season perennial grasses and legumes); 17

in the CP-2 cover type (planted warm-season native grasses); and 26

in the CP-10 cover type (existing vegetation). Statewide, legumes

persisted in 82% of CP-1 fields planted to legumes, with 23%

groundcover. Grasses persisted in 90% of the planted CP-1 fields

with 47% groundcover. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot

trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), the most persistent legumes,

persisted in 90 and 67% of the planted fields with 21 and 32%

groundcover, respectively. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis

Leyss), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and switchgrass

(Panicum virgatum L.) persisted in over 90% of the planted fields

and had 50% groundcover or more. Other legumes and grasses

persisted in 50% or less of the planted fields and had 10%

groundcover or less. To maintain legumes in CRP fields, clipping is

required or cultivars should be developed that persist without

defoliation. Generally, soil pH, P, and K levels did not change

from initial to final samples and should be adequate to obtain low

levels of forage production.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

361. A survey of CRP land in Minnesota: Weeds

on CRP land.

Jewett, J. G.; Scheaffer, C. C.;

Moon, R. D.; Martin, N. P.; Barnes, D. K.; Breitbach, D. D.;

and

Jordan, N. R.

Journal of Production

Agriculture 9 (4):

535-542. (Oct. 1996-Dec. 1996)

NAL Call #:  

S539.5.J68; ISSN: 0890-8524 [JPRAEN].

Notes: Subtitle: [Part] II.  

Descriptors:  

land diversion/ federal programs/

regional surveys/ permanent grasslands/ botanical composition/

weeds/ infestation/ coverage/ frequency distribution/ rodents/

disturbed land/ colonization/ Minnesota/ Conservation Reserve

Program

Abstract: The federal Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) funded the conversion of eroding cropland to grass or

grass-legume cover that was not to be tilled, hayed, or grazed for

10 yr. It was not known what the species composition of CRP fields

would be after years of minimal disturbance. Our objective was to

document the presence and percentage groundcover of weeds in 151

CRP fields located in 10 Minnesota counties; including 108

Conservation Practice (CP)-1 (cool-season legumes and grasses)

fields, 17 CP-2 (native grasses) fields, and 26 CP-10 (existing

vegetation) fields. Groundcover of each species present and of bare

ground was scored in six 106-sq-ft sample plots per field. The most

prevalent species were the primary noxious weed Canada thistle

[Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.], the secondary noxious weed quackgrass

[Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex. Nevski], and the non-noxious weeds

dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber.) and goldenrod (Solidago

spp.). Weed percentage groundcover was higher in CP-10 fields than

in CP-1 or CP-2 fields, probably because many CP-10 stands were

already thinning at the start of the CRP contract. Volunteer

legumes and grasses were common in CP-10 fields. In CP-1 fields,

legume and grass percentage groundcover usually was correlated

negatively with weed percentage groundcover. Weed percentage

groundcover and species richness were correlated positively. Gopher

mounding was correlated positively with the amount of bare ground

and with the percentage groundcover of annual and biennial weed

species. Primary, secondary, and non-noxious weeds were each found

in nearly 90% of the fields studied. Widespread presence of noxious

weeds on CRP fields is a cause for concern. Weed control issues

should be addressed in planning a new CRP.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

362. Systemic constraints to ecological

well-being: The case of the 1985 Food Security Act.

Glenna, L. L.

Rural Sociology

64 (1):  133-171. (Mar.

1999)

NAL Call #:  

281.28-R88; ISSN: 0036-0112 [RUSCA].

Notes: Comment by E.M. DuPuis, p. 158-163; Reply by

L.L. Glenna, p. 164-171; Includes references.

Descriptors:  

conservation/ environmental

legislation/ environmental protection/ erosion control/

constraints/ agricultural policy/ capitalism/ United

States

Abstract: Although the conservation title of the

1985 Food Security Act was hailed by many as revolutionary in its

attempts to control soil erosion, it has failed to live up to its

billing. A theory is used that asserts that the state's systemic

commitment to promoting capitalist growth constrains it from

establishing and implementing policies that accomplish anything

more than displacing one environmental problem onto others. The

theory is tested through a discourse analysis of the hearings

surrounding the Federal government's attempt to control soil

erosion through the 1985 Food Security Act, which revealed that

policy recommendations challenging the drive to maximize efficiency

and production were declared flawed and unacceptable. Hence, the

hearings were systematically distorted in favor of the dominant

instrumental rationality. It is concluded that government policy

initiatives alone are insufficient and that creating alternative

social organizations of production is necessary to promote

ecological well-being.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

363. Targeting and the Environmental Quality

Incentive Program.

Day, Esther

Washington, D.C.: American

Farmland Trust, 2001.  

Notes: Cited (Web): 7 January 2002, 14 April

2004.

http://www.aftresearch.org/researchresource/wp/wp01-1.pdf

Descriptors:  

United States---Environmental

policy/ Environment---United States

Abstract:  Analyzes how well initial

allocations made under the Program addressed environmental problems

identified by the government and key stakeholders; variables

considered when distributing Program funds to states, grouped by:

soil erosion, water quality/quantity, grazing, animal waste,

wetland and wildlife issues, flooding threats, and other

categories; US.

© 2004 PAIS, published by OCLC

Public Affairs Information Service

364. Tillage and management alternatives for

returning Conservation Reserve Program land to crops.

Shapiro, C. A.; Holshouser, D. L.;

Kranz, W. L.; Shelton, D. P.; Witkowski, J. F.; Jarvi, K. J.;

Echtenkamp, G. W.; Lunz, L. A.; Frerichs, R. D.;

and Brentlinger, R. L.

Agronomy Journal

93 (4): 850-862. (July 2001-Aug. 2001)

NAL Call #:  

4-AM34P; ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT]

Descriptors:  

glycine max/ zea mays/ sorghum

bicolor/ crop management/ tillage/ nature conservation/ land use/

land management/ crop residues/ litter plant/ plowing/ discing/

no-tillage/ grasslands/ field experimentation/ crop yield/ crop

density/ weed control/ land banks/ Nebraska/ Iowa

Abstract: Accumulated vegetative residue was a

concern when Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land returned to

grain crop production. This study was conducted to determine the

effect of residue management, tillage, and crop choice on grain

yield in the first year of cropping on CRP land that was

predominately smooth brome (Bromis inermis Leyss). Three residue

management practices (undisturbed, shred, and remove), three

tillage systems [moldboard plow, disk, and no till], and three

crops [corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and

grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]] were used in a

factorial arrangement of a 3-yr field experiment conducted in

Nebraska on fine-silty, mixed, mesic Udic Haplustoll; fine-silty,

mixed (calcareous), mesic Typic Ustorthent; and fine-silty, mixed,

mesic Cumolic Halustoll soils. Residue management was not

significant for corn (P > F = 0.16), sorghum (P > F = 0.113),

and soybean (P > F = 0.491) although there were significant

residue x tillage interactions. Tillage system was not significant

(P > F = 0.125) for soybean yields, but plowing significantly (P

> F = 0.0001) increased both corn and sorghum yields. Mean corn

yields were 13% less for the no-till system than for the moldboard

plow system. However, no-till corn yield differences were not

significant (P > F = 0.255) when plant population (a possible

measure of planter performance) and percent green rating (a measure

of weed control) were included as covariates. Our recommendation

for the first year of grain crop production on smooth brome CRP

land is to shred the residue and plant soybean in a no-till

system.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

365. Tree planting on CRP acres in the

South.

Lentz, R. J.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 43 (1):

60-61. (1988)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

forestry / trees/ conservation/

state programs/ USDA Forest Service/ forestry

Abstract: State forestry agencies in cooperation

with U.S. Department of Agriculture agencies and other state and

local organizations were primarily responsible for reforesting

760,000 acres of non-industrial private forest lands in the

1985-1986 planting season using Forestry Incentives Program,

Agricultural Conservation Program, and state incentive program

funds.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

366. Using GIS to assess and manage the

Conservation Reserve Program in Finney County, Kansas.

Wu J; Ransom MD; Nellis MD;

Kluitenberg GJ; Seyler HL; and Rundquist BC

PE and RS: Photogrammetric

Engineering and Remote Sensing 68 (7): 735-744; 40 ref. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

325.28 P56

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

367. Using the cow instead of the plow: A

management option on former CRP land in the southern Great

Plains.

Riddle, Richard R.; Donges, Randy

D.; and United States. Natural Resources Conservation

Service.

Washington, D.C.: USDA, NRCS,

Natural Resources Conservation Service; 11 p.: col. ill.

(1999)

Notes: Cover title. Shipping list no.: 2000-0043-P.

Includes bibliographical references (p. [11]). SUDOCS: A 57.2:C

83/3.

NAL Call #:  aSF85.3-.R53-1999

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Range management Great Plains/ Grazing

Great Plains

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

368. Weed control guide for the Conservation

Reserve Program.

Kidder, D. W.

In: PNW - Pacific Northwest

Extension Publication, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho State

Universities, Cooperative Extension Service, 329; Corvallis, Or.:

Washington, Oregon, and Idaho State Universities, Cooperative

Extension Service, 1987. 8 p.

Notes: ISSN: 0887-7254

NAL Call #:  275.29-W27PN

Descriptors:  

weed control/ abandoned land/

herbicide application/ herbicide recommendations

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


369. Weed control in CRP plantings.

Wrage, Leon J.

Brookings, S.D.: South Dakota

State University, College of Agriculture & Biological Sciences;

Series: FS (South Dakota State University. Cooperative Extension

Service) 525-CRP; 10, 1 p.: ill. (2000)

Notes: Sponsoring agency: Cooperative Extension

Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture; Caption title. "May 2000"--p. [11].

NAL Call #:  275.29-So85Fs-no.-525-CRP

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

370. Weed control in the Conservation Reserve

Program and newly established grasses.

Whitson, T. D. and Miller, S.

D.

In: Bulletin: Wyoming University,

Cooperative Extension Service, 442.4; Laramie, Wyo.: Wyoming

University, Cooperative Extension Service, 1989. 6 p.

Notes: In subseries: Wyoming weed control

series.

NAL Call #:  275.29-W99B

Descriptors:  

grassland improvement/ erosion

control/ federal programs/ herbicides/ weed control/

Wyoming

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


371. Weed management for cover establishment

and maintenance on Conservation Reserve Program acres.

Yenish, Joe.; Stannard, Mark.; and

Washington State University. Cooperative Extension.

Pullman, Wash.: Cooperative

Extension, Washington State University; Series: Extension bulletin

(Washington State University. Cooperative Extension) 1867.

(1998)

Notes: Title from web page. "Published January 1998"

Description based on content viewed Nov. 3, 2002.

NAL Call #:  275.29-W22P-no.-1867

http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb1867/eb1867.html

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Grasses---Weed control---United States/

Legumes---Weed control---United States/ Weeds---Control---United

States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

372. Weed population dynamics in land removed

from the Conservation Reserve Program.

Felix, J. and Owen, M. D.

K.

Weed Science 47 (5): 511-517. (Sept. 1999-Oct. 1999)

NAL Call #:  

79.8-W41; ISSN: 0043-1745 [WEESA6]

Descriptors:  

zea mays/ glycine max/ amaranthus/

andropogon gerardii/ bromus inermis/ melilotus officinalis/

population dynamics/ weeds/ field experimentation/ seasonal

variation/ herbicides/ band placement/ broadcasting/ tillage/ land

banks/ rotations/ no-tillage/ botanical composition/ crop yield/

Iowa/ amaranthus rudis

Abstract: A field study was established in southern

Iowa in 1994 to study seasonal and long-term weed population

dynamics on land being brought back into production after 8 yr as

part of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The study was a

split-plot design with four replications; two tillage regimes, two

crop rotations, and three herbicide application methods were used.

Even though the tillage regime did not influence individual weed

population density throughout the study, the no-till (NT) regime

had more weeds compared to conventional tillage (CT). However, when

weeds were grouped into categories, tillage influenced broadleaf

weeds in 1994 and 1996 and total weeds in 1995. Plots under the NT

regime had an average of 46 broadleaf weeds m(-2) compared to 27 in

CT in 1994, with Amaranthus rudis Sauer (common waterhemp) being

the most prevalent. NT had a total of 186 weeds m(-2) compared to

125 m(-2) weeds in CT in 1995; however, in 1996, CT plots had 184

weeds m(-2) compared to 121 m(-2) in the NT regime. Except for

broadleaf weeds in 1994, crop rotation did not influence the number

of weeds, and herbicide application methods had the greatest effect

on weed populations. Overall, weed populations were greater in

1997, 1996, and 1995 than in 1994 for all herbicide application

methods. The no-herbicide treatment had the highest number of weeds

throughout the study. The total number of weeds in band and

broadcast treatments averaged 41 and 26 m(-2) in 1994; 96 and 24

m(-2) in 1995; 96 and 12 m(-2) in 1996; and 109 and 95 m(-2) in

1997. The use of broadcast herbicides in NT should be recommended

for land coming out of CRP. Regardless of the herbicide application

method or crop rotation, CT plots had. better yields for both Zea

mays L. (corn) and Glycine max L. (soybean). Glycine max had a

better stand compared to Z. mays in the first year, indicating that

a rotation starting with G. max might be preferred in the land

coming out of CRP.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

373. Weed seedbank dynamics in post

Conservation Reserve Program land.

Felix, J. and Owen, M. D.

K.

Weed Science 49 (6): 780-787. (Nov. 2001-Dec. 2001)

NAL Call #:  

79.8-W41; ISSN: 0043-1745 [WEESA6]

Descriptors:  

chenopodium album/ amaranthus/

weeds/ seed banks/ buried seeds/ nature reserves/ tillage/

rotations/ weed control/ species diversity/ population density/

seed output/ band placement/ broadcasting/ seasonal variation/

Iowa

Abstract: The influence of tillage, crop rotation,

and weed management regimes on the weed seedbank in land previously

under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) for 8 yr was

determined from 1994 through 1997. The study was a split-plot

design with four replications, two tillage systems, two crop

rotations, and three weed management treatments. Eleven weed

species were recorded in 1994 and 1995, and 13 in 1996 and 1997.

The weed seedbank was dominated by broadleaf species. In 1994, the

first year after CRP, the seed population density in the top 15 cm

of the soil profile was 51,480 seeds m(-2), of which 60 and 20%

were pigweed and common lambsquarters. The population density of

pigweed seeds in the seedbank increased over time and reached

51,670 seeds m(-2) in 1996. In contrast, the seed population

density for foxtail species was only 417 seeds m(-2) in 1994, but

it increased to 7,820 seeds m(-2) in 1997. The large increase in

foxtail species seed population density in the 4-yr period was

mainly in the no-herbicide weed management treatment. The weed

seedbank was reduced similarly by band and broadcast herbicide

treatments. Tillage and crop rotation did not influence the weed

seedbank or Shannon's diversity index, nor did they interact with

the weed management treatments in any of the years. The weed

seedbank population density varied with the years and time of soil

sampling. Weed seed population densities tended to be greater in

the fall but declined significantly by time of the spring sampling.

The no-herbicide treatment had a more diverse weed seedbank

compared with band and broadcast herbicide weed management

treatments. An average of one grass and three broadleaf weed

species were identified in the three weed management treatments.

Band and broadcast herbicide treatments reduced the weed seedbank

population density but did not affect the number of broadleaf weed

species observed.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

374. When CRP contracts expire: Alternative

strategies to encourage environmentally acceptable land

use.

Rietveld, W. J.

Proceedings of the Great

Plains Agricultural Council : 89-96. (1993)

NAL Call #:  

282.9-G7992; ISSN: 0434-5835.

Notes: Meeting held June 2-4, 1993, Rapid City, South

Dakota.

Descriptors:  

land use / contracts/ environmental

protection/ land diversion/ great plains states of USA/

Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

375. Wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

incidence and diversity in Iowa conservation reserve

environments.

Lefko, S. A.; Pedigo, L. P.; Rice,

M. E.; and Batchelor, W. D.

Environmental

Entomology 27 (2):

312-317. (Apr. 1998)

NAL Call #:  

QL461.E532; ISSN: 0046-225X [EVETBX]

Descriptors:  

elateridae/ insect pests/

incidence/ species diversity/ geographical distribution/ sampling/

agricultural land/ federal programs/ Iowa/ Conservation Reserve

Program

Abstract: The extended fallow period required by

Conservation Reserve Program contracts will likely heighten

farmers' concerns about pests when returning acreage to production,

particularly, wireworms (Coleoptera : Elateridae). An extensive

sampling program was conducted to estimate wireworm incidence and

subsequent pest potential of wireworms in Iowa conservation reserve

land. Eighty-nine fields were sampled during May and June of 1995

and 1996. Wireworms were recovered from approximately 45% of

conservation reserve fields. Bait sampling provided a more precise

means of detecting wireworm presence than core sampling. The

spatial distribution of wireworms in Iowa, and consequent crop

damage, probably is less restricted by environment than previously

thought. This is attributable to the relatively large species

diversity. Fourteen of the 15 elaterid species recovered have been

associated with or are considered serious pests of corn. As a

result, integrated pest management tactics, including insect pest

scouting, will likely benefit the risk-averse grower in these newly

converted lands.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

[Table of Contents]


Multiple

Environmental Effects

376. Agri-Environmental Policy at the

Crossroads: Guideposts on a Changing Landscape.

Claassen, R.; Hansen, L.; Peters,

M.; Breneman, V.; Weingerg, M.; Catteneo, A.; Feather, P.; Gadsby,

D.; Hellerstein, D.; Hopkins, J.; Johnston, P.; Morehart, M.; and

Smith, M. USDA, FSA; Agricultural Economic Report No. 794, 2001.

 

Descriptors: environmental benefits/ conservation

programs/ evaluation

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer794/aer794.pdf

Abstract:  Discussed development and

implementation of a farmer payment system based on a comprehensive

measurement of environmental benefits and tradeoffs from

agricultural practices endorsed under numerous USDA conservation

programs.

377. Agricultural Conservation: State Advisory

Committees' Views on How USDA Programs Could Better Address

Environmental Concerns.

Washington, DC: General Accounting

Office; GAO-02-295, 2002. 86 p.

Notes: PB-2002104592XSP; Report to the

Congress.

http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d02295.pdf

Descriptors:  

Program participation/ Surveys/

Payments/ Funding/ Benefits/ Congressional reports/ Conservation

programs/ Agricultural conservation/ Environmental concerns/

 State technical committees/ State advisory committees/ United

States Department of Agriculture/ Agriculture and food/

Environmental pollution and control

Abstract:  The future of USDA conservation

programs has been the subject of extensive debate within the

environmental and agricultural communities and in the Congress.

This debate has centered on increasing the environmental and

natural resource benefits resulting from the programs by allocating

more funding to them, modifying them, or creating new programs.

Pursuant to this debate, the omnibus farm bill is expected to

become law in 2002. In this context, you asked us to obtain the

views of members of state technical committees on (1) the

effectiveness of USDA's conservation efforts in addressing

environmental concerns related to agriculture and (2) any program

elements that hinder the achievement of environmental objectives

related to agriculture, as well as program characteristics that

current or new programs might include to better meet these

objectives. Also, you asked us to provide information on program

participation and the extent to which applications for program

participation exceed program funding as well as the geographic

distribution of payments for each program. This information is

provided in appendixes I and II, respectively. To provide

information on the views of members of state technical committees

for our first two objectives, we mailed a questionnaire to all NRCS

state conservationists and a sample of 1,470 committee members and

received 996 responses. We drew the sample from the 2,124 state

technical committee members in all 50 states and two territories.

The sample was stratified by geographic region and the

organizations the members represent, and the overall survey results

are generalizable to the entire population. All percentage

estimates from the survey have sampling errors of plus or minus 7

percentage points or less, unless otherwise noted. The survey

solicited views on the effectiveness of CRP General Enrollment, CRP

Continuous Enrollment, CREP, Wetlands Reserve Program,

Environmental Quality Incentives Program, Wildlife Habitat

Incentives Program, and Farmland Protection Program. For CREP and

the Farmland Protection Program, which are relatively new programs,

our results include only those states where the programs were

implemented at the time of our survey.

378. Agricultural Conservation: Survey of USDA

State Technical Committee Members.

Washington, DC: General Accounting

Office; GAO02371SP, 2002. 228 p.

Notes: ADA400304XSP

http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d02371sp.pdf

Descriptors:  

United States government/ Natural

resources/ Surveys/ Conservation/ Environmental protection/ Water

quality/ Habitats/ Wildlife/ Payment/ Environmental management/

Agriculture/ USDA/ GAO reports/ Agriculture and food/ Agricultural

economics/ Natural resources and earth sciences/ Natural resource

management

Abstract:  Farmers, ranchers, and private

forest landowners own and manage more than two-thirds of the

continental United States 1.9 billion acres and thus are the

primary stewards of our soil, water, and wildlife habitat. Because

of this important responsibility, how private land is used is

increasingly being recognized as vital to the protection of the

nation's environment and natural resources. For example, state

water quality agencies report that agricultural production is a

leading contributor to impaired water quality; similarly, habitat

loss associated with agriculture has been a factor in the declining

populations of many wildlife species, including many threatened or

endangered native species. In recognition of the critical role

played by private landowners, the Congress directed the U.S.

Department of Agriculture (USDA) to implement the numerous programs

aimed at improving the stewardship practices on these lands. USDA

currently has over 70 million acres of privately owned land

enrolled in programs that offer landowners financial incentives to

implement conservation practices to protect or improve soil and

water quality and wildlife habitat. USDA's conservation efforts are

intended to address specific environmental concerns, target funding

toward state and local environmental priority areas, and include

partnerships with state or local entities to leverage limited

funding. USDA's Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), the federal

government's largest single conservation program, has an enrollment

of almost 34 million acres and makes annual payments of about $1.5

billion on these acres.

379. The American Conservation Reserve

Programme: The chance to reward farmers for services to the

environment?

Mello I; Heissenhuber A; and

Kantelhardt J

Berichte uber

Landwirtschaft 80 (1):

85-93; 9 ref. (2002)

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

380. Assessing the effectiveness of technical

assistance for soil conservation practices.

Esseks, J Dixon and Kraft, Steven

E

Policy Studies

Review 6: 245-259.

(1986);

ISSN: 0278-4416

Descriptors:  

Soil conservation/ Agricultural

extension/ Government agencies Evaluation/ United States Soil

conservation service

Abstract: Conservation Technical Assistance program

of the Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture;

based on conference paper. Based on 1982 data from both recipients

and nonrecipients of the program at six diverse sites.

© 2004 PAIS, published by OCLC

Public Affairs Information Service

381. Benefit cost analysis of the 2002 EQIP

Farm Bill provisions.

Atwood, J.; Knight, L.; Cattaneo,

A.; and Smith, P.

Selected papers from the

annual meeting of the American Agricultural Economics

Association .

(2003)

NAL Call #:  

HD1405 .A44.

Notes: Supplemental online access through http://agecon.lib.umn.edu.

Descriptors:  

Farm Bill/ cost benefit analysis/

environmental quality/ environmental policy/ United States/

environmental quality incentives program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

382. Budgetary and farm-sector impacts of the

1985-1990 Conservation Reserve Program.

Barbarika, A. Jr. and Langley,

J.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 47

(3): 264-267. (May 1992-June

1992)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

agricultural economics/ federal

programs/ computer simulation/ simulation models/ commodity

markets/ maize/ wheat/ soybeans/ cotton/ economic impact/ farm

sector/ farm income/ market prices/ agricultural prices/ cost

analysis/ budgets/ public expenditure/ subsidies/ price support/

public loans/ acreage/ conversion/ soil conservation/ erosion

control/ USDA/ acreage reduction/ commodity programs

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

383. Cattle and forages can play a vital role

in sustainable agriculture.

Gustafson, Ronald A

Food Review 14: 2-5. (1991); ISSN: 1056-327X

Descriptors:  

Livestock industry---United States/

Soil conservation---United States/ Grazing lands---

United States/ United

States---Agricultural policy/ Agriculture---Environmental aspects/

Forage plants---United States

Abstract: Achievements of U.S. Conservation Reserve

Program in expanding forage production and rejuvenating cropland

pasture.

© 2004 PAIS, published by OCLC

Public Affairs Information Service

384. Changes in pesticide leaching potential

between 1982 and 1992: A national perspective.

Kellogg, R. L. and Wallace,

S.

In: Clean water, clean

environment: 21st century team agriculture: Working to protect

water resources conference proceedings. (Held 5 Mar 1995-8 Mar 1995 at Kansas City,

Missouri.)

St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE;

1995.

NAL Call #:  TD365.C54-1995; ISBN: 0929355601

Descriptors:  

pesticides/ leaching/ risk/ losses

from soil/ surveys/ arable land/ arable soils/ land diversion/

application rates/ rain/ geographical information systems/ United

States/ pesticide leaching index/ Conservation Reserve

Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

385. Characteristics of recently restored

wetlands in the prairie pothole region.

Galatowitsch, S. M. and  Van

Der Valk, A. G.

Wetlands 16 (1): 75-83. (1996)

NAL Call #:  

QH75.A1W47; ISSN: 0277-5212

Descriptors:  

wetlands / vegetation/ hydrology/

land reclamation/ hydrological regime/ aquatic plants/ United

States, Iowa/ United States, Minnesota/ United States, South

Dakota/ community composition/ environment management/ ecosystem

management/ plant populations/ reclamation/ nature conservation/

environmental restoration/ Water and plants/ Protective measures

and control/ Reclamation

Abstract: Between 1987 and 1991, 1892 prairie

potholes were restored in northern Iowa, southern Minnesota, and

southeastern South Dakota by state and federal agencies, most as

part of the Conservation Reserve Program. The total area covered by

these restored wetlands is approximately 2714 ha. Most restorations

are small (less than 4 ha) wetlands with a seasonal hydrologic

regime. Wetlands with an ephemeral/temporary water regime are

under-represented compared to their pre-drainage extent.

Information on basin morphometry, hydrology, and vegetation-zone

development was collected on 62 wetlands restored in 1988. Earthen

dams are installed on most (73%) restorations in the region,

increasing the full pool volume but not the mean depth of the

basin. Overall, restored wetlands have basin morphometries that are

comparable to those of similarly sized natural wetlands. About 60%

of the basins had their predicted hydrology or held water longer

than predicted. Nevertheless, about 20% of the projects that we

examined were hydrologic failures and either never flooded or had

significant structural problems. Most restored wetlands had

developed emergent and submersed aquatic vegetation zones, but only

a few had developed wet prairie and sedge meadow vegetation

zones.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

386. Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program:

Early results from a federal-state partnership.

Smith, M. E. [Also available as:

Agricultural Outlook 277: 16-20 (Dec 2000).], 2000.

Notes: CODEN: AGOUD7; ISSN: 0099-1066

(application/pdf)

NAL Call #: aHD1751.A42

http://jan.mannlib.cornell.edu/reports/erssor/economics/ao-bb/2000/ao277.pdf

Descriptors:  

federal programs/ state government/

USDA/ incentives/ land diversion/ United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

387. Conservation Reserve Program: Alternatives

are available for managing environmentally sensitive

cropland.

General Accounting

Office

Washington, DC: GAO, 1995.

 

Notes: GAO/RCED-95-42

http://www.gao.gov/archive/1995/rc95042.pdf

Descriptors:  

cultivated lands/ land management/

agriculture/ land use/ water quality/ Watershed

protection

Abstract:  If not properly managed,

agricultural production on the nation's 382 million cropland acres

can adversely affect the quality of water and air, the productivity

of soil, and the availability of wildlife habitat. In an effort to

reduce these effects by temporarily removing highly erodible

cropland from production, the Congress enacted the Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) in 1985. The CRP was also designed to reduce

surplus crop production and support farm income. Under the CRP, the

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) contracted with farmers to

take 36.4 million acres out of production for 10 years in return

for rental and cost-share payments of almost $20 billion through

the year 2002. These contracts will begin to expire in 1995, with

the contracts for the majority of acres-22 million-expiring in 1996

and 1997.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

388. Conservation Reserve Program: An Economic

Assessment.

Young, C. E. and Osborn, C.

T.

Washington, DC: Economic Research

Service; ERSAER626XSP, 1990. 37 p.

Notes: Agricultural economic rept. 626; Replaces

PB90-183179.

Descriptors:  

Farms/ Income/ Food/ Prices/ Soil

erosion/ Water quality/ Evaluation/ Conservation/ Agricultural

economics/ Natural resources management/ Costs/ Programs/

Environment management/ Agriculture and food/ Agricultural

economics/ Natural resources and earth sciences/ Natural resource

management/ Soil sciences

Abstract:  The Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) will boost net farm income and improve environmental quality

substantially over the life of the program (1986-99). These gains

will come at the cost of somewhat higher food prices and Government

administrative expenses, and potential downturns in farm input

industries and other local economic activity tied to farming where

enrollment is heavy. Net economic benefits of the program range

between $3.4 billion and $11.0 billion in present value, according

to estimates derived in the report. The report also looks behind

the bottom-line estimate to determine how well the CRP does in

reaching each of its multiple goals, which are to reduce soil

erosion, protect the Nation's long-term capability to produce food

and fiber, reduce sedimentation, improve water quality, create

better habitat for fish and wildlife, curb production of surplus

commodities, and provide income support to farmers.

389. The Conservation Reserve Program: Changes

on the Horizon.

Monson, M. and Cassidy,

D.

In: North Central Extension

Industry Soil Fertility Conference.; 1996.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States

Abstract:  Demonstrated that most of the

environmental benefits anticipated to be lost upon contract

expiration were retained through continuous signup.


390. Conservation Reserve Program (Chapter

6).

United States Department of

Agriculture, Economic Research Service ERS

In: Agricultural Resources and

Environmental Indicators, 1996-97: Agricultural Handbook, No. 712;

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research

Service, 1997.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program

Abstract:  Detailed description of the history

of the CRP, development of the EBI, and accomplishments to

date.


391. The Conservation Reserve Program: Effects

on soil, water and environmental quality.

Blackburn, W. H.; Newman, J. B.;

and Wood, J. C.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1991; pp.

27-36.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ erosion control/

federal programs/ reserved areas/ simulation models/ percolation/

evapotranspiration/ water erosion / runoff/ United States/ Wind

Erosion Equation / WEE/ Water Erosion Prediction Project/

WEPP

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

392. Conservation Reserve Program:

Environmental risk assessment.

United States. Dept. of

Agriculture.

Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of

Agriculture;

2, 127 leaves: ill., maps.

(1997)

Notes: Cover title. "February 1997" Includes

bibliographical references (leaves 117-127).

NAL Call #:  aS930.C662-1997

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Conservation of natural resources---United

States/ Environmental risk assessment---United States/ risk

assessment

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

393. Conservation Reserve Program may be good

for the environment, farms, and rural communities.

Siegel, P. B. and Johnson, T.

G.

Rural Development

Perspectives 8 (3): 25-31.

(1992)

NAL Call #:  

aHN90.C6R78; ISSN: 0271-2172

Descriptors:  

federal programs/ environmental

impact/ farms/ rural communities/ conservation/ United

States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

394. Conservation Reserve Program sign-up 20:

Environmental benefits index.

United States. Farm Service

Agency.

Washington, D.C.: USDA, Farm

Service Agency; Series: Fact sheet (United States. Farm Service

Agency). (1999)

Notes: Title from caption. "September

1999."

NAL Call #:  aS930-.C658-1999

http://www.fsa.usda.gov/pas/publications/facts/ebiold.pdf

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States/ Conservation of natural resources---United

States/ Wildlife habitat improvement---United States/ Water quality

management---Economic aspects---United States/

Agriculture---Economic aspects---United States

Abstract:  The Environmental Benefits Index

(EBI) is used to evaluate and rank land offered for enrollment in

the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) during a general signup.

Scores are based on the expected environmental benefits to soil

resources, water quality, wildlife habitat, and other resource

concerns during the time the land is to be enrolled in the program.

Each offer submitted is assigned a point score based on its

relative environmental benefits. Each offer is compared nationally

with all other offers at the end of the sign-up. Offers are

determined acceptable or rejected based on the ranking results.

 [Document overview]

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

395. The Conservation Reserve Program: Status,

Future, and Policy Options.

Osborn, T.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 48

(4): 271-278. (1993)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

Agriculture/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ Economic aspects/ Environmental protection/ Erosion

control/ Federal jurisdiction/ Regulations/ Soil conservation/

Contracts/ Costs/ Soil erosion/ Water quality/ Water law and

institutions/ Watershed protection

Abstract: After Conservation Reserve Program (CRP)

contracts expire, annual rental payments made by USDA to CRP

participants will end and producers will decide the next use of

their land. Most CRP acres will either be planted to crops,

depending largely on commodity market conditions, placed in annual

acreage set-asides, kept in grass for livestock production, or left

idle. Land first placed in the CRP will be available for crop

production or other uses starting in late 1995. The expiration of

CRP contracts raises concerns over the extent of conservation,

wildlife and environmental reversals that will occur, particularly

if commodity markets are favorable in 1996 and 1997. While the

conservation compliance provision of farm legislation will not

prevent much CRP land from returning to production, it will

moderate increases in soil erosion and onsite productivity losses

on most CRP land that is recropped. However, the effectiveness of

conservation compliance in protecting water quality is unclear, and

it will do little to maintain wildlife habitat benefits currently

provided by CRP. Keeping all CRP land under contract currently

costs nearly two billion dollars each year. Adoption of something

similar to the bid acceptance procedure used for the post-1990 CRP

signups offers promise for targeting CRP land under whatever

post-contract program Congress might enact.

(Brunone-PTT)

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

396. Conservation Reserve: Yesterday, Today and

Tomorrow, Symposium Proceedings.

Joyce, L. A.; Mitchell, J. E.; and

Skold, M. D.

Fort Collins, CO: Rocky Mountain

Forest and Range Experiment Station; Series: Forest Service general

technical rept. 203; 71 p. (1991)

Notes: Meeting held January 14, 1991 at Washington,

DC; FSGTRRM203; PB91208413XSP

Descriptors:  

Agriculture/ Future planning

Projected/ Land use/ Environmental effects/ Decision making/

Implementation/ Economic impacts/ Reserves/ Farm management/

Contracts/ Land ownership/ History/ Wildlife/ Recreation/ Ecology/

Crop yields/ Meetings/ Land conservation/ Resource conservation/

Agricultural Resources Conservation Program/ Food Security Act of

1985 / Farm Bill of 1990/ Conservation Reserve Program/ Great

Plains Region United States/ Natural resources and earth sciences/

Natural resource management/ Agriculture and food/ Agricultural

equipment facilities and operations/ Urban and regional technology

and development/ Regional administration and planning

Abstract:  Contents: The Conservation Reserve

Program--How Did We Get Where We Are and Where Do We Go From Here;

An Overview of the Agricultural Resources Conservation Program;

Economics of Livestock and Crop Production on Post-CRP Lands;

Landowner Options When CRP Ends; The Conservation Reserve Program:

Effects on Soil, Water and Environmental Quality; Conservation

Reserve Program Effects on Wildlife and Recreation; Future Costs

and Benefits of Conservation Reserve Lands; Impacts of the

Conservation Reserve Program in the Central Great Plains; Research

Questions Related to the Conservation Reserve Program; Some

Sociological and Ecological Effects of the Conservation Reserve

Program in the Northern Great Plains; The CRP in Oregon's Columbia

Basin: A Local Perspective.

397. Conservation title impacts on the Great

Plains.

Dicks, M.; Ray, D.; and Sanders,

L. D.

Current Farm Economics

(Agricultural Experiment Station, Division of Agriculture, Oklahoma

State University) 63 (1):

21-33. (Mar. 1990)

NAL Call #:  

HD1775.O5C87; ISSN: 0030-1701

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/

legislation/

United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

398. Conversion of Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) grassland for dryland crops in a semiarid region.

Unger, P. W.

Agronomy Journal

91 (5): 753-760.

(Sept. 1999-Oct. 1999)

NAL Call #:  

4-AM34P; ISSN: 0002-1962 [AGJOAT]

Descriptors:  

sorghum bicolor/ triticum aestivum/

grasslands/ agricultural land/ tillage/ conservation tillage/

no-tillage/ plowing/ prescribed burning/ vegetation/ ammonium

nitrate/ application rates/ soil water content/ drought/ crop

yield/ water stress/ land banks/ Texas

Abstract: Information was needed regarding

practices suitable for returning grassland to cropland when

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contracts expired. A study on

Pullman soil (Torrertic Paleustoll) involved seven tillage

treatments (no-tillage and reduced, sweep, disk, moldboard plus

disk, burn-sweep, and burn-disk tillage) with vegetation retained

and the five non-burn tillage treatments with vegetation removed

before treatment. Fertilizer (NH(4)NO(3)) was applied at 0, 34, and

67 kg N ha(-1) in 1995 and at 0, 67, and 134 kg N ha(-1) in 1996

and 1997. Initial soil water contents were low, and soil never was

filled with water at planting time. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.)

Moench] yielded < or = 720 kg ha(-1) in 1995, and the 1995-1996

wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop failed. Sorghum was not planted

in 1996 because of a drought. Sorghum yielded 2260 to 4700 kg

ha(-1) in 1997. Wheat yielded 1410 to 1980 kg ha(-1) in 1996-1997.

Vegetation retention or removal affected yields slightly.

Fertilization affected sorghum yields slightly and increased wheat

yields. Vegetation control was difficult with no-tillage. Disk

tillage to dislodge grass, followed by reduced or no-tillage,

appears best for converting CRP grassland to cropland in this

semiarid region. Because of low initial soil water contents, a 90-d

period is inadequate for obtaining adequate soil water storage

unless precipitation is much above normal. Forgoing planting a crop

soon after killing the vegetation when precipitation is low would

provide more time for storing soil water and increase the potential

for obtaining favorable yields.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

399. Costs and Benefits of the Conservation

Reserve Program.

Young, C. E. and Osborn, C.

T.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 45

(3): 370-373. (1990)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

Cost benefit analysis/ Cropland/

Economic aspects/ Erosion control/ Land use/ Soil conservation/

Administration/ Administrative agencies/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ Cultivated lands/ Federal jurisdiction/ Soil

erosion/

Watershed protection

Abstract: The economic efficiency of the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) was evaluated. The CRP is a

voluntary, long-term cropland retirement program with a targeted

enrollment of 40-45 million acres. In exchange for retiring

cropland with highly erodible soils or other environmentally

sensitive land for 10 years, the U.S. Department of Agriculture

pays CRP participants (farm owners or operators) an annual per-acre

rent and one-half the cost of establishing a permanent land cover.

The CRP's primary goal is to reduce soil erosion on highly erodible

cropland. Primary effects of the CRP are the following: changes in

farm income; timber production; consumer costs; soil productivity;

surface water quality, including filter strips; wildlife habitat;

wind erosion; administrative costs; cost-sharing of vegetative

cover; and technical assistance costs. CRP impacts were uniformly

compared to a baseline situation characterized by the absence of

CRP. Based upon estimates of the primary effects, the present value

of net benefits for a 45 million acre CRP could range from $3.4 to

$11.0 billion. (MacKeen-PTT)

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

400. The CRP balancing act: Trading off costs

and multiple environmental benefits.

Cattaneo, A.; Bucholtz, S.;

Dewbre, J.; and Nickerson, C.

Selected papers from the

annual meeting of the American Agricultural Economics

Association .

(2002)

NAL Call #:  

HD1405-.A44.

Notes: Supplemental online access through http://agecon.lib.umn.edu. Meeting held July 28-31, 2002 in

Long Beach, California. Includes references.

Descriptors:  

erosion control/ land diversion/

federal programs/ cost benefit analysis/ indexes/ environmental

protection/ Monte Carlo method/ United States/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ environmental benefits index

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

401. CRP & Landscape Structure in

IL.

Weber, W.

In: 62nd Midwest Fish and Wildlife

Conference.

(Held 3 Dec 2000-6 Dec 2000 at

Minneapolis, MN (USA).); 2000.

Notes: Paper No. 118; Conference Sponsor:

NCD-AFS; World Meeting Number 000

5249

Descriptors:  

Aquatic Science/ Biology/

 Environmental Science

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

402. Ecological benefits of the Conservation

Reserve Program.

Dunn, C. P.; Stearns, R.;

Guntenspergen, G. R.; and Sharpe, D. M.

Conservation Biology

7 (1): 132-139. (1993)

NAL Call #:  

QH75.A1C5; ISSN: 0888-8892

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ government

policy/ enhancement/ biological diversity/ wildlife/ ecosystem

stability/ Conservation

Abstract: The Conservation Reserve Program was

initiated in 1985 to reduce soil loss on highly erodible

agricultural land. This stated objective of the program has been

quite successful. However, there are other unintentional yet

significant ecological benefits to the program that merit

evaluation. These benefits include the reversal of landscape

fragmentation, maintenance of regional biodiversity, creation of

wildlife habitat, and favorable changes in regional carbon flux.

These and other benefits should be used by policy makers and

federal officials to maintain the program even after enrollment

expectations have been achieved.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

403. Economic and ecological aspects of State

land conservation policy in the USA.

Samoylov D

Mezhdunarodnyi

Sel'skokhozyaistvennyi Zhurnal 4: 3-6. (1998)

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

404. Economic and Environmental Implications of

Expiring Conservation Reserve Program Contracts.

Diebel, P. L.; Janssen, L. L.; and

Smith, K.; NC-214 Committee Final Report, 1997.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

United States/ State conservation programs/ North

Carolina

Abstract:  Discussed policy implications of a

new 1996 farm bill, using state level studies of environmental

benefits and a demographic analysis of enrollees.

405. Economic Valuation of Environmental

Benefits and the Targeting of Conservation Programs: The Case of

the CRP.

Feather, P.; Hellerstein, D.; and

Hansen, L.

Washington, DC: Economic Research

Service, Resource Economics Div.; ERS AER778, 1999. 64

p.

Notes: Agriculture economic rept. 778

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer778/

Descriptors:  

Habitats / Wildlife/ Soil erosion/

Erosion control/ Preservation/ Recreation/ Hunting/ Ecosystems/

Value/ Cost benefit analysis/ Alternatives/ Program administration/

U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Environmental quality / Natural

resource conservation/ Environmental Benefits Index/ CRP/

Conservation Reserve Program/ Valuation/ Natural resources and

earth sciences/ Natural resource management/  Medicine and

biology/ Ecology/ Agriculture and food/ Business and economics

Abstract:  As the largest program designed to

mitigate the negative environmental effects of agriculture, the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has broadened its initial focus

on reductions in soil erosion to consider other landscape factors

that may also be beneficial. For example, preserving habitats can

help protect wildlife, thus leading to more nature-viewing

opportunities. This report demonstrates how nonmarket valuation

models can be used in targeting conservation programs such as the

CRP.

406. Effects of soil and agricultural chemicals

management on farm returns and ground water qualtiy.

Setia, P. and Piper, S.

Review of Agricultural

Economics 14 (1):

65-80. (Jan. 1992)

NAL Call #:  

HD1773.A3N6; ISSN: 0191-9016

Descriptors:  

maize/ soybeans/ pesticides/

agricultural chemicals/ soil management/ groundwater/ water

quality/ leaching/ returns/ tillage/  federal programs/

conservation/ Corn Belt of USA/ Conservation Reserve Program/

conservation compliance program

Abstract: Economic and physical simulation models

were utilized to evaluate the effect of alternative soil and

agricultural chemical management systems, implemented under the

Conservation Reserve and Conservation Compliance Programs, on

pesticides' leaching, and returns to fixed farm resources. Findings

of the study show that the selection of appropriate soil and

chemical systems may not only increase farm returns but may also

result in a significant reduction in leaching and hence ground

water degradation.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

407. Enhancing CRP values.

Hawn, T. and Getman, M.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 47

(2): 134-135. (1992)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

erosion control/ land resources/

resource management/ wildlife/ habitats/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ agricultural economics (general)/ land development, land

reform, and utilization (macroeconomics)/ natural

resources

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

408. Environmental conservation strategies:

What works and what might work better.

Lovejoy, S. B.

In: Flexible incentives for the

adoption of environmental technologies in agriculture/ Casey, F.;

Schmitz, A.; Swinton, S.; and Zilberman, D. Norwell, Mass.: Kluwer

Academic Publishers, 1999; pp. 43-54.

Notes: ISBN: 0-7923-8559-4

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

409. Environmental indices and the politics of

the Conservation Reserve Program.

Ribaudo, M. O.; Hoag, D. L.;

Smith, M. E.; and Heimlich, R.

Ecological

Indicators 1 (1): 11-20.

(Aug. 2001);

ISSN: 1470-160X

Descriptors:  

Environment management/

Agricultural land/ Soil erosion/ Environmental monitoring/

Conservation/ Indicators/ Agriculture/ Management/ Enviromental

& Natural Resource Development

Abstract: Environmental indicators can be used to

target public programs to provide a variety of benefits. Social

scientists, physical scientists, and politicians have roles in

developing indicators that reflect the demands of diverse interest

groups. We review the US Department of Agriculture's Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP), the largest agricultural conservation

program of the United States, to determine how a set of

environmental indicators were developed and used, and assess

results of their application. The use of such indicators has helped

the CRP increase and broaden the program's environmental benefits

beyond erosion reduction, which was the primary focus of early

program efforts, to meet other demands. This case study provides an

example about how integration and assessment for the purpose of

managing public resources requires more than natural science

disciplines. Social science can help explain how public values

influence what information is collected and how it is interpreted.

Examples are given to show how the indices used for the CRP

integrated science, politics and social values. In the end, the

environmental benefits index (EBI) used to target US$ 20 billion of

CRP funds reflects compromises made between science and policy

considerations. It is our intention that studying this index will

yield ideas and understanding from the natural science community

that develops ecosystem indices about how to better plug in to

programs in the future.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

410. Erodibility, ownership, and

infrastructure: The Conservation Reserve Program as a planning

tool.

Willette, A. M.; Weisman, B.;

Kramer, J. L.; Sweson, C. J.; Fonkert, J.; Baker, B. D.; and

Gersmehl, P. J.

In: 1992 International Winter

Meeting sponsored by the American Society of Agricultural

Engineers.

(Held 15 Dec 1992-18 Dec 1992 at

Nashville, Tennessee.)

St. Joseph, Mich.: American

Society of Agricultural Engineers; 8 p.; 1992.

Notes: Paper numbers: 92-2502/92-2520; ISSN: 0149-9890

NAL Call #:  290.9-Am32P

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ erosion/

 environmental management

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

411. Erodible land and state water quality

programs: A linkage.

Ogg, C. W.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 41

(6): 371-373. ill., maps. (Nov.

1986-Dec. 1986)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

soil and water conservation/

erosion/ erosion control/ water composition and quality/ pollution

by agriculture/ reserves/ state government/ United States/

Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

412. Evaluating the sustainability of

alternative farming systems: A case study.

Ikerd, J.; Devino, G.; and

Traiyongwanich, S.

American Journal of

Alternative Agriculture 11 (1): 25-29. ( 1996)

NAL Call #:  

S605.5.A43; ISSN: 0889-1893 [AJAAEZ]

Descriptors:  

alternative farming/ farming

systems/ sustainability/ assessment/ environmental impact/ economic

impact/ social impact/ federal programs/ case studies/ Missouri/

Conservation Reserve Program/ alternative versus conventional

farming systems

Abstract: The sustainability of farming systems

must be assessed by their potential environmental, economic, and

social performance. We present a case study to illustrate an

assessment of relative sustainability that uses all three

performance criteria. We developed two scenarios for farmland

currently enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in

Putnam County, Missouri: a conventional scenario reflecting farming

practices typical of northern Missouri, and an alternative that we

hypothesize to be more environmentally sound. We used selected

economic and social indicators to assess whether the latter would

be at least as economically viable and socially responsible as the

conventional system. Estimated direct farm income was $3.4 million

for the alternative and $2.4 million for the conventional scenario.

The alternative system applies more labor and management to a given

land resource and may support more farming families. Estimated

total community economic impacts were 25% greater for the

alternative than the conventional farming scenario. CRP land,

therefore, could be resumed to production in a way that could

significantly enhance local economic and social benefits while

retaining many of the CRP's environmental benefits.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

413. Expanding the conservation reserve to

achieve multiple environmental goals.

Ogg, C. W.; Hostetler, J. E.; and

Lee, D. J.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 43 (1):

78-81 . (1988)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

conservation/ soils/ environmental

management/ ecology/ Food Security Act 1985/ Standards, laws,

regulations and policy

Abstract: The 1985 Food Security Act (P.L. 99-198)

authorizes the largest Conservation Reserve Program in history.

Although this act emphasizes the need to alleviate huge surpluses

of federally stored grain and reduce financial distress among

farmers, it designates only certain highly erodible acres or other

acres that "pose an off-farm environmental threat" for CRP

eligibility. The program has the potential to both conserve soil

and reduce crop surpluses by idling within the next five years as

many acres as last year's unusually large farm program acreage

set-aside.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

414. Exploring methods of selecting cropland

for conservation.

Feather, P.; Hellerstein, D.; and

Hansen, L.

Agricultural Outlook

(AO) (No.

AO-254): 21-24. (1998)

NAL Call #:  

aHD1751.A422

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

415. Farms and wetlands benefit from farm bill

conservation measures.

Pederson, Roger L

National Wetlands

Newsletter 23 (3): 9-12.

(2001); ISSN:

0164-0712

Descriptors:  

Wetlands---Conservation---Legislation/

Environmental law---United States/ United States---Environmental

policy---Legislation/ Farms---Environmental aspects/

Agriculture---Environmental aspects/ Nature conservation---United

States---Legislation

Abstract: Discusses wetland conservation, focusing

on three federal programs: Wetlands Reserve Program, Conservation

Reserve Program, and Wetland Conservation Restrictions of the Food

Security Act of 1985, known as "Swampbuster"; policy options;

US.

© 2004 PAIS, published by OCLC

Public Affairs Information Service

416. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact

Statement for the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP).

Farm Service Agency,

U. S. Department of

Agriculture

Washington, D.C.:

U.S. Department of Agriculture,

2003.  

Notes: Contains Appendix D, Literature Review and

Research Recommendations for the Conservation Reserve Program,

which "documents a preliminary review of available scientific

studies on the efficacy and benefits of the Conservation Reserve

Program."

http://www.fsa.usda.gov/dafp/cepd/epb/impact.htm

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/

environmental impact statements/ natural resource management/

wildlife conservation/ wildlife management/ wildlife

habitats

417. Financial and economic analysis of CRP,

row crop, and white pine production on erodible lands of southern

Ohio.

Shakya, B. S. and Hitzhusen, F.

J.

In: ESO: Economics and sociology

occasional paper; Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University, Dept. of

Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, 1992. 14 p.

NAL Call #:  HD1411.O3

Descriptors:  

erosion/ pinus/ economic analysis/

federal programs/ marginal land/ mathematical models/ finance/

Ohio/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


418. First principles: The definition of highly

erodible land and tolerable soil loss.

Benbrook, C. M.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 43 (1):

35-38. (1988)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

land resources/ erosion/

 water quality/ resource management/ conservation/ basic

approaches, concepts, and theory

Abstract: There is much to celebrate, The

Conservation Title of the farm bill is widely acclaimed as an

historic breakthrough. The Conservation Reserve Program has already

attracted 23 million acres into stable land uses, accounting for

the most dramatic and rapid reduction in soil erosion ever achieved

by government action in this country.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

419. Food Security Act of 1985: Impact on

resource management and utilization.

Teels, B. M.

In: Conference proceedings Income

Opportunities for the Private Landowner Through Management of

Natural Resources and Recreational Access. (Held 9 Apr 1989-12 Apr 1989 at Wheeling,

W.Va.)

Grafton, William N.

(eds.)

Morgantown, W.Va.: West Virginia

University Extension Service; pp. 38-45; 1990.

NAL Call #:  GV191.6.I52-1989

Descriptors:  

wildlife / wetlands/ habitats/

erosion/ soil conservation/ legislation/ federal programs/

environmental protection/ economic impact/ recreation / income/

resource management/ resource utilization/ USDA/ land diversion/

United States/ Conservation Reserve Program/

Swampbuster/ Sodbuster

This citation is from AGRICOLA.

420. The Food Security Act of 1985: The

Conservation Title and its impact on the South.

Batie, S. S.

SRDC Series - Southern

Rural Development Center (86): 67-73. (Oct. 1986)

NAL Call #:  

HT401.S72.

Notes: Paper presented at a Regional Workshop on: "The

Food Security Act of 1985--Impact for Extension Farm Management,

Marketing, and Policy Programs in the South," April 8-9, 1986,

Knoxville, Tennessee.

Descriptors:  

land use / wetlands/ erosion/ soil

conservation/ legislation/ public opinion/ economic impact/ south

eastern states of USA/ south central states of USA

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

421. From Microlevel Decisions to Landscape

Changes: An Assessment of Agricultural Conservation

Policies.

Wu, J. J.; Adams, R. M.; Kling, C.

L.; and

Tanaka, K.

American Journal of

Agricultural Economics  86 (1): 26-41. (2004); ISSN: 0002-9092

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

422. From the field: What farmers have to say

about Vermont's Farmland Conservation Program.

Ferguson, Kirsten. and Cosgrove,

Jeremiah.: Saratoga Springs, NY: American Farmland Trust, c2000.;

40 p.: ill., maps; 28 cm. (2000)

NAL Call #:  S604.62.V5 F47 2000

http://www.farmlandinfo.org/documents/29389/From_The_Field.pdf

Descriptors:  

Vermont Farmland Conservation

Program/ Agricultural conservation---Vermont/

Farms---Vermont

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.


423. Grazing and haying effects on runoff and

erosion from a former Conservation Reserve Program site.

Gilley, J. E.; Patton, B. D.;

Nyren, P. E.; and Simanton, J. R.

Applied Engineering in

Agriculture 12 (6): 681-684.

(Nov. 1996)

NAL Call #:  

S671.A66; ISSN: 0883-8542

Descriptors:  

agricultural land/ land management/

federal programs/ land use/ change/ soil conservation/ grassland

management/ grazing/ rotational grazing/ haymaking/ prescribed

burning/ runoff/ water erosion/ sediment/ losses from soil/ canopy/

vegetation/ coverage/ surface roughness/ bulk density/ soil

compaction/ North Dakota/ season long grazing

Abstract: Grazing and haying effects on runoff and

erosion from a former Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) site near

Streeter, North Dakota, were determined. Treatments included

undisturbed CRP, twice-over rotational grazing, season-long

grazing, haying, and burning. Runoff and erosion were measured from

simulated rainfall which was applied to 3.7 X 10.7 m (12.0 X 35.1

ft) plots. Following an initial stabilization period, no

significant difference in runoff or erosion was found between the

season-long grazing and burned treatments. Use of the CRP site for

grazing or haying resulted in a significant increase in runoff

compared to leaving the area in an undisturbed condition. Similar

amounts of erosion were measured from the twice-over rotational

grazing, season-long grazing, and hayed treatments. If adequate

canopy and basal cover is maintained, use of this CRP site for

grazing or haying would not be expected to result in excessive

erosion.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

424. The Great Plains: America's best chance

for ecosystem restoration, part 1.

Licht, Daniel S.

Wild Earth 4 (2): 47-53. (1994); ISSN: 1055-1166

Descriptors:  

Canis latrans/ Mephitis/ Microtus

pennsylvanicus/ Procyon lotor/ Vulpes vulpes/ Ciconiiformes/

Fringillidae/ Passeriformes/ Scolopacidae/ Ammodramus bairdii/

Bartramia longicauda/ Catoptrophorus semipalmatus/ Gallinago

gallinago/ Limosa fedoa/ Molothrus ater / Phalaropus tricolor/

agricultural practices/ birds/ Conservation Reserve Program/

ecosystem management/ ecosystems/ farmland/ grasslands/ habitat

alterations/ land, private/ mammals/  management/ restoration/

coyote/ red fox/ raccoon/ skunk/ meadow vole/ Baird's sparrow/

brown headed cowbird/ marbled godwit/ upland sandpiper/ common

snipe/ Wilson's phalarope/ willet/ North America: Great

Plains

Abstract: The author discusses the Conservation

Reserve Program (CRP) in the United States and its effect on Great

Plains wildlife and ecosystems. Although a large number of acres

are temporarily taken out of agricultural use under the CRP

program, the individual tracts are small. Very often, farmers plant

exotic grasses on the CRP tracts instead of native ones that would

support native wildlife species.

This citation is provided courtesy

of NISC, publisher of Wildlife & Ecology Studies

Worldwide.

425. Haying, tillage, and nitrogen

fertilization influences on infiltration rates at a Conservation

Reserve Program site.

Wienhold, B. J. and Tanaka, D.

L.

Soil Science Society of

America Journal 64

(1): 379-381. (2000)

NAL Call #:  

56.9-So3; ISSN: 0361-5995 [SSSJD4]

Descriptors:  

mollisols/ entisols/ infiltration/

grassland soils / land use/ conversion/ harvesting/ tillage/

no-tillage/ minimum tillage/ nitrogen fertilizers/ North

Dakota

Abstract: Effect of haying (hayed or not hayed

prior to tillage), tillage (no-tillage, minimum tillage, or

conventional tillage), and N fertilization (0 or 67 kg ha(-1)) on

surface infiltration rates, Q(h), was evaluated for Conservation

Research Program (CRP) site conversion. Soils included Amor loam

(fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Typic Haplustoll) and Cabba

silt loam (loamy, mixed, superactive. calcareous, frigid, shallow

Typic Ustorthent). In reference plots Q(h) increased from 1995 to

1997 (27.2 +/- 3.2 vs. 36.4 +/- 2.9 mm h(-1) at 50-mm tension, 10.9

+/- 12 vs. 20.6 +/- 1.4 mm h(-1) at 100-mm tension, and 4.1 +/- 0.6

vs. 10.9 +/- 1.1 mm h(-1) at 150 mm-tension) under permanent

vegetation. Plots hayed prior to tillage exhibited higher Q(h) when

no fertilizer was applied than plots hayed and fertilized or not

hayed (31.9 +/- 2.9 vs. 23.3 +/- 1.3 mm h(-1) at 50-mm tension and

18.1 +/- 1.3 vs. 13.5 +/- 0.6 mm h(-1) at 100-mm tension). As

tillage intensity increased, Q(h) at 50-mm tension increased (20.1

+/- 2.6 mm h(-1) under no-tillage, 25.5 +/- 1.6 mm h(-1) under

minimum tillage, and 30.1 +/- 2.0 mm h(-1) under conventional

tillage). Q(h) did not change from 1995 to 1997 in cropped

plots.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

426. The Impacts of CRP in the

Future.

Dicks, M. R.

In: Proceedings of the American

Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers' Annual

Meeting. (Held 21 Oct 1996-28 Oct 1996 at

Dallas,TX.)

Chicago, Ill.: American Society of

Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers; 1996.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Oklahoma

Abstract:  Analyzed the economic,

environmental and land use interactions of CRP expiration with

reduced supply management under FAIR.

427. Impacts of the Conservation Reserve

Program in the Great Plains: Symposium Proceedings.

Mitchell, J. E.

Fort Collins, Co: Rocky Mountain

Forest and Range Experiment Station; Series: Forest Service general

technical rept. 158; 142 p. (1988)

Notes: Meeting held September 16-18, 1987 at Denver,

Colorado; PB88225164XSP

Descriptors:  

Land use / Farm management/

Agricultural economics/ Erosion control/ Vegetation/ Government

policies/ Federal assistance programs/ Meetings/ Soil conservation/

Soil erosion/ Food Security Act of 1985/ Conservation Reserve

Program/ Food Security Act/ Great Plains/ Land Management/ Natural

resources and earth sciences/ Natural resource management/

Agriculture and food/ Agricultural economics

Abstract:  The Conservation Reserve Program,

created by the Food Security Act of 1985, will place up to 45

million acres of cropland under permanent cover for 10 years. It

provides opportunities to reduce soil erosion, enhance wildlife

habitat, stimulate the farm economy, and reduce commodity surpluses

in the Great Plains area. Topics covered in the symposium include

the history of plowing and planting on the Great Plains, program

rationale, climatologic and weather factors, establishment of range

plants, shrubs and forbs in various plains regions, socioeconomic

impact of the reserve program, current land use situation and

anticipated ecological impacts of the program, total ranch

management planning, Midwest policy issues, role of wildlife and

wetlands, farm bill legislation history and economics, the native

plant seed industry, changes in regional ecology, research needs,

and the role of federal agencies in program

implementation.

428. Implementing CRP: Progress and

prospects.

Hertz, M.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 43 (1): 14-16.

ill. (Jan. 1988-Feb. 1988)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

soil and water conservation/ water

composition and quality/ participation/ program evaluation/

projections/ United States/ food security act of 1985/ Conservation

Reserve Program/ enrollment/ retired acres

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

429. Implementing the Conservation Reserve

Program.

Dicks, M. R.; Reichelderfer, K.;

and Boggess, W.

Washington, DC: Economic Research

Service, Natural Resource Economics Div.; AGES861213;

PB87154191XSP, 1987. 27 p.

Notes: Staff report

Descriptors:  

Soil erosion/ Water erosion/

 Wind erosion/ Stream erosion/ Soil conservation/ Erosion

control/ Agricultural economics/ Conservation Reserve Program/ 1985

Food Security Act/ Natural resource management/ Natural resources

and earth sciences/ Soil sciences/ Agriculture and food/

Agricultural economics

Abstract:  The Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) is a multi-year, the multi-objective program of the 1985 Food

Security Act Scheduled to retire 40 million acres of highly

erodible cropland by 1990. The Secretary of Agriculture has

considerable discretion in implementing the program. The report

analyzes the effects of various eligibility, pooling, and bid

selection criteria on the performance of the Conservation Reserve.

The program can be implemented to favor erosion reduction, supply

control, or budget reduction to varying degrees. Furthermore, the

operation and performance of the CRP are closely linked with other

conservation and commodity program provisions of the 1985 Food

Security Act.

430. Implementing the Conservation Reserve

Program: Analysis of Environmental Options.

Ogg, C. W.; Aillery, M. P.; and

Ribaudo, M. O.

Washington, DC: Economic Research

Service, Resources and Technology Div.; USDAAER618; ERSAER618XSP,

1989. 33 p.

Notes: Agricultural economic rept. 618; See also

PB87-154191; Replaces PB90-127721

Descriptors:  

Soil erosion/ Cost analysis/

 Profits/ Environmental impacts/ Watersheds/ Water quality/

Wildlife/ Ground water/ Water conservation/ Irrigation/ Habitats/

Agriculture and food/ Agricultural equipment facilities and

operations/ Natural resource management/ Natural resources and

earth sciences/ Hydrology and limnology/ Environmental pollution

and control/ Water pollution and control

Abstract:  Benefits would be mixed if the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) were expanded to include

irrigated land, highly erodible land, and land with wetness

problems, which contribute to environmental problems. The report

examines the following options for implementing environmental

provisions of the CRP: Irrigated land. Enrollment costs for the

acreage are high since irrigation is profitable in many areas. Net

environmental benefits would not likely increase. Erodible land in

watersheds with pollution problems. Water quality could benefit

considerably by targeting selected watersheds. Targeting modest

acreages of buffer strips near streams would increase benefits even

more. Wildlife habitat would improve by restoring up to 6 million

acres to wetlands.


431. Implementing the conservation

title.

Ervin, C. A.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 44

(5): 367-370. (Sept. 1989-Oct.

1989)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ implementation

of research/ erosion/ environmental impact

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

432. Implementing the Conservation Title of the

Food Security Act of 1985: A field-oriented assessment.

Soil and Water Conservation

Society (U.S.)

Ankeny, Iowa: Soil and Water

Conservation Society; 74 p.: ill., 1 map. (1990)

NAL Call #:  HD256.I47--1990

Descriptors:  

Land use, Rural---Government

policy---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

433. Implications of land conversions and

management for the future.

Roath, L. R.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

66-69.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

erosion/ erosion control/ soil

conservation/ land diversion/ revegetation/ Conservation Reserve

Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

434. Interim Appraisal and Analysis of

Conservation Alternatives.

Washington, DC: Natural Resources

Conservation Service; PB2003104447XSP, 2001. CD-ROM

Notes: Relation:

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/land/pubs/rca/

This document is color dependent

and/or in landscape layout. It is currently available on CD-ROM,

PDF and paper only.

http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/land/pubs/rca/NRCSfinal.pdf

Descriptors:  

Technical assistance/ Finance/

Incentives/ U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Government programs/

Farms/ Agriculture/ Farmland/ Land use planning/ Natural resources

conservation/ CRP/ Conservation Reserve Program/ Agriculture and

food/ Agriculture and food/ Agricultural economics/ Natural

resources and earth sciences/ Natural resource

management

Abstract:  The report identifies technical

assistance and financial incentives to accomplish different

resource conservation objectives based on analysis of possible

conservation initiatives. The initiatives include reducing erosion

on all cropland, implementing a cropland stewardship proposal,

accomplishing two million miles of buffers for the nations

waterways, enrolling 250,000 additional acres per year in the

Wetlands Reserve Program, investing $65 million per year in the

Farmland Protection Program and expanding the Conservation Reserve

Program to 45 million acres. Overall results indicate that there

are significant opportunities to improve soil, water and other

environmental conditions into the future.

435. Land Retirement.

Smith, Mark

In: Agricultural and Resource

Economics Indicators/ United States Department of Agriculture,

Economic Research Service Resource Economics Division, 2000.

[Chapter 6.2]

Notes: Report ID: AH 722

http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/arei/ah722/arei6_2/AREI6_2landretire.pdf

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program/

United States

Abstract:  Provided a review of the CRP and

WRP from their inception, including acres enrolled, cover

practices, the EBI, and a summary of costs and benefits.


436. Monitoring the conservation

title.

Cook, K. A.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 43 (1): 54-57.

(Jan. 1988-Feb. 1988)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

soil and water conservation/

wetlands/ monitoring/ program development/ agricultural policy/

program evaluation/ United States/ policymakers/ conservation

reserve program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

437. Natural Resources and Users Benefit from

the Conservation Reserve Program.

Ribaudo, M. O.; Colacicco, D.;

Langner, L. L.; Piper, S.; and Schaible, G. D.

Washington, DC: Economic Research

Service, Resources and Technology Div.; USDAAER627; ERSAER627XSP,

1990 . 54 p.

Notes: Replaces PB90-167452; Also available from Supt.

of Docs.

NAL Call #:  A281.9--Ag8A-no.627

Descriptors:  

Protection/ Erosion control/

Planting/ Grasses/ Trees Plants/ Agriculture/ Improvement/ Ground

water/ Wildlife/ Water quality/ Air quality/ Evaluation/ Losses/

Benefit cost analysis/ Models/ Tables Data/ Soil conservation/

Natural resources/ Land retirement program / Habitats/ Natural

resources and earth sciences/ Soil sciences

Abstract:  The Conservation Reserve Program

(CRP) may generate $6-14 billion (present value) in benefits to

natural resources if 45 million acres of highly erodible or

environmentally sensitive cropland are removed from agricultural

production by 1990. Protecting the soil by retiring and planting

permanent grasses and trees on such land for 10 years will improve

soil productivity, water quality, air quality, wildlife habitat,

and groundwater supply. But the magnitude and distribution of

benefits can be altered by changing the emphasis of the program.

The report estimates how retiring cropland benefits natural

resources under three scenarios of CRP enrollment.

438. New CRP criteria enhance environmental

gains.

Osborn, T.

Agricultural Outlook

[AO] (245): 15-18. (Oct.

1997)

NAL Call #:  

aHD1751.A42; ISSN: 0099-1066 [AGOUD7]

Descriptors:  

land use / federal programs/

environmental protection/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

439. New roles for long term cropland

diversion.

Ogg, C. and Kuch, P.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 49

(5): 438-439. (1994)

NAL Call #:  

56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Descriptors:  

soil conservation/ soil management/

government supports/ wildlife habitats/ cropland/ economic aspects/

water quality management/ Watershed protection

Abstract: In the early 1980s, articles in this

Journal made ambitious claims regarding long term cropland

diversion. They said that the U.S. could dramatically reduce soil

erosion while avoiding annual, paid diversion programs, which cost

much more. The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) now plays a

central role in farm bill debates largely because it is delivering

on those promises, while meeting wildlife needs, as well. Success

opens up new opportunities to design effective programs based,

again, on good analysis, but focusing more on wildlife and water

quality benefits from crop diversions and on supporting resource

management on land remaining in crop production.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

440. North Central Oregon Conservation Reserve

Program Survey: A summary of results.

McLeod, Donald M.

Corvallis: Dept. of Agricultural

and Resource Economics, Oregon State University; 46 p.: ill.;

Series: Special report (Oregon State University. Agricultural

Experiment Station 959. (1996)

Notes: "April 1996." Includes bibliographical

references (p.36-37).

NAL Call #:  100--Or3M-no.959

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

441. Offsite sediment damage benefits of the

Conservation Reserve Program in the southern United

States.

Alexander, R. R.; English, B. C.;

Robertson, T.; and Post, D.

Southern Journal of

Agricultural Economics  21 (1): 189. (July 1989)

NAL Call #:  

HD101.S6; ISSN: 0081-3052

Descriptors:  

sediment pollution/ pollution by

agriculture/ soil conservation/ south eastern states of USA/ south

central states of USA/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

442. Overview of the present land-use situation

and the anticipated ecological impacts of program

implementation.

Newman, J. B.

In: General Technical Report

RM.

Fort Collins, Colo.: Rocky

Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, 1988; pp.

55-59.

Notes: Report Series ISSN: 0277-5786; Proceedings of a

Symposium on "Impacts of the Conservation Reserve Program in the

Great Plains," held Sept 16-18, 1987, Denver, Colorado. Includes

references.

NAL Call #:  aSD11.A42

Descriptors:  

resource conservation/ soil

conservation/ erosion control/ land diversion/ programs/

revegetation/ northern plains states of USA/ southern plains states

of USA/ Conservation Reserve Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

443. Regional and state perspectives on

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP).

Allen, A. W.

Fort Collins, CO: National Ecology

Research Center, National Biological Survey; U.S. Fish and Wildlife

Service Federal Aid Report, 1994.

Descriptors:  

Regional conservation programs/

State conservation programs/ Conservation Reserve Program/ United

States

Abstract:  Literature reviewed of information

furnished by state and federal biologists on regional effects of

CRP on wildlife in agricultural ecosystems.

444. Risk Assessment for National Natural

Resource Conservation Programs.

Powell, M. R. and Wilson, J. D.,

1997. 31 p. Resources for the Future Discussion Papers

97-49.

http://www.rff.org/rff/Documents/RFF-DP-97-49.pdf

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve

Program/

United States

Abstract:  Reviewed risk assessments prepared

by the USDA in support of regulations implementing CRP and

EQIP.

445. Runoff, erosion, and soil quality

characteristics of a former Conservation Reserve Program site in

southwestern Oklahoma.

Gilley, J. E.; Donan, J. W.; and

Dao, T. H.

Applied Engineering in

Agriculture 13 (5): 617-622.

(Sept. 1997)

NAL Call #:  

S671.A66; ISSN: 0883-8542

Descriptors:  

triticum aestivum/ winter wheat/

bothriochloa/ ischaemum/ grassland soils/ wheat soils/ erodibility/

land use/ conversion/ erosion/ runoff/ soil/ losses from soil/ soil

fertility/ quality/ land productivity/ no-tillage/ conservation

tillage/ erosion control/ soil properties/ federal programs/

Oklahoma/ consevation reserve program/ erodible soils/ soil

quality

Abstract: This study was conducted to measure

runoff, erosion, and soil quality characteristics of a site in

southwestern Oklahoma the first year following conversion from the

Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Treatments included undisturbed

CRP, Old World bluestem (Bothriochlora ischaemum L.), no-till wheat

(Triticum aestivum L.) and conservation-till wheat. Significant

differences in surface cover were found between each of the

experimental treatments, with values ranging from 100% on the

undisturbed CRP site to 42% for the conservation-till treatment. No

significant difference in runoff was found among the various

experimental treatments. The Old World bluestem and winter wheat

treatments had only minimal erosion during the first year following

conversion from the CRP. Production of Old World bluestem

maintained levels of soil quality similar to those of the

undisturbed CRP. Conversion of this CRP area to winter wheat

production significantly reduced biological nutrient reserves,

suggesting a degradation of soil quality. If this trend continues,

long term productivity and the quality of air and water resources

at this site could be affected.

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

446. Sea of grass in New Mexico: A perspective

on CRP.

Garcia, H. B.

Rangelands 15 (1): 18-21. (Feb. 1993)

NAL Call #:  

SF85.A1R32; ISSN: 0190-0528

Descriptors:  

sown grasslands/ range management/

prescribed burning/ introduced species/ wildlife management/

erosion control/ grazing systems/ New Mexico

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

447. Socioeconomic impacts of the Conservation

Reserve Program in North Dakota.

Leistritz, F Larry; Hodur, Nancy

M.; and

Bangsund, Dean A.

Rural America 17 (3): 57-65. (Fall 2002)

Descriptors:  

Rural population---Economic

conditions/ Farms---Economic aspects/ Land

utilization---Environmental aspects/ North Dakota---Environmental

policy/ United States---Agricultural policy/ North Dakota---Social

conditions/ North Dakota---Economic conditions/ Wildlife

conservation---United States---North Dakota/ Conservation of

resources---United States---North Dakota

Abstract: Examines effects of the CRP of long-term

land retirement, focusing on income stability for participating

landowners, environmental benefits, farm supply, decline of rural

population, wildlife conservation, and recreation; policy

issues.

© 2004 PAIS, published by OCLC

Public Affairs Information Service

448. Third Grazing Lands Forum: Grazing Lands

and the Conservation Reserve Program, Full report (Held 11-13

October 1988 at Harpers Ferry, WV).

Heimlich, Ralph E.

Morrilton, AR: Winrock

International, 1989. 51 p.: ill.

NAL Call #:  HD241.G7-1988

Descriptors:  

Grazing Lands and the Conservation

Reserve Program/ Grazing districts---United States/ Agricultural

conservation---United States

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

449. Tillage effects on water runoff and soil

erosion after sod.

Lindstrom, M. J.; Schumacher, T.

E.; Cogo, N. P.; and Blecha, M. L.

Journal of Soil and Water

Conservation 53

(1):

59-63. (1998)

NAL Call #:  

56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3]

Descriptors:  

medicago sativa/ bromus inermis/

grasslands/ land use/ conversion/ change/ plowing/ chiselling/

no-tillage/ infiltration/ runoff/ water erosion/ soil/ losses from

soil/ land diversion/ federal programs/ soil structure/

erodibility/ erosion control/ South Dakota/ Conservation Reserve

Program

This citation is from

AGRICOLA.

450. Trends in agriculture in the LEASEQ

watersheds, 1975-1995.

Richards RP; Baker DB; and Eckert

DJ

Journal of Environmental

Quality 31 (1):

17-24; 12 ref. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

QH540.J6

This citation is provided courtesy

of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

451. Twelve Years of Abandoned Mineland

Reclamation Activities by the United States Department of

Agriculture: Soil Conservation Service in Southwest

Pennsylvania.

Bogovich, W. M.

In: Land Reclamation: Advances in

Research & Technology/ Younos, T.; Diplas, P.; and

Mostaghimi, S.; Series: ASAE

Publication 92-14.

St. Joseph, Michigan: American

Society of Agricultural Engineers, 1992; pp. 230-239.

Notes: 10 Fig, 6 Ref.

NAL Call #:  TA705.2.L36 1992

Descriptors:  

Coal mining effects/ Department of

Agriculture/ Environmental restoration/ Land reclamation/ Mining/

Pennsylvania/ Soil Conservation Service/ Acid mine drainage/ Costs/

Erosion control/ Hazards/ Legislation/ Sediment control/ Soil

stabilization/ Strip mines/ Surface Mining Control Act/ Toxicity/

Vegetation establishment/ Waste capping/ Wetland construction/

Water quality control/ Watershed protection

Abstract:  One-sixth of all abandoned

coal-mine land in the United States is in the twelve southwestern

counties of Pennsylvania. The Surface Mining Control Act of 1977

established several programs to reclaim abandoned coal mine land,

one of which is the Rural Abandoned Mine Program. Sites reclaimed

to date have all been Priority I sites, defined as those which

present an imminent danger to life and property. 136 sites

totalling 1137 acres (460 ha) have been reclaimed in the twelve

counties over the last 12 years. One of the biggest problems

associated with black gob piles is their potential toxicity to

vegetation. A soil covering has been used on two of the 136 sites.

Black locust and arnot bristly locust have been propagated on sites

from seed during the vegetation phase of reclamation. During

construction, both temporary and permanent measures for the control

of erosion and sedimentation are installed, including: straw-bale

barriers, filter-fabric fence, sediment basins and rock filter

dams. Before reconstruction, many of the sites had high rates of

sediment leaving the site. Surface-water control practices are used

to stabilize the soil material and reduce the amount of gully

erosion; examples are diversions, vegetated waterways, and

rock-lined waterways. Mine openings and air shafts may discharge

water and poorly-oxygenated air, and 183 openings have been closed

to prevent access. Wetlands have been constructed on 11 sites to

mitigate acid mine drainage. The average total cost of reclamation

is approximately 9500 dollars per acre. (See also W94-00972)

(Brunone-PTT)

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

452. USDA Conservation Programs: A Look at the

Record.

Hanson, LeRoy and Claassen,

Roger

Agricultural Outlook

(AO) (AGO-284): 22-25.

(2001)

NAL Call #:  

aHD1751.A422; ISSN: 0099-1066

Descriptors:  

Environmental protection

 United States/ Agricultural conservation  United

States

453. What We've Done--and What We Can Do: A

Historical Perspective on the Food Security Act.

Berg, N. A.

In: Groundwater and agrichemicals:

Suggested policy directions for 1990; Navarre, Minnesota:

Freshwater Foundation, 1990. P. 5-14, 8 ref.

Descriptors:  

Agricultural practices/

Environmental law/ Erosion control/ Food Security Act/ Policy

making / Subsidies/ Water pollution control/ Education/ Farm

management/ Nonpoint pollution sources/ Research/ Soil erosion/

Wetlands/ Wildlife habitats/ Water law and institutions/ Water

quality control/ Watershed protection

Abstract:  The Food Security Act of 1985

consists of eighteen titles which are designed to reduce soil

erosion, improve wildlife habitat, decrease loss of wetlands

acreage, and lower contamination of water quality from the nation's

farmland. This policy radically differs from that of the 1970s,

when the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) promoted

'fence-row-to-fence-row' cultivation. Then, land best suited for

grass, trees, or wetlands was converted to cropland that qualified

for USDA commodity and credit programs. Yet damage from the

all-cut-production thrust surfaced as the USDA prepared the 1982

National Resources Inventory (NRI) and reviewed the 1977 NRI

information. Soil erosion, water quality and quantity, and loss of

aquatic and terrestrial habitat continued, while production

increases led to piled up surpluses and economic stress. Since the

1985 promulgation of the Food Security Act, over 30 million acres

of highly erodible and scouring cropland have been planted with

suitable vegetative cover for a ten-year period to reduce soil

erosion under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) provision,

150,000 acres of wetlands have been preserved, and 2 million acres

of trees have been planted to enhance wildlife habitat. The CRP

acres do not require agrichemicals which benefits the land and

water. Passage of the 1985 Food Security Act demonstrated that: (1)

a small ad hoc conservation coalition could influence a largely

urban Congress that the farm commodity programs, as costly as they

had become, represented leverage on the everyday decisions of

thousands of individual food and fiber producers; (2) public

interest conservation groups could join traditional farm interests

at the legislative table; and (3) the American tax-payer can demand

stewardship, as a trade-off for their support of USDA commodity,

credit, and insurance programs. In the future, maintenance of the

1985 Food Security Act should be encouraged, while passage of the

1990 farm policy should include: (1) removing policy constraints

regarding introduction of grasses and/or legumes into cropping

systems; (2) use of a carrot and stick approach to reduce the use

of chemicals; (3) support for more education and technical

assistance to farmers; and (4) accelerated research to provide the

technology for sustainable, profitable farming. As the 1985 bill

did for soil erosion, the 1990 farm policy will do for water

quality protection. (See also W92-03438) (Collins-PTT)

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

(CSA)

454. When the CRP Ends: A Look at Production

Alternatives for Highly Erodible Land in Southern Iowa.

Jolly, R. W.; Vontalge, A.;

Peterson, B.; and Spraque, R. Southern Iowa Forage and Livestock

Committee and Iowa State University, Agriculture and Home Economics

Experiment Station, University Extension; PM-1619, 1995.

Descriptors:  

Conservation Reserve Program/ State

conservation programs/ Iowa

Abstract:  Predicted the possible uses for

land in Southern Iowa if CRP were ended, based on productivity and

ownership characteristics.

[Table of Contents]


Subject

Index


1985 Food Security Act
  429

1985 Food Security Act [Farm

Bill]   201

1992 National Resources

Inventory   31

3 Decades Forest   17

abandoned land   344, 368

Abandonment   3

aboveground vegetation

  281

abundance   124, 134, 143, 168, 170, 175, 197,

212, 227, 243, 245, 259, 263

access   414

Accumulation   3

Accuracy   254

Acid mine drainage

  451

acreage   297, 382

acreage reduction

  382

Acrididae   198

Adair County   175

adaptive kernels   202

Administration   399

Administrative

agencies   399

aerial photography

  125

afforestation   4, 60, 80, 183, 309, 313,

321

age   168

Agelaius phoeniceus

  146, 220

Agelaius phoeniceus [red

winged blackbird] (Passeriformes)   129

aggregates   16

agricultural and rural

law   285

agricultural chemicals

  406

agricultural

conservation   171, 377

Agricultural

conservation---Government policy---Environmental aspects---United

States   164

Agricultural

conservation---Government policy---United States   137

agricultural conservation

programs   120,

125, 210

Agricultural conservation

 United States   275, 316, 318, 448, 452

Agricultural

conservation---Vermont   422

Agricultural

contracts---United States   316

agricultural crises

  285

agricultural crops

  209

Agricultural ecology---United

States   164,

347

agricultural economics

  81, 283, 382, 388, 427,

429, 434

agricultural economics

(general)   220,

272, 407

agricultural

ecosystems   136,

141

agricultural environmental

program   293

Agricultural extension

  380

agricultural land

  2, 35, 39, 47, 91, 103,

111, 181, 193, 220, 235, 256, 265, 309, 317, 332, 350, 357, 358,

375, 398, 409, 414, 423, 450

Agricultural Land

Management   19

Agricultural lands

  112

Agricultural law and

legislation---United States   137

agricultural nonpoint source

pollution   78

agricultural policy

  295, 362, 421,

436

agricultural pollution

  34, 96, 107

Agricultural

pollution---United States   59

agricultural practices

  7, 75, 102, 153, 156,

180, 220, 226, 243, 272, 301, 330, 424, 453

agricultural prices

  382

agricultural

production   35,

43, 240, 421

agricultural programs

  201

agricultural regions

  27

Agricultural Resources

Conservation Program   396

agricultural runoff

  71, 75, 76, 84, 91, 96,

97

agricultural soils

  2, 4, 23

Agricultural

subsidies---United States   315

Agricultural

Watersheds   34

agriculture   30, 34, 41, 43, 50, 56, 66,

75, 85, 90, 96, 109, 115, 119, 156, 191, 203, 250, 254, 258, 261,

274, 306, 330, 378, 387, 395, 396, 409, 434, 437

Agriculture and food

  377, 405,

434

Agriculture and food

Agricultural economics   1, 356, 378, 388, 427,

429

Agriculture and food

Agricultural equipment facilities and operations   1, 87, 112, 152, 337, 396,

430

Agriculture and

state---Environmental aspects---United States   164

Agriculture and

state---United States   315, 348

Agriculture---Economic

aspects   335

Agriculture---Economic

aspects---North Dakota   286

Agriculture---Economic

aspects---United States   394

Agriculture---Environmental

aspects   11, 22,

335, 383, 415

Agriculture, Forestry and

Wildlife   171

Agriculture, Forestry &

Wildlife   180,

182, 210, 218

agriculture (general)

  242

Agriculture---Social

aspects---United States   346

Agriculture---United

States---Legislation   11

agroecosystems   20

agronomic

characteristics   128

Agronomy   30, 50, 165

agropyron   53

Aimophila cassinii

  220

air pollution   4

Air pollution---United

States   11

Air quality   337, 437

Alabama   13, 314

alfalfa   182

alternative farming

  412

alternative versus

conventional farming systems   412

Alternatives   405

amaranthus   372, 373

amaranthus rudis   372

amenity and recreation

areas   297,

414

American Conservation Reserve

Program   293

American goldfinch

  146

American goldfinch

(Passeriformes)   122

American tree sparrow

(Passeriformes)   122, 126

amino sugars   47

Ammodramus bairdii

  424

Ammodramus henslowii

  226

Ammodramus savannarum

  146, 212, 220,

272

Ammodramus savannarum

[grasshopper sparrow] (Passeriformes)   129

Ammodramus savannarum

(Passeriformes)   126, 234

ammonia oxidizing

bacteria   42

ammonium nitrate   398

amphibians   173

anas   172, 207

Anas acuta   244

anatidae   205, 233

andropogon gerardii

  128, 320, 322,

372

angiosperms   2, 24, 29, 36, 80

angling   78

animal (Animalia)

  249

animal (Animalia

Unspecified)   234

animal manures   317, 450

animal populations

  113

Animal Sciences   199

Animals   28, 119, 122, 126, 130, 149, 165,

202, 234, 249, 252, 255

anthonomus grandis

  279, 340

antilocapra americana

  111

ants   173, 301

Aphididae   355

application rates

  344, 384,

398

Aquaculture   207

Aquatic birds   177, 233

aquatic plants   385

Aquatic Science   70, 131, 401

aquifers   39, 66

arable land   38, 384

arable soils   16, 18, 47, 384

Area   87, 94, 233

Area Sensitivity   134

arid land foxes   199

artemisa   154

Artemisia spp   154

arylamidase activity

  30

assessment   23, 412

atmosphere   4

Atmospheric sciences Physical

meteorology   1

attitudes   332, 414

availability   24

Aves   140, 153, 168, 177, 182, 194, 195,

228, 251, 265

Aves (Aves

Unspecified)   130, 149, 252

avian abundance   135

Avian Communities

  134

bacterial diseases

  276

Baird's sparrow   424

band placement   372, 373

barley   54

Bartramia longicauda

  272, 424

basic approaches, concepts,

and theory   289,

418

Bays---Virginia---Richmond

County   67

behavior   146, 154, 156, 174, 209, 236, 242,

272

behavior conservation

  180

Benefit cost analysis

  87, 437

benefits   88, 377

Best Management

Practices   34,

56, 66

beta glucosaminidase

activity   30

biocide   261

biodiversity   38, 112

biodiversity

conservation   116

biodiversity

protection   249

bioenergy   322

biogeochemical cycle

  75

Biogeochemistry   75

Biogeography   248

biological activity in

soil   100

biological diversity

  402

Biological indicators

  112

Biological

productivity   94

Biology   131, 171, 185, 290, 401

Biology, Ecology   182

biomass   9, 23, 24, 47, 53, 55, 227,

245

Biomass Plantations

  336

biomass production

  92

Biotechnology & Applied

Microbiology   227

bird (Aves

Unspecified)   252

bird communities   125, 171

Bird eggs   177

Bird populations Effect of

agricultural conservation on   132

birds   112, 119, 120, 122, 126, 130, 133,

140, 141, 143, 146, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 158, 162, 165,

168, 169, 174, 175, 180, 194, 195, 196, 197, 202, 203, 209, 211,

212, 215, 220, 226, 227, 228, 232, 234, 236, 245, 251, 252, 253,

255, 259, 261, 263, 265, 272, 424

Birds---Habitat---Nebraska   127

blackbirds and

cowbirds   263

bobolinks

(Passeriformes)   126

bobwhite   150, 188, 250

Bobwhite quails   203

botanical composition

  300, 323, 361,

372

Botany   203

bothriochloa   445

bothriochloa bladhii

  350

bothriochloa ischaemum

  45, 344, 345

bottomland forests

  60, 80, 321

Brackish water   177

breeding   154, 209

breeding bird survey

  229

Breeding Bird Surveys

  143

Breeding Birds   124, 229

Breeding site   151

Breeding sites   177, 207

Breeding success   207, 233

Brewer's sparrow   154

broadcasting   372, 373

bromus inermis   100, 372, 449

brooding   156

brooding behavior

  202

broods   156

broods and brooding

  150, 156

Brookings County   242

brown headed cowbird

  272, 424

brush control   247

budgets   297, 382

Bulk   19

bulk density   16, 53, 54, 57,

423

buried seeds   373

burning   261

burns   173

Business and economics

  336, 405

California   63, 244

Canada   16

Canada goose

(Anseriformes)   122

Canis latrans   424

canopy   423

capitalism   362

carabidae   350

carbofuran   309

carbon   1, 4, 10, 12, 18, 23, 24, 29, 43,

47, 48, 52, 53, 56, 57, 100

Carbon 13 natural

abundance   20

carbon cycle   4, 13

Carbon dioxide   1

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

  14

carbon emission   12

carbon nitrogen ratio

  23, 47

carbon pools   4

carbon sequestration

  4, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20,

43

carbon sinks   15

carbon: soil sequestration

practices   6

Carbon Storage   17

Carduelis tristis

  146

carrying capacity

  327

Carya illinoinensis

  80

case studies   412

Cass County, Illinois

  308

Cassin's sparrow   220

Catching methods   301

Catchment areas   34, 85

Catoptrophorus

semipalmatus   424

cattle   103

census   156

censuses   37

Cephalosporium

gramineum   341

change   423, 449

changes detrimental to

wildlife   156,

261, 263

Characteristics, behavior and

fate   91

chemical composition

  47

chemicals runoff and erosion

from agricultural management systems   90

chenopodium album

  373

Chesapeake Bay---Md and

Va   67

chiselling   100, 449

chloroform fumigation

  30

Chordates   119, 122, 126, 130, 149, 151, 165,

195, 202, 211, 234, 252

chronosequence   281

Ciconiiformes   424

Cistothorus platensis

  232

clavibacter Michiganensis

subsp insidiosus   276

clay loam soils   32

climate   5, 75, 180

climatic change   16

Climatic changes   1, 15

clutches   220

Coal mining effects

  451

Coleoptera   135, 301

Colinus virginianus

  138, 141, 150, 183,

188, 189, 250, 258, 267

colletotrichum

trifolii   276

colonization   361

Colorado   113, 283, 304

commodity markets

  382

commodity programs

  382

common pheasant   156, 194, 236, 261

common snipe   424

common yellowthroat

  146

common yellowthroat

(Passeriformes)   126

communities   133, 146, 175, 220,

227

Community composition

  233, 385

Community

development---United States   346

community ecology

  42, 350

Community structure

  135, 195

community vitality

  299

Comparative studies

  85

comparison   136

Comparison Studies

  85

comparisons   128

compliance provisions

  201

comprehensive effort

  6

Comprehensive Zoology

  211

computer simulation

  49, 382

conductivity   50

Congressional reports

  377

conservation   1, 10, 15, 25, 43, 44, 51,

73, 74, 75, 77, 94, 98, 109, 120, 125, 153, 156, 187, 195, 197,

203, 210, 211, 216, 218, 226, 232, 235, 248, 265, 272, 273, 274,

289, 295, 311, 312, 356, 357, 359, 362, 365, 378, 388, 393, 402,

406, 408, 409, 413, 414, 418

conservation areas

  49, 128, 189, 205, 223,

242, 279, 298, 314, 327, 340, 350

Conservation biology

  195

conservation buffer

strips   6,

43

conservation buffers

  187, 256

conservation

compliance   68

conservation compliance

provision   81

Conservation---Cropland   104

conservation

implications   195

Conservation in agricultural

use   104

conservation interests

  249

conservation land

acquisition   249

Conservation measures

  151, 195,

211

Conservation of natural

resources---Economic aspects---North Dakota   286

Conservation of natural

resources---Government policy---United States   348

Conservation of natural

resources---Nebraska   179

Conservation of natural

resources---United States   287, 346, 392, 394

Conservation of

resources---United States---North Dakota   447

conservation practices

  180

conservation practices:

evolution   6

conservation programs

  115, 133, 142, 143,

146, 154, 165, 175, 191, 212, 220, 250, 259, 261, 263, 267, 292,

377

Conservation Reserve

Enhancement Program   110, 308

Conservation Reserve

Enhancement Program---United States   351

Conservation Reserve

Program   3, 4, 6,

9, 15, 17, 20, 26, 31, 33, 39, 43, 46, 53, 55, 58, 65, 68, 78, 81,

87, 90, 93, 98, 99, 105, 106, 114, 116, 117, 118, 121, 122, 123,

124, 126, 128, 129, 130, 133, 134, 142, 143, 144, 146, 148, 154,

155, 156, 157, 160, 161, 163, 170, 173, 174, 176, 186, 189, 190,

196, 197, 200, 204, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 217, 220, 221, 227,

229, 230, 231, 234, 235, 237, 238, 239, 241, 245, 250, 253, 254,

257, 258, 260, 261, 262, 264, 265, 266, 269, 270, 272, 276, 279,

281, 297, 298, 299, 304, 310, 311, 314, 322, 324, 328, 329, 337,

338, 344, 345, 349, 356, 358, 360, 361, 374, 375, 384, 389, 390,

395, 396, 399, 400, 404, 405, 406, 407, 411, 412, 416, 417, 419,

424, 426, 427, 428, 429, 433, 434, 435, 436, 438, 441, 442, 443,

444, 449, 454

Conservation Reserve Program

[CRP]   152, 183,

201, 202

Conservation Reserve

Program---Evaluation   284

Conservation Reserve Program

lands   48,

111

Conservation Reserve Program

U.S   132,

315

Conservation Reserve

Program---United States   127, 139, 282, 287, 316, 319, 348,

351, 367, 371, 392, 394

Conservation Reserve

Programme   151,

379

Conservation Reserve

Programme fields   151

Conservation Reserve

Programs   100,

188, 219, 236, 242, 292

Conservation Resource

Management   165

conservation tillage

  13, 14, 18, 36, 43, 45,

344, 345, 398, 421, 445, 450

Conservation, wildlife

management and recreation   74, 75, 177

consevation compliance

program   406

consevation reserve

program   445

constituent loads

  72

constraints   362

constructed wetlands

  271

consumer surplus   255

continuous cropping

  29

contracts   374, 395, 396

control programs   61

conversion   4, 32, 382, 425, 445,

449

cool season   170

Cool season and warm season

grass fields   195

Corn Belt of USA   81, 406

Corn Belt States of

USA   21,

36

cost analysis   25, 382, 430

cost benefit analysis

  8, 61, 104, 105, 308,

379, 381, 399, 400, 405

Cost effectiveness

  87

cost effectiveness

analysis   27,

308

Cost sharing   312

Costs   34, 388, 395, 451

cotton   2, 30, 328, 382

cotton yield   30

cover   115, 170, 191, 250, 263

cover crops   13, 100, 339

cover, nesting   143, 150

cover type   229

coverage   361, 423

coyote   424

crested wheatgrass

  333

crop (Angiospermae)

  48

crop damage   224

crop density   345, 364

crop establishment

  303

crop fields   122

crop management   48, 345, 364

crop mixtures   276, 342

crop production   36, 37, 39, 41, 53, 64, 104,

322, 328, 332

crop residues   18, 364

crop rotations   20, 30

crop yield   38, 128, 345, 364, 372, 398,

450

Crop yields   396

cropland   10, 25, 31, 41, 46, 73, 88, 158,

399, 439

croplands   4, 16, 18

cropping systems   13, 18, 30, 54, 92

crops   7, 10, 41, 102, 120, 311

CRP   19, 88, 170, 258, 307, 405,

434

CRP enrollment   73

CRP fields   124, 135, 227, 245

crude protein   103, 128

cultivars   128, 276

cultivated farmland

  115, 150, 156, 191,

242, 250, 259, 261, 263

cultivated grassland

soils   20

Cultivated Lands   10, 46, 56, 112, 387,

399

cultivation   1, 3, 45, 51

Culture of other aquatic

animals   207

cutting   263

cutting frequency

  276

cycling   64

Cypress Creek   306

Dabbling ducks   207

Dakota   134

dark eyed junco

(Passeriformes)   122

databases   39

deciduous forests

  60

Decision making   8, 396, 421

Decision support

systems   306

deer, white tailed

  242

deficiency payments

  295

degradation   58

demography   314

denitrification   2

density   158, 209, 220, 236

Department of

Agriculture   451

descurainia pinnata

  280

detecting change   72

diameter   294, 326

diapause   340

dickcissel   146, 174, 215, 272

dickcissels   158

dickcissels

(Passeriformes)   126

digestibility   128

Diplopoda   301

Diptera   301

direct sowing   54

disc   50

discing   364

disease resistance

  276, 341

dispersion   188, 194

Dissolved oxygen   75

distribution   154, 220

distribution of costs

  27

disturbed land   361

Diuraphis noxia   355

diurnal variation

  242

diversification   246

diversity   220

Dolichonyx oryzivorus

(Passeriformes)   126

Domestic livestock

  167

dove, mourning   191

drainage   101

Drainage Area   85

drought   80, 222, 398

dry farming   37

duck nests   158

ducks   143, 233, 244

dust   16

Duval County   173

dynamic computable general

equilibrium models   43

Dynamics   3, 14

earthworms   28

East central region

  242

eastern meadowlark

  146

Ecological Effects

  330, 333

Ecological impact of water

development   113

ecological

requirements   191, 261

ecological restoration

  267

Ecology   20, 72, 135, 158, 169, 170, 171,

195, 203, 229, 234, 244, 246, 289, 302, 379, 396, 405,

413

economic analysis

  138, 274, 322, 328,

336, 414, 417

economic aspects   395, 399, 439

Economic Efficiency

  34

Economic Evaluation

  34, 255

Economic Impact   21, 27, 85, 239, 240, 295,

299, 327, 332, 382, 412, 419, 420

Economic impacts   396

economic instruments

  116

Economic model   1

economic models   81

economic sectors   43

Economics   25, 34, 64, 85, 109, 274,

296

Ecosystem Function

  17

ecosystem management

  75, 162, 385,

424

Ecosystem management---United

States   347

ecosystem stability

  402

ecosystem structure

  281

ecosystem

vulnerability   116

ecosystems   1, 16, 146, 154, 156, 174,

209, 212, 220, 261, 272, 405, 424

Ecosystems and

energetics   75

edge habitat   174

edge relation   234

Education   165, 453

effects   29

Effects on water of human

nonwater activities   77, 82, 330

efficacy   344

elateridae   358, 375

electrical

conductivity   28,

57

emission   2, 16

Emissions   1

endangered species

  112, 197, 222,

267

energy cost of

production   322

energy crops   227, 245

Energy Fuels   336

Energy Policies regulations

and studies   336

Energy Reserves   336

Energy Source

Development   336

enhancement   165, 402

enrollment   428

entisols   425

Enviromental & Natural

Resource Development   409

Environment   20, 44, 72, 135, 158, 169,

170, 229, 244, 312

Environment management

  71, 75, 177, 251, 385,

388, 409

Environment---United

States   363

Environmental action

  25, 34, 41, 75, 91, 96,

97, 107, 109, 274, 306

environmental benefits

  297

environmental benefits

index   400,

405

Environmental concerns

  377

environmental

condition   116

environmental

degradation   21,

75, 98

environmental

disturbances   165

Environmental Effects

  25, 85, 233,

396

environmental factors

  304, 323

environmental impact

  25, 28, 37, 167, 177,

220, 255, 288, 295, 308, 337, 357, 393, 408, 412, 414,

431

environmental impact

statements   416

Environmental impacts

  430

Environmental issues

  85

Environmental law

  453

Environmental law---United

States   302,

415

environmental

legislation   74,

283, 362

environmental

management   44,

71, 378, 408, 410, 413

Environmental management and

planning   312

Environmental

monitoring   409

Environmental Policy

  85, 104, 310, 379, 381,

408, 414

Environmental policy---United

States   164,

302

Environmental pollution and

control   1, 337,

377

Environmental pollution and

control Air pollution and control   1

Environmental pollution and

control Water pollution and control   430

environmental

protection   21,

74, 77, 96, 109, 118, 274, 293, 297, 362, 374, 378, 395, 400, 408,

414, 419, 438

Environmental

protection---Cost effectiveness   335

Environmental protection

 United States   302, 452

environmental quality

  297, 302, 306, 381,

405

Environmental Quality

Incentive Program [EQIP]   201

Environmental Quality

Incentives Program   187, 381

Environmental

restoration   75,

140, 385, 451

Environmental risk

assessment---United States   302, 392

Environmental Science

  131, 290,

401

Environmental Sciences

  218

Environmental

transport   105

enzyme activity   23

eragrostis curvula

  222, 279

eroded soils   16, 36, 277

erodibility   32, 49, 445, 449,

450

erodible soils   445

erosion   21, 27, 34, 35, 36, 44, 45, 96,

180, 273, 285, 295, 306, 311, 328, 357, 366, 403, 410, 411, 414,

417, 418, 419, 420, 431, 433, 445

Erosion and

sedimentation   31, 58, 98

erosion control   25, 34, 36, 41, 46, 73, 74,

77, 84, 87, 96, 187, 200, 213, 238, 274, 277, 299, 309, 314, 329,

333, 349, 362, 370, 382, 391, 395, 399, 400, 405, 407, 411, 427,

429, 433, 437, 442, 445, 446, 449, 451, 453

erosion rates   31

establishment   305

estimation   49, 78

euphorbia esula   327

European starling

(Passeriformes)   122

eutrophic lakes   76

eutrophication   76, 95

Evaluation   74, 212, 307, 388, 408, 414,

437

Evaluation process

  85

Evaluation, processing and

publication   88

evapotranspiration

  391

exotic species   333

Expenditures   34

extensive agriculture

  115

Eye spot   341

Eyespot   341

fallow   18, 39, 48, 54, 57

fallow systems   13

fallow tillage systems

  20

fallowing   58

Farm Bill   68, 165, 381

Farm Bill of 1990

  396

farm costs and returns

surveys   155

Farm crops   1

farm income   155, 295, 382

farm management   1, 37, 396, 408, 427,

453

farm sector   382

farm size   299, 450

farm surveys   155

farmer service reward

system   293

farmers   27, 152, 311, 379

farmers' attitudes

  268, 295

farming   64, 104, 239, 299

Farming and

agriculture   151

farming systems   37, 64, 187, 299,

412

farmland   4, 12, 118, 174, 183, 209, 223,

272, 342, 424, 434

Farmlands   105

farms   102, 115, 150, 203, 274, 311, 388,

393, 434, 450

Farms---Economic

aspects   447

Farms---Environmental

aspects   415

Farms---Vermont   422

Fayette County   96

feasibility   322

fecundity   146, 195, 355

Federal assistance

programs   427

Federal jurisdiction

  395, 399

federal policies   44

federal programs   4, 9, 12, 27, 43, 49, 81,

118, 138, 146, 172, 174, 181, 220, 261, 266, 272, 274, 276, 277,

278, 295, 296, 297, 310, 322, 345, 349, 353, 357, 358, 360, 361,

370, 375, 382, 386, 391, 393, 400, 406, 412, 417, 419, 423, 438,

445, 449

feeding   173

Feeding behavior   215

feeding ecology   244

fertility   236

fertilizers   18, 344

field experimentation

  364, 372

field sparrow   146

Fields   19, 126, 134, 168, 229

finance   417, 434

Financing   312

fine sandy loam   20

fire ants   169

fire ecology   247

Fire hazards   337

fires   173

fisheries   109

Fisheries

management---Political aspects   69

fishery resources

  109

fledglings   156

flood control   77, 89

flood damage   74

flooding   74, 77, 80

floods   74, 89

fodder crops   64, 276

Food   388

food, agriculture,

conservation and trade act of 1990   295, 349

food and security act of 1985   285

Food availability

  207, 215

food crops   115, 261

Food Security Act

  427, 453

Food Security Act 1985

  413

food security act of 1985   27, 33, 81,

83, 94, 105, 200, 295, 324, 396, 427, 428

food supply   261

foods   173

forage   64, 128

Forage plants---United

States   383

foraging   165

Ford County   156

forest fauna   218

Forest management

  60, 82, 326

forest plantations

  183, 326

forest soils   4

Forest thinning---United

States   287

forestlands   4

Forestry   296, 312, 365

Forestry management

  312

forests   12, 16, 38, 60, 136, 321,

326

formicidae   169, 301

fragmentation   158, 331

frequency distribution

  361

Freshwater   177

Freshwater pollution

  71, 73, 76, 91, 97,

107

Fringillidae   146, 154, 174, 212, 220,

424

fuel crops   322

Funding   377

fungal diseases   276, 309

fusarium oxysporum f sp

medicaginis   276

Future planning

Projected   396

Galliformes   156, 188, 236, 250, 255,

261

Gallinago gallinago

  424

game management   153

GAO reports   378

Garvin Brook Rural Clean

Water Program   61

General   341

General Environmental

Engineering   75

General papers on

resources   77

Geographic Information

Systems   194,

254, 307

geographical

distribution   193, 375

geographical information

systems   39, 317,

358, 366, 384

Geography   180

Georgia   294, 309

Geoscience   70

Geothlypis trichas

  146

Geothlypis trichas

(Passeriformes)   126

Gini coefficient   297

GIS   194, 254

global carbon budget

  4

Global Change   14

Glycine   36

glycine max   36, 92, 101, 364,

372

gossypium   2, 328

gossypium hirsutum

  13, 344, 345

Government agencies

Evaluation   380

Government finance

  104

Government policies

  94, 312, 427

government policy

  55, 74, 84, 97, 107,

140, 153, 204, 226, 243, 402

government programs

  25, 34, 41, 96,

434

Government regulations

  306

Government Supports

  25, 34, 41, 85,

439

Governmental

interrelations   104

governmental programs and

projects   66

Governments   34

grains   115

gramineae   279

grass management   32

grass prairies   120

grasses   24, 32, 40, 152, 253, 279, 283,

300, 304, 305, 340, 355, 360, 437

Grasses---Colorado---Growth   319

Grasses---Weed

control---United States   371

grasshopper sparrow

  146, 212, 220,

272

grasshopper sparrow

(Passeriformes)   126, 234

grassland   19, 115, 124, 143, 146, 169, 175,

191, 195, 229, 245, 259, 263

grassland bird

conservation   170

Grassland Birds   134, 197, 245

Grassland, cover

quality   151

grassland improvement

  320, 370

grassland management

  344, 423

Grassland Soils   3, 4, 16, 23, 32, 47, 52,

425, 445

grasslands   2, 4, 16, 24, 39, 45, 46, 51,

54, 136, 140, 143, 146, 154, 159, 172, 204, 209, 220, 228, 232,

243, 246, 248, 251, 261, 272, 279, 300, 314, 325, 331, 339, 364,

398, 424, 449

Gratiot County   263

grazing   16, 103, 301, 327, 338, 350,

423

Grazing---Colorado

  319

Grazing districts---United

States   318,

448

Grazing Great Plains

  367

grazing intensity

  320

Grazing Lands and the

Conservation Reserve Program   318, 448

Grazing lands---United

States   383

grazing systems   338, 446

Great Plains   20, 117, 148, 254,

427

great plains

grasslands   229

Great Plains Region United

States   396

great plains states of

USA   28, 29, 37,

47, 57, 64, 331, 374

Greater prairie

chicken   214

greenhouse effect

  4, 16

Greenhouse Gas   14

greenhouse gas

mitigation   20

greenhouse gases   4

ground cover   39, 222

Ground water   105, 337, 430, 437

Groundwater   81, 82, 88, 366,

406

groundwater pollution

  61

growth   294, 326

growth rate   326

growth stages   320

gymnosperms   80, 331

Habitat   124, 146, 149, 150, 170, 175, 188,

191, 195, 233, 242, 245, 250, 258

habitat alterations

  156, 173,

424

habitat change   115, 261

habitat changes   212, 261

habitat classification

  188, 250

habitat density   202

habitat destruction

  159

habitat improvement

  207, 274

Habitat improvement

(physical)   177

Habitat management

  142, 146, 156, 174,

188, 195, 209, 211, 212, 219, 220, 261, 263

habitat management for

wildlife   115,

150, 191, 250, 261

habitat preference

  358

habitat preservation

  165

habitat relationships

  146, 174, 212,

261

habitat selection

  28, 111, 227, 242,

244

habitat surveys   250

habitat use   154, 173, 174, 199, 209, 242,

244, 272

habitat utilization

  140, 265

habitats   28, 109, 118, 152, 155, 158, 159,

172, 189, 197, 200, 203, 204, 220, 222, 238, 266, 289, 297, 340,

356, 358, 378, 405, 407, 419, 430, 437

habits   209

harvesting   312, 425

harvesting date   320

hay   53, 64, 338, 450

haying   53

haymaking   183, 205, 300, 423

Hazards   451

herbage   338

herbicide application

  280, 354,

368

herbicide mixtures

  280

herbicide

recommendations   368

herbicide residues

  309

herbicides   339, 344, 370, 372

hibernation   120

high plains   239

highly erodable land

  201

historic floods   74

history   87, 94, 263, 323, 324, 325,

396

home range   154, 199

home range size   202

Homoptera   355

horizons   39

horned lark

(Passeriformes)   122

host plants   355

human activity   331

Human impact   228

hunting   138, 207, 240, 255, 314, 405,

414

hydraulic conductivity

  50

hydraulic properties

  50

hydrological regime

  385

Hydrology   75, 82, 89, 385

hymenoptera   169, 301

hypoxia   95

idaho   97, 295

Illinois   36, 76, 96, 107, 115, 141, 150,

152, 156, 203, 215, 226, 228, 306, 308

Illinois: South and west

central   211

impact   288

Implementation   396

implementation of

research   431

Improvement   437

incentives   386, 408, 434

incidence   375

income   240, 388, 419

indexes   400

indexing   88

Indiana   65, 235

Indicator species

  330

Indicators   38, 56, 409

infestation   361

infiltration   50, 425, 449

infiltrometers   50

input output analysis

  278, 285

insect communities

  350

insect pests   309, 358, 375

Insecta   330

Insects   198, 330

integer programming

  27, 295

integrated systems

  37

intensive husbandry

  103

introduced species

  446

invasions   331

invertebrate biomass

  252

invertebrates   28, 330

Iowa   26, 98, 115, 158, 161, 245, 358,

364, 372, 373, 375, 454

IPCC   20

IPCC Inventory   14

irrigated farming

  39

Irrigation   18, 87, 104, 430

ischaemum   445

IWEBP   203

Jasper County   150

Joaquin kit foxes

  199

juniper   229

Juniperus   331

Juniperus spp   125

juvenile   156

Kansas   39, 123, 128, 162, 174, 180, 191,

243, 247, 261, 272, 304, 339

Kansas Conservation Reserve

Program   252

Kansas: Riley County

  174

Kansas, Western   261

Kentucky   66, 303

Kingsbury County   242

Klamath Basin   93

Know County   175

Knox County   146, 195, 259

laboratories   57

Lake County   242

lakes   21, 107

Land   254, 359

Land and freshwater

zones   195,

211

Land areas   203

land banks   39, 45, 47, 55, 100, 204,

205, 300, 344, 364, 372, 398

land capability   285

Land conservation

  396

land cover   39

land degradation   331

Land Development, Land

Reform, and Utilization (Macroeconomics)   146, 174, 220, 261, 272,

407

land diversion   12, 23, 52, 54, 200, 220,

240, 255, 266, 277, 297, 308, 324, 332, 349, 357, 360, 361, 374,

384, 386, 400, 403, 414, 419, 433, 442, 449

land improvement   15

Land Management   4, 13, 39, 52, 56, 58, 98,

102, 155, 235, 261, 297, 306, 310, 344, 345, 353, 364, 387, 414,

421, 423, 427

land management

practice   130

Land ownership   396

land policy   328, 332, 353, 414

Land pollution   10, 44, 96

land, private   212, 242, 250, 261,

424

land productivity

  445

land reclamation   105, 385, 451

land resources   359, 407, 418

Land retirement

program   437

land retirement

programs   201

land trusts   249

land types   38

land use   1, 2, 4, 9, 10, 23, 31, 32, 37, 38,

39, 45, 49, 52, 85, 87, 88, 94, 103, 105, 115, 141, 156, 191, 207,

212, 213, 214, 218, 220, 240, 249, 263, 272, 274, 306, 307, 308,

309, 325, 329, 330, 331, 332, 337, 342, 350, 353, 357, 364, 366,

374, 379, 387, 396, 399, 403, 414, 420, 421, 423, 425, 427, 438,

445, 449, 450

Land Use Change   14, 20

land use land cover

maps   39

land use planning

  39, 434

Land use, Rural---Government

policy---United States   432

Land use---Rural---United

States   316

Land

utilization---Environmental aspects   447

landowners   171, 267, 314

Landscape   135, 329, 421

landscape conservation

  35

landscape ecology

  80, 331

Landscape Metrics

  254

landscape structure

  211

Landscapes   197

Landslides and erosion

  44, 273

lapland longspur

(Passeriformes)   122

LaPlatte River   71

Law   109

lawns and turf   280, 354

laws and regulations

  68

leaching   81, 88, 384, 406

least weasel   193

legislation   33, 74, 94, 97, 109, 200,

285, 295, 306, 349, 397, 419, 420, 451

legumes   40, 152, 283, 300, 360

Legumes---Weed

control---United States   371

Lek   214

Light traps   330

Limosa fedoa   424

Linn County   146, 175, 195, 259

literature reviews

  204

litter plant   279, 364

livestock   173, 350

livestock farming

  37

Livestock industry---United

States   383

liveweight gain   103

Loblolly Pine   17

Local conservation

programs   93

Logging   82

logistic regression

  229

Long range Time   337

long term tillage

  20

Longleaf Pine   17

Lorenz curve   297

loss of habitat   261

losses   240, 437

losses from soil   92, 384, 423, 445,

449

Lower Sangamon

Watershed   308

Macon County   146, 175, 195, 259

macrotis   199

maize   2, 36, 38, 382, 406, 450

Mammalia   216, 233

mammals   233, 242, 424

Man induced effects

  75

Management   19, 134, 141, 142, 146, 153,

156, 174, 188, 207, 209, 212, 214, 219, 220, 236, 242, 243, 248,

250, 251, 261, 272, 409, 424

manures   18

mapping   88

maps   39

marbled godwit   424

Marginal Agricultural

Lands   17

marginal land   87, 294, 417

Marine environment

  177

market prices   382

marketing   450

Maryland   16, 110

mathematical model

  90

mathematical models

  1, 43, 278, 308,

417

mating grounds   191

Matter   14

meadow vole   424

meadowlark   272

meadowlark

(Passeriformes)   122

meadowlarks   126

meadowlarks, blackbirds and

orioles   175

meadows   120, 210

medicago sativa   39, 53, 92, 100, 101, 276,

300, 449

Medicine and biology

  203, 405

Medicine and biology

Ecology   1, 197,

253, 337

Medicine and biology

Zoology   253

Meetings   396, 427

melilotus officinalis

  372

Mephitis   424

metapopulation

viability   116

methodology   57, 302, 414

Michigan   168, 263

microbial biomass

  24, 30

microorganisms   24

Microtus

pennsylvanicus   424

Migratory Birds   124

mineralizable carbon

  52

mineralizable nitrogen

  52

mineralization   23, 45, 52, 53,

100

minimum convex

polygons   202

minimum tillage   350, 425

Mining   451

Minnesota   26, 47, 61, 92, 101, 133, 157, 209,

276, 336, 360, 361

Minnesota,

Southwestern   209

Minnesota, western

  133

Mississippi   49, 57, 58, 63, 80

Missouri   121, 146, 175, 189, 195, 227, 250,

253, 258, 259, 412

Missouri, Northcentral

  146

model   50

modeling   175, 188, 263

models   16, 78, 170, 197, 317, 358,

437

moldboards   100

mollisols   29, 32, 425

Molothrus ater   272, 424

monitoring   55, 436

Monocots   48

Montana   111, 190, 207, 285, 353

Monte Carlo method

  400

mortality   156, 199, 309

mourning dove   191

mourning dove

(Columbiformes)   122

movements   244

mowing   232, 320

Multidisciplinary

  184

multiple land use

  314

National conservation

programs   65

national economy   293

National government

  312

Natural resource

conservation   405

natural resource

management   203,

312, 405, 416, 434

Natural Resources

  31, 146, 174, 203, 242,

261, 268, 272, 296, 378, 407, 437

Natural resources and earth

sciences   203,

312, 337, 405, 434

Natural resources and earth

sciences Hydrology and limnology   105, 430

Natural resources and earth

sciences Natural resource management   94, 112, 152, 197, 253, 356, 378,

388, 396, 427, 429, 430

Natural resources and earth

sciences Soil sciences   1, 87, 105, 388, 429,

437

Natural resources

conservation   356, 434

natural resources land

resources   220

Natural resources

management   388

Natural Wetlands   134

nature conservation

  45, 60, 103, 109, 159,

177, 222, 272, 279, 300, 326, 332, 364, 366, 379, 385

Nature conservation---United

States---Legislation   415

nature reserves   45, 183, 205, 216, 326,

373

Nearctic region   195, 211

Nebraska   49, 57, 65, 87, 180, 304, 320,

364

neotropical migrant

species   125

nest   191

nest density   220

nest parasitism   272

nest predation   129

Nest Success   143, 245

nesting   146, 172, 174, 177, 220, 222, 236,

272

nesting behavior   202

nesting sites   174, 220

Nesting Success   124, 129, 172, 195

nesting success and

fecundity   195

nestling diet   135

nests   146, 159, 162, 174, 195, 204, 215,

220, 222, 228, 233, 236, 247, 251, 265, 272

nests and nesting

  143, 146, 150, 175,

191, 259

New Mexico   219, 446

New York   317

NIPF   312

NIPF lands   312

nitrate   24, 101

nitrate nitrogen   28, 61, 92, 103

nitrates   61

nitrification   2

nitrogen   24, 29, 30, 45, 48, 52, 57,

100

nitrogen content   23, 47

nitrogen cycle   13

nitrogen fertilization

  20

nitrogen fertilizers

  322, 425,

450

nitrous oxide   2

no-tillage   2, 45, 53, 55, 100, 283, 344,

345, 350, 364, 372, 398, 425, 445, 449, 450

nongame wildlife   220

Nonhuman Vertebrates

  119, 122, 126, 130,

149, 165, 202, 234, 252

Nonindustrial private

forest   312

Nonpoint pollution

  34, 91, 97, 107,

306

Nonpoint pollution

sources   34, 75,

104, 306, 453

nonpoint source

pollution   66

Nonpoint source

pollution---United States   59

Nonpoint sources   91, 97, 105, 107

North America   2, 16, 18, 21, 24, 28, 29,

35, 36, 57, 64, 80, 115, 124, 133, 142, 143, 146, 150, 154, 156,

173, 174, 175, 177, 188, 195, 199, 209, 211, 212, 219, 220, 229,

236, 242, 248, 250, 255, 259, 261, 263, 272, 292, 317, 331, 359,

408, 414

North America Central States

of USA   21, 28,

36, 57, 64

North America Dakota

  28

North America, Erie L

  34

North America: Great

Plains   424

North American Breeding Bird

Survey   149

North American

grassland   135

North American Wetlands

Conservation and Restoration Act of 1989   94

North Carolina   404

North central region

  175

North Dakota   26, 53, 143, 145, 157, 190,

205, 207, 232, 245, 300, 327, 338, 423, 425

North Dakota---Economic

conditions   447

North Dakota Enhancement

Program   286

North Dakota---Environmental

policy   447

North Dakota---Social

conditions   447

Northcentral States

  212

Northeastern States of

USA   317

Northern Bobwhite

  258

northern bobwhite

(Galliformes)   122

Northern central

region   259

Northern Great Plains

  237

northern pintail   244

northern plains   143

Northern Plains States of

USA   5, 28, 33,

57, 64, 238, 299, 323, 324, 325, 329, 442

NRCS   307

NRI   88

nutrient content   64

nutrient dynamics

  4

nutrient management

  187

nutrients   58, 64, 75

Nutrients (mineral)

  75

odocoileus hemionus

  111

odocoileus virginianus

  111, 242

Odontophoridae   188, 250

offset schemes   116

offsite benefits   8

Ohio   21, 103, 265, 417

Oklahoma   29, 45, 128, 229, 331, 344, 345,

350, 426, 445

old fields   136, 162

onsite benefits   8

opportunity costs

  240, 359

ORACBA   302

Oregon   292

Organic Carbon   7, 10, 14, 57

organic matter   1, 30, 40, 51, 98

Organic Matter

Recovery   3,

19

Orthoptera   198

overwintering   279, 340

Panicum Virgatum   245, 320

Papilionoidea   36

participation   78, 428

Particle Size Analysis

  19

partridge   194

Passerculus

sandwichensis   232

Passeriformes   146, 154, 174, 209, 212, 220,

424

passerine

(Passeriformes)   130

pastures   10, 38, 209, 272, 350

Patch Size   233, 254

Patches   233

Paternal behavior

  215

Patterns   17, 111

Payment   378

Payments   377

Pennsylvania   65, 451

percolation   391

Perdix perdix   194

perennials   53, 101

Performance assessment

  34

permanent grasslands

  220, 360,

361

persistence   276, 360

pest management   358

pest scouting   358

pesticide leaching

index   384

pesticide root zone model ---

PRZM   81

pesticides   66, 81, 88, 261, 384,

406

pH   29

Phalaropus tricolor

  424

Phasianidae   156, 236, 255, 261

Phasianidae: Galliformes,

Aves   211

Phasianus colchicus

  156, 170, 194, 236,

261

Phasianus colchicus

(Galliformes)   119, 126

Phasianus colchicus

(Phasianidae)   151

Phasianus colchicus [ring

necked pheasant] (Galliformes): female, male   202

pheasant, ring necked

  156, 261,

263

Pheasants   200, 245, 255

phleum pratense   276

phosphorus   28, 29, 136, 317,

360

phosphorus fertilizers

  450

Phrynosoma cornutum

  173

Physicochemical

properties   75

physiographic features

  39

physiology   156

phytophthora

medicaginis   276

phytotoxicity   309

Pike County   76

pines   326, 342

pinus   183, 417

pinus taeda   13, 294, 309

pisum sativum   53

Pittsfield City Lake

  76

plains   125, 340

plant competition

  294

Plant diseases   341

plant establishment

  298

plant height   294, 320

plant parasitic

nematodes   309

plant (Plantae)   249

Plant populations

  75, 385

plant residues   18, 32

Plantae (Plantae

Unspecified)   130

planting   183, 295, 312, 321, 437

planting stock   80

plants   2, 24, 29, 36, 48, 80, 130, 249,

331

Plants Botany   337

plateaus   340

plowing   100, 325, 364, 398, 449

Policies   112, 306

policies and programs

  115, 143, 150,

242

policy   80, 109

policy making   25, 453

policymakers   436

pollutants   317

polluted water   317

pollution   66

pollution by

agriculture   411,

441

pollution control

  34, 61, 71, 91, 96, 97,

107, 274, 306

pollution legislation

  97

pollution monitoring

  91

Pollution monitoring and

detection   91

Pollution (Nonpoint

sources)   34

Poplars   336

Population   203, 253

Population decline

  232

population density

  111, 150, 172, 175,

181, 195, 198, 259, 261, 350, 373

population dynamics

  146, 195, 261,

372

population ecology

  212

population growth

  204

population loss   261

population status

  141, 226

Population Trends

  135, 143,

229

populations   170, 204

Populations & general

ecology   198,

301, 330

Populus   82

porosity   50

potassium   28, 360

pothole habitat   86

prairie   115, 158, 194

prairie marsh   86

Prairie Pothole region

  99, 160, 190, 207,

233

prairie pothole

wetlands   75

Prairie Wetlands   134

prairies   16, 24, 64, 75, 125, 159, 205, 210,

310, 330

precipitation   28, 42

predation   159, 228

Predator control   177

predators   180, 233

prediction   353

prescribed burning

  222, 247, 320, 345,

398, 423, 446

Preservation   113, 203, 405

Prevention and control

  34, 71, 76, 84, 91, 96,

97, 107, 306

prey density   165

price support   382

Prices   388

priorities   113

private farm

management   293

private land   172, 312

private land

management   201

private lands   116

private ownership

  172

Problem solving information

for state and local governments   312

Procyon lotor   424

production   115

production

possibilities   314

productivity   35, 43, 46, 168, 174, 220,

236, 263, 272, 297, 312

profitability   295, 297

profits   27, 430

Program administration

  405

program development

  83, 436

program effectiveness

  8

program evaluation

  308, 428,

436

program participants

  12, 27, 295,

314

Program participation

  377

program transfer

potential   293

programs   288, 298, 299, 329, 388,

442

projections   428

Protection   437

Protective measures and

control   73, 274,

385

protein intake   103

Pseudocercosporella

herpotrichoides   341

public expenditure

  8, 382

public loans   382

Public opinion   356, 420

public relations   272, 292

pyrolysis   322

quails   189

quality   9, 19, 23, 29, 445

quercus   80, 279

raccoon   424

rain   384

range extension   154

range management   446

Range management Great

Plains   367

rangelands   16, 162, 198

rates   199

rating curves   72

reclamation   40, 51, 385

recreation   109, 396, 405, 414,

419

recruitment   207, 236

red fox   424

red winged blackbird

  146, 220

Reduction   1

refuse   95

regeneration   51

Regional conservation

programs   26, 99,

148, 160, 176, 190, 237, 443

regional surveys   314, 360, 361

Regions   1

regression analysis

  357

regrowth   344

regulations   83, 94, 395, 408

Relations to plants

  355

Remote Sensing   39, 254, 307

remuneration   183

rents   285

replanting   33, 304, 305

representative ecosystem

examples   116

reproduction   146, 172, 174, 175, 191, 195,

259

Reproduction Biology

  197, 253

reproductive

performance   205

Reproductive

productivity   195

reproductive success

  234

reptiles   173

research   18, 408, 453

reserve   261

reserved areas   332, 350, 391

reserves   283, 396, 411

residential areas

  353

residue management

  30

Resource conservation

  33, 35, 83, 200, 238,

288, 299, 324, 325, 329, 396, 421, 442

resource management

  60, 407, 418,

419

resource utilization

  419

Resources   14, 85

Resources Management

  85, 109

respiration   23, 55, 57

restoration   60, 75, 424

restored grasslands

  281

retired acres   428

return-to-crop

production   53

returns   406

revegetation   80, 200, 238, 305, 325, 433,

442

Revenue   312

Revised Universal Soil Loss

Equation   258

revised universal soil loss

equation (RUSLE)   49

rice   2

Right of property---United

States   347

Riley County   191, 272

rill erosion   31

ring necked pheasant

  156, 170,

261

ring necked pheasant

(Galliformes)   122, 126

riparian areas   63

riparian floodplain

  86

risk   384

Risk assessment   302, 392

risk management   35

risks   88

river basins   73, 113

rivers   73, 89, 95, 97

Rock Creek   97

rodents   361

rolling plains   239

rotational grazing

  103, 423

rotations   53, 101, 372, 373

rowcrop field   129

rowcrops   101

runoff   58, 71, 74, 76, 81, 91, 317, 391,

421, 423, 445, 449

runoff rates   98

rural areas   240

Rural Clean Water

Program   97

rural communities

  299, 393

rural development

  353

rural planning   277

Rural population---Economic

conditions   447

RUSLE(C)   258

sacramento valley

  244

Saline soils   104

Salmo salar   267

salsola iberica   280, 354

sampling   259, 358, 375

San Joaquin Valley

  244

satellite imagery

  39

Savannah sparrow   232

schizachyrium

scoparium   320

Scolopacidae   424

season   242

season long grazing

  423

seasonal activities

  242

seasonal variation

  111, 181, 242, 372,

373

seasonality   126

seasons   24, 242

Sedge wren   232

sediment   423

Sediment control   451

sediment load   73

sediment pollution

  441

Sediment transport

  306

sedimentation   76

seed banks   373

seed output   373

seedbed preparation

  304

seeding   150

seedlings   80, 294, 309, 321

seeds   38, 243

selection criteria

  266

semiarid climate   344

semiarid soils   52

semiarid zones   45

Sequestration   14, 17

sheet erosion   31

Shelby County   175

shorebirds   244

shrubs   238, 305

silt loam soil   29, 36

Silviculture   203, 326

simulated rainfall

  58, 98

simulation models

  49, 382, 391

Sink   3

Sinks   14

sisymbrium altissimum

  280

Site selection   162, 228, 251

size   199

skunk   424

snow   120

snowfall   119

social benefits   8

social costs   27

Social effect   356

social impact   332, 412

social sciences   109

Socio Economic Factors

  336

sociological aspects

  274

Sodbuster   419

soil   9, 16, 23, 24, 29, 51, 64, 136,

366, 445, 449

soil amendments   450

soil and water

conservation   283, 411, 428, 436

soil bacteria   42

Soil Bank program

  284

soil biology   55

Soil Carbon   19

soil carbon pools

  52

Soil Cations   17

Soil Change   17, 48

soil characteristics

  281

soil chemical

properties   28

soil chemistry   7, 53

soil compaction   423

Soil Conservation

  7, 8, 9, 10, 21, 24,

25, 27, 31, 33, 35, 40, 41, 47, 49, 54, 56, 57, 58, 73, 74, 81, 87,

98, 100, 102, 105, 200, 213, 238, 268, 274, 299, 313, 324, 328,

329, 338, 380, 382, 391, 395, 397, 399, 402, 403, 410, 419, 420,

421, 423, 427, 429, 431, 433, 437, 439, 441, 442

Soil conservation---Economic

aspects---United States   315

Soil

conservation---Government policy---United States   139, 282

soil conservation:

individual, site specific   6

Soil conservation---Law and

legislation---United States   284

Soil

conservation---Minnesota   351

Soil Conservation

Service   451

Soil conservation---United

States   22, 275,

383

Soil conservation---United

States Legislation   11

soil degradation   57

soil enzymes   23

Soil Erosion   34, 46, 58, 73, 74, 84, 87,

98, 105, 107, 306, 307, 333, 337, 388, 395, 399, 405, 409, 427,

429, 430, 453

Soil erosion---Environmental

aspects   11

Soil erosion---United

States   22

soil fauna   23

soil fertility   13, 24, 29, 37, 45, 52, 53,

54, 55, 136, 360, 445

soil flora   9, 23, 42, 47, 100

soil management   2, 9, 18, 23, 25, 32, 41, 42,

50, 57, 406, 439

Soil Nitrogen   17

soil nitrogen pools

  52

soil organic matter

  10, 19, 23, 28, 29, 37,

39, 43, 45, 47, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 100

soil ph   23, 28, 54, 57, 360

Soil Phosphorus   17

soil physical   28

soil physical

properties   46

soil pollution   90

Soil Properties   1, 56, 58, 98, 307,

445

soil quality   24, 38, 42, 58, 98, 317,

445

soil respiration   23

soil science   16

Soil stabilization

  451

soil storage   48

soil structure   55, 449

soil surveys   39

soil technology   48

soil temperature   36

soil texture   39

soil types   16, 18, 36

soil water   53, 101

soil water content

  358, 398

soils   44, 273, 413

Songbirds   124

sorghastrum nutans

  322

sorghum bicolor   39, 364, 398

Sources and fate of

pollution   75

South central

Minnesota   151

south central states of

USA   420,

441

South Dakota   49, 57, 64, 100, 143, 170,

172, 180, 186, 190, 205, 207, 230, 241, 242, 300, 449

South Dakota: Butte

County   154

south eastern states of

USA   342, 420,

441

South Platte River

 Basin   113

Southeast Nebraska

  234

southeastern states of

USA   183

southern plains states of

USA   5, 29, 238,

299, 305, 323, 324, 325, 329, 331, 442

southwestern

Saskatchewan   20

sowing   304

sown grasslands   446

soybeans   382, 406

sparrows   175, 212

spatial distribution

  28, 113, 358

spatial variation

  331

species   220, 222

species abundance

  122, 126, 129, 174,

252, 350

species composition

  122, 198, 216,

350

species diversity

  113, 120, 146, 175,

181, 204, 209, 216, 220, 246, 259, 301, 327, 330, 333, 350, 373,

375

Species interactions:

general   177

species richness   168, 246, 252, 330

specific enzyme

activities   30

Spermatophytes   48

Spiza americana   146, 174, 215, 272

Spiza americana [dickcissel ]

(Passeriformes)   129

Spiza americana

(Passeriformes)   126

Spizella arborea

(Passeriformes)   126

Spizella breweri   154

Spizella pusilla   146

stand characteristics

  276

stand density   294, 326

stand establishment

  294

Standards, laws, regulations

and policy   413

State advisory

committees   377

State conservation

programs   26, 65,

110, 121, 123, 145, 157, 161, 186, 190, 230, 241, 257, 269, 404,

426, 443, 454

state government   283, 312, 386, 411

state policies   107

state programs   365

State technical

committees   377

statistical analysis

  72, 76

statistics   143, 146, 156, 175, 259,

263

status   261, 272

stewardship schemes

  116

Stock assessment and

management   109

stocking rate   103, 320, 338

Storage   3, 19

stormwater runoff

  74

Streak   341

Stream erosion   429

Streamflow and runoff

  98

streams   73

Strip mines   451

Stripe   341

Structural timber

  312

Sturnella (Icteridae)

  151

Sturnella magna   146, 162, 272

Sturnella neglecta

  220

Sturnella spp.

(Passeriformes)   126

subsidies   35, 382, 453

success   158

succession   154, 216

sulfometuron   309

summer   261

sunflowers   30

support measures   403, 408

surface layers   39

Surface Mining Control

Act   451

surface roughness

  423

surface water   96, 297

survey methods   156

surveys   28, 224, 261, 332, 337, 356, 377,

378, 384

survival   28, 156, 191, 199, 233, 245, 251,

276, 279, 294, 321, 340, 355

Susceptibility & virus

multiplication   341

suspended sediment

  72

suspended sediments

  73

sustainability   37, 55, 60, 412

Swampbuster   419

Swamps   94

swift fox   199

Switchgrass   19, 245

switchgrass (Panicum

virgatum)   227

Tables Data   1, 152, 437

tallgrass prairie

  281

Tapesia yallundae

  341

tax concessions   116

taxpayers mixed integer

programming models   27

Technical assistance

  434

techniques   212

Techniques of planning

  56

telemetry   242

temporal support   116

temporal variation

  331

terrestrial ecology

  252

Terrestrial habitat

  195

territory   154

Texas   32, 87, 138, 153, 173, 180, 199,

216, 220, 222, 236, 239, 257, 279, 283, 328, 340, 345,

398

Texas High Plains

  135

Texas horned lizard

  173

Texas, Northwestern

  236

Texas, Southern   220

Theses   203

thickness   39

thinning   326

Thinopyrum intermedium

  341

Thinopyrum ponticum

  341

three forks, Montana

  353

tillage   2, 7, 13, 18, 30, 32, 36, 45, 50,

53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 98, 345, 364, 372, 373, 398, 406,

425

tillage effects   75

tillering   320

timing   73

Toxicity   451

transect survey   150, 156

transect surveys   156

transport   322

travel distance   202

trees   46, 238, 289, 365

Trees Plants   437

trends   1, 4, 37, 450

tributaries   34

trifolium pratense

  303

tripsacum dactyloides

  322

Triticum   2, 29

triticum aestivum

  2, 13, 39, 45, 53, 198,

344, 345, 350, 398, 445

Tulare Basin   244

Turnover   17

Twin Falls County

  97

Tympanuchus cupido

  214

Tympanuchus cupido

pinnatus   248

U.S. Department of

Agriculture   405,

434

ultisols   13

uncertainty analysis

  20

United States   1, 2, 8, 12, 16, 18, 21, 24,

25, 28, 29, 35, 36, 43, 55, 57, 64, 71, 75, 76, 80, 84, 93, 96, 97,

98, 106, 109, 113, 115, 133, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 146, 150,

153, 154, 155, 156, 162, 163, 168, 173, 174, 175, 188, 191, 194,

195, 198, 207, 209, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 217, 219, 220, 221,

223, 226, 228, 229, 231, 232, 236, 242, 243, 250, 255, 259, 261,

262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 272, 277, 283, 292, 306, 310, 311, 317,

322, 331, 341, 349, 357, 359, 362, 381, 384, 386, 389, 391, 393,

397, 400, 404, 408, 411, 414, 419, 421, 428, 435, 436, 443,

444

United States---Agricultural

policy   383,

447

United States---Agricultural

policy---Environmental aspects   22

United States---Agricultural

policy---Legislation   11

United States agriculture:

conservation practices   6

United States,

Colorado   7,

51

United States Department of

Agriculture   377

United States---Environmental

policy   11, 22,

363

United States---Environmental

policy---Legislation   415

United States, Erie L

  34

United

States---Federal---Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996   302

United States

government   378

United States, Great

Plains   333

United States,

Illinois   107

United States, Illinois,

Cache R. Basin   73

United States, Illinois,

Cache River   73

United States, Illinois,

Pittsfield Lake   107

United States, Iowa

  385

United States, Kansas

  56, 261

United States, Kansas, Finney

County   307

United States, Maumee

River   34

United States, Midwest

  74

United States,

Minnesota   82,

214, 233, 385

United States, Montana

  251

United States, North

Dakota   233,

330

United States, Ohio, Maumee

River   34

United States, Ohio, Sandusky

River   34

United States Soil

conservation service   380

United States, South

Dakota   233,

385

United States,

Southeastern   142

United States, Vermont,

LaPlatte River   91

United States, Wyoming

  40

universal soil loss

equation   49

unsaturated soils

  50

Upland Nesting   143

upland sandpiper   272, 424

upland wildlife

habitat   211

uplands   86

Urban and regional technology

and development   312

Urban and regional technology

and development Regional administration and planning   396

Urban & Regional

Planning   182

Urbanization   77

USA   15, 31, 58, 274

USDA   66, 81, 329, 378, 382, 386,

419

USDA Forest Service

  365

use efficiency   101

utilization   150, 242

valuation   255, 405, 414

Value   405

Vascular Plants   48

vegetation   64, 75, 115, 135, 150, 166,

170, 175, 191, 229, 245, 246, 250, 253, 259, 261, 263, 273, 300,

333, 385, 398, 423, 427

vegetation changes

  15

vegetation composition

  281

Vegetation cover   75

Vegetation Effects

  82

Vegetation

establishment   451

vegetation management

  294

vegetation regrowth

  73

vegetation structure

  126

vegetation types   38, 323

vegetational structure

  129

vegetative filter

strips   90

Vermont   71

Vermont Farmland Conservation

Program   422

vertebrate pests   224

Vertebrates   119, 122, 126, 130, 149, 151,

165, 195, 202, 211, 234, 252, 255

Virginia   188, 269

vocalization   154

volume   294

Vulnerability   94

Vulpes velox   199

Vulpes vulpes   424

warm season   170

Washington   23, 26, 27, 42, 65, 280, 341,

354

Waste capping   451

waste water treatment

  95

Water and plants   385

water composition and

quality   411,

428

Water conservation

  34, 83, 430

water erosion   32, 49, 297, 391, 423, 429,

449

Water Erosion Prediction

Project   90,

391

water erosion prediction

project (WEPP)   49

Water law and

institutions   109, 395, 453

Water levels   75

Water Management   77

water policy   78, 95, 104

water pollution   78, 90, 95, 317

Water pollution

control   34, 274,

306, 453

Water Pollution: Monitoring,

Control & Remediation   34

Water Pollution

Sources   75

water quality   21, 34, 61, 66, 71, 72, 73,

75, 78, 79, 81, 84, 88, 95, 101, 105, 271, 297, 317, 378, 387, 388,

395, 406, 414, 418, 430, 437

Water quality control

  34, 76, 88, 104, 306,

451, 453

Water Quality Incentives

Program (WQIP)   66

water quality

management   439

Water quality

management---Economic aspects---North Dakota   286

Water quality

management---Economic aspects---United States   394

Water quality

management---United States   59

Water relations   82

Water reservoirs   77

Water resources   77

Water Resources and

Supplies   85

Water resources

management   104

water stress   398

water use   249

water use efficiency

  101

Water Yield   82

waterfowl   143, 244, 260

Waterfowl Production

Areas   143

watershed   227

Watershed Management

  7, 72, 77,

82

Watershed protection

  7, 10, 25, 34, 41, 46,

73, 74, 102, 274, 307, 333, 387, 395, 399, 439, 451, 453

watersheds   66, 71, 91, 107, 295, 308,

317, 430, 450

waterways   102

weather   2, 5, 119

weather data   128

WEE   391

weed control   327, 339, 364, 368, 370,

373

weeds   300, 361, 372, 373

Weeds---Control---United

States   371

WEPP   391

West   29, 331

Western   25

western Kansas   199

western meadowlark

  220

western region   261

western states of USA

  47

Wetland agriculture

  137

Wetland conservation

  108

Wetland

conservation---Minnesota   351

wetland conservation

provision   83

Wetland conservation---United

States   62,

275

Wetland construction

  451

Wetland mitigation

banking---Minnesota   351

Wetland Reserve

Program   63,

68

Wetland Reserve Program

[WRP]   201

wetland restoration

  86

wetland soils   64

wetlands   63, 64, 75, 83, 96, 108, 109, 244,

260, 271, 311, 321, 330, 385, 419, 420, 436, 453

Wetlands---Conservation---Legislation

  415

Wetlands Reserve

Program   109,

249

wheat   2, 29, 54, 246, 382, 450

Wheat germ   341

wheat (Gramineae)

  48

wheat soils   23, 52, 445

Wheat streak mosaic

virus   341

white tailed deer

  242

Whitman County,

Washington   27

wild animals   111

wild birds   146, 174, 181, 204, 220, 222,

247, 272

wildlife   142, 146, 155, 156, 166, 174, 180,

188, 193, 200, 203, 204, 209, 212, 219, 220, 227, 235, 236, 238,

239, 242, 250, 258, 261, 266, 272, 289, 327, 337, 356, 378, 396,

402, 405, 407, 414, 419, 430, 437

wildlife conservation

  80, 109, 112, 118, 146,

167, 174, 181, 201, 204, 223, 240, 274, 283, 416

Wildlife

conservation---Nebraska   179

Wildlife

conservation---United States   139

Wildlife

conservation---United States---North Dakota   447

wildlife density   171

wildlife distribution

  210

wildlife enhancement bonus

programs   203

Wildlife Habitat   86, 254

Wildlife habitat

improvement---United States   137, 287, 394

Wildlife Habitat Incentives

Program [WHIP]   201, 267

wildlife habitat

relationships   146, 156, 175

wildlife habitats

  63, 68, 113, 114, 196,

208, 256, 260, 267, 270, 271, 416, 439, 453

wildlife management

  109, 113, 114, 119,

126, 187, 196, 197, 207, 208, 213, 214, 234, 239, 260, 265, 267,

268, 270, 416, 446

wildlife management: future

needs, history, status   201

Wildlife

management---Nebraska   179

wildlife refuges   249

wildlife responses

  201

willet   424

Wilson's phalarope

  424

wind erosion   8, 31, 32, 297,

429

Wind Erosion Equation

  391

windbreaks   223, 298

winter   122, 243, 261, 279

winter wheat   246, 445

Wiregrass Savannas

  17

Wisconsin   19

Wood Fuels   336

woodlands   4

woody plant invasion

  229

woody plants   223, 283

Wyoming   52, 304, 370

Yield   1

zea mays   2, 36, 39, 92, 101, 364,

372

Zenaida macroura   191

Zoology   203

[Table of Contents]


Author Index


Abernathy, J.R.   163

Acosta-Martinez, V.

  30

Adams, B.   45, 344

Adams, E.B.   280, 354

Adams, Jonathan S.

  249

Adams, R.M.   421

Aillery, M. P.   104, 430

Akers, D.   118

Alexander, R.R.   278, 441

Alig, R.   359

Allan, D.L.   26

Allen, A. W.   114, 144, 221, 264, 266, 300,

337, 356, 443

Allen, Arthur W   201

Allen, B. L.   46

Alms, M.J.   26

Amelung, W.   47

American Farmland

Trust.   108

and Tanaka, K.   421

Anderson, B.E.   320

Anderson, D. J.   330

Anderson, J.L.   92

Anderson, R. L.   7

Anderson, S.S.   99

Applegate, Roger D

  202

Atwood, J.   381

Atwood, J.D.   342

Babcock, B.A.   297

Baer, S G   24, 281

Baker, B.   310

Baker, B.D.   410

Baker, Bryan Douglas

  180

Baker DB   450

Ballard, W.B.   199

Bangsund DA   240, 332

Bangsund, Dean A.

  447

Banks, J.C.   45, 344

Barbarika, A. Jr.

  382

Barker, J.R.   4, 15

Barnes, D.K.   276, 360, 361

Barnwell, T.O.   1

Bartlett, E.T.   283

Batchelor, W.D.   358, 375

Batie, S.S.   420

Batt, B.D.J.   205, 207

Baumgardner, G.A.

  4, 15

Bean, Michael J.   249

Bechtel, A.   25

Bedell, Thomas E.

  292

Bedenbaugh, E.J.   324

Beiser, J. A.   233

Bejranonda, S.   21

Benbrook, C. M.   418

Bennett, D. A.   306

Benson, V.   85

Berberet, R.C.   350

Berg, N. A.   453

Bernat, G.A. Jr.   278

Berner, A.H.   262

Berrens, R.   147

Berthelsen, P.S.   153, 257

Berthelsen, Peter S.

  220, 236

Best, L.B.   130, 227, 256

Best, LB   245

Best, Louis B   122, 129, 201

Best, T.   314

Bezdicek, D.F.   23, 26

Bidwell, T. G.   225

Bilbro, J. D.   46

Bishop, R A   86

Blackburn, W.H.   391

Blair, J M   24, 281

Bleakley, B.H.   100

Blecha, M.L.   41, 100, 449

Bloodworth H   38

Bluhm, G.   2

Bock, C.E.   176

Boerngen, L.B.   45

Boggess, W.   429

Bogle Boerngen, L.

  344

Bogovich, W. M.   451

Bollinger, E.   228

Bollinger, E. K.   215

Borresen, T.   18

Bowman, R. A.   7, 48

Boyd, R.   43

Boyles, S.L.   103

Brady, S.J.   68

Brady, Stephen J   201

Braster, M.L.   227

Bratton, G.F.   238

Bratton, J.   298

Brazee, R.   94

Brazee, Richard J

  62

Breidt, F.J.   20

Breitbach, D.D.   360, 361

Breneman, V.   376

Brentlinger, R.L.

  364

Brewer, C.H.   309

Brewer MJ   246

Briggs, S V   116

Bromley, P.T.   268

Brooks, K. N.   82

Brusven, M.A.   295

Bryant, F.C.   239

Bryant, R. B.   317

Brye, KR   3

Bucholtz, S.   400

Buck, P.   187

Bucklin, R.   155

Burger, L.W.   189, 204

Burger, Loren W.   250

Burger, Loren W., Jr.

  146, 195

Burger, LW   166, 258

Burger, W.   270

Burger, Wes   201

Burke, I.C.   40, 51, 52

Cacek, T.   273

Cade, B.S.   300

Campa, H.   168, 263

Campa, Henry Iii   122, 129

Carey, M.   94

Carey, Marc B   62

Carlson, Louis   292

Carmichael, D. Breck,

Jr.   142

Carroll, S.C.   279, 340

Casey, F.   408

Cassidy, D.   389

Cattaneo, A.   381, 400

Catteneo, A.   376

Chamberlain, MJ   166, 258

Chapman, K. A.   214

Cheng, H. T.   359

Chenoweth, J. W.   74

Church, K. E.   162

Claassen, R.   376

Claassen, Roger   452

Clawson, M. R.   251

Clay, D.E.   100

Cline, Gerald A.   188

Coffin, D. P.   51

Coffman, C. L.   153

Cogo, N.P.   100, 449

Colacicco, D.   437

Colorado State University.

Cooperative Extension Service.   319

Colvin, T.   18

Cook, K.A.   436

Coppedge, B. R.   229, 331

Coppedge, Bryan R.

  125

Cosgrove, Jeremiah.

  422

Cotter, A. M.   75

Council for Agricultural

Science and Technology.   164

Coupal, R.   25

Cox, C. M.   341

Craft, C   17

Crowley, D.E.   42

Currens, J.C.   66

Dabbert, B.   222

Dabney, S.   334

Dailey, T.V.   189

Dailey, Thomas V.

  250

Daniels, T.L.   277

Dao, T.H.   45, 344, 345, 445

Davenport, T.   76, 107

David, L.M.   141, 152

David, Larry M.   115, 156

Davie, D. K.   73

Davis, S.   222

Davison, W. B.   228

Day, Esther   363

Dean TJ   321

DeGloria, S. D.   317

Deibert, E. J.   28

Delisle, Jennifer M.

  126, 127,

234

DeLuca, T. H.   333

Detenbeck, N. E.   75

Devino, G.   412

Dewbre, J.   400

Dicke SG   326

Dicks, M.   397

Dicks, M.R.   44, 426, 429

Dicks, Michael R.

  284

Diebel, P. L.   404

Dion, N.   177

Diplas, P.   451

Dobbles, T.L.   103

Dobkin, D.S.   176

Donan, J.W.   445

Donges, Randy D.   367

Donigian, A.S.   1

Doran, J.W.   49, 57, 58, 98

Douglas, A. J.   93

Downing, M.   336

Dunn, C. P.   402

Easterla DA   193

Ebelhar, S. A.   36

Ebodaghe, Denis

Abumere   59

Echtenkamp, G.W.   364

Eck, H. V.   29

Eckert DJ   450

Egbert, S. L.   184, 307

Egbert, SL   254

Eggebo, S.L.   170

Eghball, B.   57

Ellefson, P. V.   296

Elliott, N.C.   350

Ellis LS   193

Elonen, C. M.   75

Engle, D. M.   229, 331

Engle, David M.   125

English, B.C.   278, 342, 441

Ervin, C.A.   431

Ervin, R.T.   11, 44, 328

Esseks, J Dixon   380

Esser, A.   187

Esser, Anthony J   201

Etter, Stanley L.

  115, 156

Euliss, N.H.   99

Eve, M.D.   20

Eve, MD   14

Evett, S.R.   50

Faeth P   95

Fair, W. Scott   173

Farm Service Agency, U.S.

Department of Agriculture   416

Farmer, A.H.   183

Farnsworth, R.   308

Fauci, M.F.   23

Feather, P.   65, 255, 376, 405,

414

Felix, J.   372, 373

Ferguson, Kirsten.

  422

Finch, D.M.   176

Fine, G.   128

Fish, E.B.   199

Fitzgerald, J. P.

  113

Fleskes, J.P.   244

Fletcher, RJ   134

Flock, Brian E   202

Flock, M.   26

Flora, C.B.   299

Flora, J.L.   299

Flynn, K.   314

Follett, R.F.   9, 18, 47

Follett, RF   14

Fonkert, J.   410

Forster, D. L.   34

Frawley, B.J.   161, 235

French, B.W.   350

Frerichs, R.D.   364

Frohne, P.S.   42

Fryrear, D. W.   46

Fuchs, D.J.   92

Fuhlendorf, S. D.

  331

Furrow, L. T.   168

Furrow, Ly Thi   210

Gadsby, D.   376

Galatowitsch, S. M.

  385

Garcia, H.B.   446

Gardner, J.C.   26, 55

Garrettson, P. R.

  177

Gebhart, D. L.   10

General Accounting

Office   274,

387

George, Ronnie R.

  236

Gerard, P.W.   112

Gersmehl, P.J.   410

Getman, M.   407

Gewin VL   54

Giasson, E.   317

Gibbons, P   116

Gillespie, R. L.   198

Gilley, J.E.   49, 57, 58, 98, 423,

445

Gilmer, D.S.   244

Gimenez, D.   314

Gipson, P.S.   224

Gipson, Philip S   202

Gjerstad, D.H.   309

Gleason, R.A.   99

Glenna, L.L.   362

Godsey, L.   85

Goetz, H.   288

Goodman, B.   314

Goodwin, B. K.   35

Gough, M. W.   136

Gough, S.   248

Gould, J.   241

Gould, Jeffrey H.

  242

Grabow, G.L.   72

Graf, D.   113

Grafton, William N.

  419

Granfors, D. A.   162

Greenfield, KC   166, 258

Greenhalgh S   95

Greenwood, R. J.   233

Gregory, M. S.   229, 331

Gregory, Mark S.   125

Griffin, S.L.   230

Grimsbo Jewett, J.

  276

Guntenspergen, G. R.

  402

Gustafson, Ronald A

  383

Hackett, E.   267

Hackett, Ed   201

Haines, T.   312

Halbert, S. E.   355

Hall, D. L.   216

Halloum, D. J.   63, 68, 114, 137, 187, 196,

208, 256, 260, 267, 270, 271

Hanowski, JoAnn M.

  133

Hansen, L.   255, 376, 405, 414

Hansen, Leslie a   178

Hanson, LeRoy   452

Hardie, I.W.   12

Harmon, K.W.   200

Haroldson, K.   151

Hart, Charles R.   319

Hassell, W.G.   304

Hasstedt, S.C.   203

Hawn, T.   407

Hays, R.L.   183

Heard, L.P   63, 68, 114, 137, 187, 196,

208, 256, 260, 267, 270, 271

Heard, L Pete   201

Heimlich, R.   94, 409

Heimlich, Ralph E

  62, 448

Heissenhuber A   379

Heissenhuber, Alois

  293

Helinski, Ronald R

  201

Hellerstein, D.   65, 376, 405, 414

Hellerstein, Daniel.

  79

Henke, Scott E.   173

Herkert, J.R.   148, 226

Herkert, James R.

  212

Hertz, M.   428

Higgins, K.F.   170, 172, 237, 301

Higgins, Kenneth F.

  209

Hill, J. L.   102

Hirsch, S.A.   327

Hite, D.   21

Hitzhusen, F.J.   21, 417

Hoag, D. L.   409

Hodur, Nancy M.   447

Hodur NM   240, 332

Hoefer, P.   238, 298

Hoernemann, C. K.

  301

Hohman, W. L.   63, 68, 114, 137, 187, 196,

208, 256, 260, 267, 270, 271

Hohman, William L

  201

Holshouser, D.L.   364

Hopkins, J.   376

Horn, D. J.   232

Hostetler, J. E.   413

Howard MN   159

Howell, D.   223

Huang, X.   56

Huggins, D.R.   26, 92, 101

Hughes, J.P.   158, 224, 247

Hughes, John P.   174, 191

Hull, S.D.   247

Hull, Scott D   252

Hussain, I.   36

Hussey, S. L.   109

Ibekwe, A.M.   42

Igl, L.D.   117, 148

Igl, Lawrence D.   149, 154

Ikerd, J.   412

Irby, L.R.   111

Isaacs, B.   223

Jackson, R.B.   1

Jacobsen, T.J.   227

Janssen, L.L.   64, 404

Jarvi, K.J.   364

Jarvis, R.L.   244

Jenkins, Kurt J.   242

Jenks, J.A.   172

Jewett, J.G.   360, 361

Joens, J   86

Johnson, D.H.   117, 140, 145, 148,

196

Johnson, Douglas H

  149, 201

Johnson, H. B.   10

Johnson, J.   334, 353

Johnson, J.B.   285

Johnson, P.   328

Johnson, P. J.   301

Johnson, R.L.   93

Johnson, T.G.   278, 393

Johnston, P.   376

Jolly, R.W.   454

Jones, S. S.   341

Jordan, N.R.   360, 361

Joyce, L.A.   329, 396

Kamler, J.F.   199

Kanjo, P.L.   27

Kantelhardt J   379

Kantelhardt, Jochen

  293

Kantrud, H.A.   145, 160

Karlen, D.L.   26, 55, 98

Kaspar, T. C.   98

Keane, T.D.   158

Keeland, B. D.   80

Keeland BD   321

Keim, Russ.   316

Kelley, W.D.   309

Kellogg, R. L.   31, 88, 384

Kemp, K.E.   158, 243, 247

Kemp, Kenneth E   122, 129, 174, 191, 202, 252,

272

Kemp, W. P.   198

Kennedy, A.C.   42

Kennedy AC   54

Kennedy PL   159

Khanna, M.   308

Kidder, D.W.   368

Kimble, J.M.   9, 47

Kimmel, R.   151

Kimmel, R.O.   194

King, J.W.   181

King, Justin W.   179

King, S. L.   80

Kitchen, D J   281

Kling, C.L.   421

Klose, S.   30

Kluitenberg, G.J.

  39

Kluitenberg GJ   366

Klute, D.S.   123, 243, 247

Klute, David S.   272

Knake, E. L.   102

Knight, Jim   219

Knight, L.   381

Koford, R.R.   145, 157, 232

Koford, RR   134

Kohl, N.   76

Kraft, S. E.   70

Kraft, Steven E   380

Krall, J.M.   37

Kramer, J.L.   410

Kranz, W.L.   364

Kroll, T.   336

Kuch, P.   439

Kucharik, CJ   3, 19

Kurzejeski, E.   250

Kurzejeski, E.W.   189, 204, 253, 259

Kurzejeski, Eric W.

  146

Kurzejeski, EW   166, 258

Kutner, Lynn S.   249

Lacefield, G.   303

Lakshminarayan, P.G.

  297

Lal, R.   9, 16

Langemeier, M.R.   322

Langemeier, Michael R.

  291

Langley, J.   382

Langner, L.L.   213, 437

Lant, C. L.   73, 96

Lauber, T. B..   132

Lauenroth, W. K.   51

Laycock, W.A.   325

Leddy, Krecia L.   209

Lee, D. J.   413

Lee, J.   11

Lee, J.J.   4, 15

Lee, RY   254

Lefko, S.A.   358, 375

Leistritz, F Larry

  447

Leistritz FL   240, 332

Leitch, J.A.   327

Lemons, P.R.   199

Lentz, R. J.   365

Leonard, J.   147

Lesica, P.   333

Lewis, James A   22

Licht, Daniel S.   424

Ligon, Polly C.   67

Lindstrom, M.J.   41, 100, 449

Linsenbigler, Michael.

  284

Llacuna, Felix.   284

Lockhart BR   321

Lockman, Drake J.

  194

Londo AJ   326

Long, J.D.   118

Lorenz, R.J.   33

Lovejoy, S. B.   408

Lowrey, J.   107

Lueschen, W.E.   276

Lunz, L.A.   364

Luttschwager, K.A.

  172, 186

Lutz, R Scott   178

Lynch, L.   110

Maddox, J. D.   215

Mankin, Philip C.

  115, 156

Margheim, G.A.   83

Markewitz, D   17

Marrs, R. H.   136

Martin, D. C.   84

Martin, N.P.   360, 361

Masters, R. E.   229, 331

Masters, Ronald E.

  125

Mathews, Nancy E   178

Matthison, R.   276

Maxwell, B.   353

Mayeux, H. S.   10

McCabe, R. E.   84

McCoy JW   321

Mccoy, Matthew W   202

Mccoy, T.   131

McCoy, T.D.   121, 175

McCoy, Timothy D.

  146, 195

McGinnies, W.J.   304

McGregor, K.   334

McIntyre, N.E.   135, 169

McLeod, Donald M.

  440

Meals, D. W.   71, 91

Mello I   379

Mello, Inken   293

Mense, B. J.   177

Merrill, M. D.   214

Michalek AJ   321

Milam, B.   314

Millenbah, K. F.   168

Millenbah, Kelly

Francine   171

Miller, B.S.   26

Miller BC   54

Miller, D. G.   74

Miller, E.J.   268, 269

Miller, M.   314

Miller, R. C.   82

Miller, S.D.   370

Minnis, R.B.   168, 263

Minnis, Richard B.

  218

Mitchell, J. E.   343, 396, 427

Mitchell, R.   222

Mitchell, R.J.   309

Mixon, J.   313

Mjelde, J.W.   138

Mock OB   193

Molleur, R.   187

Monson, M.   389

Moon, R.D.   360, 361

Morehart, M.   376

Morris, Kelly   120

Moser, L.E.   320

Mostaghimi, S.   451

Mote, K.   199

Mowry, T. M.   355

Moyer, J.L.   128

Mullins, Charles J.

  219

Mummey, D. L.   2

Murphy, Lisa A.   154

Murphy, MT   124

Murray, L.D.   227

Murray, LD   245

Murray, T. D.   341

Nabielski, RT   19

Naugle, D.E.   170

Naugle, David E.   209

Nellis, AD   254

Nellis, M. D.   39, 307

Nellis MD   366

Nelson, R.G.   322

Nelson, W.W.   92

Neubeiser, M. J.   97

New York State College of

Agriculture and Life Sciences. Dept. of Agricultural, Resource, and

Managerial Economics.   335

Newman, J.B.   391, 442

Newton, W. E.   207, 233

Nickerson, C.   400

Nicks, A D   90

Nomsen, D.E.   237

North American Lake

Management Soc.   71, 76

Nyren, P.E.   423

Oberheu, D.   222

Ogg, C.   439

Ogg, C.W.   411, 413, 430

Ogle, S.M.   20

Ohlenbusch, P.D.   322, 339

Ohlenbusch, Paul D.

  291

Olson, K. R.   36

Olson RA   246

Onal, H.   308

Osborn, C. T.   388, 399

Osborn, C. Tim.   316

Osborn, T.   349, 395, 438

Outcalt KW   321, 326

Outcalt PA   321, 326

Owen, M.D.K.   372, 373

Papiernik, S.K.   42

Park, S   184, 254

Parks, P.J.   12

Patterson, Matthew P

  130

Patton, B.D.   423

Patwardhan, A.S.   1

Paustian, K   14, 20

Pearks, A.J.   263

Pederson, Roger L

  201, 415

Pedigo, L.P.   358, 375

Pellmann NF   89

Pendleton, B.G.   165

Perchellet, C.C.   199

Perry, C. H.   82

Peterjohn, B.G.   143

Peters, M.   376

Peterson, B.   454

Peterson, D.   184

Peterson, J. W.   77

Pienaar, L.V.   294

Pierce, R.   336

Pike, D. R.   102

Pike, K. S.   355

Piper, S.   8, 81, 406, 437

Piper, S.L.   78

Plantinga, A. J.   359

Poe, Gregory L.   335

Poiani, K. A.   214

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