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3Rs in Ecotoxicity Testing

To regulate new chemical products and pollution from industry and agriculture, government agencies mandate toxicity tests to determine how substances effect the environment. Organizations are prioritizing the development and validation of non-animal testing methods called new approach methodologies (NAMs) to conduct these toxicity tests. NAMs refers to any technology, methodology, or approach that provides information on chemical hazard, exposure, or risk assessment (e.g., "organ-on-a-chip", computer models, in chemico assays). On this page find links to research articles and testing tools provided by federal agencies. 

Alternatives in Ecotoxicology Literature

New Approach Methodologies (NAMs) in Ecotoxicology

microfluidic device

This bibliography provides citations regarding new approach methodologies (NAMs) used in the field of Ecotoxicology. NAMs are non-animal technologies and approaches used for chemical hazard, exposure and risk assessment testing such as in vitro assays, computational models, cell-based models, and organs-on-chips. The bibliography covers peer-reviewed literature published between 2010 and May 2023.

Ecotoxicity Testing Tools

Computational Toxicology Projects

DHHSNIEHS. National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM). 

Tools and data used to predict toxicity, such as the Integrated Chemical Environment (ICE). 

ECOTOX Knowledgebase

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 

A comprehensive system providing chemical environmental toxicity data on aquatic and terrestrial species. 

SeqAPASS: Sequence alignment to predict across-species susceptibility

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

An online database that allows researchers and regulators to extrapolate toxicity information across species. Requires a (free) account to access.

  • Alternative Methods Accepted by US Agencies

    DHHS. NIEHS. National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM). 

    Find methods and guidance for chemical safety testing that are accepted by U.S. and international regulatory authorities as replacement, reduction, or refinement alternatives to required animal tests. These documents are recommendations that do not necessarily establish legally enforceable responsibilities.

  • TSAR - Tracking System for Alternative methods towards Regulatory acceptance

    EU Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM).

    TSAR indicates the stages methods have reached in terms of acceptance as a recognized test method for use in various sectors together with a summary description.

  • A Strategic Roadmap for Establishing New Approaches to Evaluate the Safety of Chemicals & Medical Products in the United States

    DHHS. NIEHS. National Toxicology Program Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM). 

    This strategic roadmap is a resource to guide U.S. federal agencies and stakeholders seeking to adopt new approaches to safety and risk assessment of chemicals and medical products that improve human relevance and replace or reduce the use of animals.

  • New Approach Methods (NAMs) Training

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    Access training resources on current NAMs used in ecotoxicity testing. 

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