The Promotional Materials: Screwworm Eradication Program Records spans the years 1969-2004. The collection occupies 16 linear feet and is housed in 18 boxes. The linear footage for this collection has been calculated to accommodate for the large number of oversize boxes and produce a more informative number by using the shelf space occupied by the boxes instead of the length of each box. The holdings are part of a number of collections referred to as the Screwworm Eradication Program Records. The collection is a compilation of several smaller collections donated by persons associated with the Screwworm Eradication Program. Materials were donated by Paul T. (Tommy) Stanford, John Bertram Welch, and Lynn Jones Stewart. The finding aid was initiated in 2003 by Julian Clark, and further arranged and described by Kara Boehne in 2006. Both were graduate students at the University of Maryland, College of Information Studies.
Below is a timeline of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) screwworm research highlights.
1858: First reported screwworm cases on Devil's Island, French Guiana
1933: Emory Clayton Cushing and Walter S. Patton recognized screwworm fly as its own species, Cochliomyia hominivorax (different from the blowfly species)
1934: USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) established research station at Valdosta, Georgia (closed 1936) to conduct research on screwworms by scientists Ernest William Laake and Edward Fred Knipling
1935: ARS secured funding for research on screwworms. Raymond C. Bushland began research on artificial diets for rearing screwworms.
1937: Bushland and Knipling are transferred to ARS laboratory in Menard, Texas. Bushland began research on controlling screwworms through chemical means. Knipling began research on sterile male technique, an autocidal theory of total insect population management.
1938: USDA developed Smear 62, an insecticidal wound treatment
1939: Bushland is transferred to Orlando, Florida, to conduct research on mosquito control
1940: Knipling is transferred to Orlando, Florida, to conduct research on insects affecting man
1946: Bushland transferred to ARS laboratory in Kerrville, Texas. Knipling transferred to USDA-ARS headquarters in Washington, D.C.
1950: Arthur W. Lindquist introduced Knipling to Hermann Joseph Muller's research on genetic mutations in fruit flies by radiation. Bushland and Donald E. Hopkins began tests on sterilization of screwworms using radiation.
1951: Alfred H. Baumhover arrived at Kerrville, Texas, to work on screwworm eradication using sterile male technique. Sanibel Island, Florida, was the first field test to use the sterile male technique.
1954: Baumhover traveled to Curacao, Netherlands Antilles, and began successful screwworm eradication campaign using sterile male technique
1955: Baumhover returned to Orlando, Florida, to work on eradication of screwworms from the Southeast United States. Mass rearing techniques were developed.
1955-1957: A mass fly production facility for rearing screwworms is built in Bithlo, Florida. Screwworms successfully eradicated in a 2000 square mile field test area near Orlando, Florida.
1958: ARS built mass fly production facility near Sebring, Florida
1959: Screwworms successfully eradicated from the Southeast United States
1962: ARS Southwest United States screwworm eradication program began with flies produced at the Kerrville, Texas, ARS laboratory. Mass production facility built at Mission, Texas.
1963: ARS developed program specializations. Billy Gene Hightower studied screwworm ecology in Texas. Alfred H. Baumhover studied sterile fly distribution. Leo E. LaChance studied screwworm genetics. Maxwell M. Crystal studied chemosterilants.
1964: Baumhover transferred to Oxford, North Carolina, to work with the Tobacco Insects Investigations
1966: USDA declared screwworms eradicated from Southwest United States, except Texas continued to be infested until 1982. United States and Mexico conducted a feasibility survey for a screwworm eradication program in Mexico, which resulted in the establishment of a screwworm eradication program in Mexico.
1974: The Lincoln-Eden Report, "The Southwestern Screwworm Eradication Program: A Review," is published. Charles G. Lincoln and William Gibbs Eden were tasked with evaluating the Southwestern United States Screwworm Eradication program after poor results spanning 1972-1974. They concluded that the program was a success despite some minor faults and the research should continue.
1977: The ARS Screwworm Research Unit relocated from the Mission, Texas, laboratory to a sterile fly production facility near Tuxtla Gutierrez in Chiapas, Mexico
1984: A new gelled diet is developed by ARS for use in mass rearing screwworms
1990: "Severn Run's Cazador," a German wirehaired pointer, is trained by John Bertram Welch to detect screwworm larvae and screwworm infested animals
1991: Mexico was declared screwworm free
1994: Screwworms eradicated from Belize and Guatemala. Panama City, Republic of Panama, became the headquarters for the USDA-ARS Screwworm Research Unit.
1995: Screwworms eradicated from El Salvador
1996: Screwworms eradicated from Nicaragua
1999: Screwworms eradicated from Honduras
2000: Costa Rica declared screwworm free
Scope and Content Note
The Promotional Materials: Screwworm Eradication Program Records spans the years 1969-2004, and consists of promotional and souvenir items linked to worldwide screwworm eradication programs, with the bulk of the material related to American and Central American efforts. A few items from North Africa and Europe are included. The items were designed and distributed to increase awareness of eradication efforts. The "atomic fly" logo and other cartoon images of the screwworm fly helped popularize screwworm eradication efforts. The proliferation of products with screwworm images and slogans familiarized local farmers with the eradication program and local USDA officials, resulting in increased awareness and familiarity that led to greater participation, trust, and cooperation. Items such as t-shirts, caps, key chains, mugs, pens, pencils, posters, photographs, stationery, and stickers create the majority of the collection, although a few specialized items such as personalized name tags, speech announcements, news releases, and literature are also included.
Materials gathered from a wide variety of program and personal experiences can be found in Series I (Textiles), Series II (Souvenirs), and Series III (Memorabilia, Photographs, and Paper Items). The Memorabilia, Photographs, and Paper Items Series consists of materials from the 1977 Stamp Out Screwworms convention in Mission, Texas. Of note is the selection of photographs in an information display created by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) depicting many aspects of the Screwworm eradication. Series IV consists of materials related directly to the celebration of the 30th Anniversary of the Mexican-American Commission to Eradicate Screwworm which took place in August 2002, in Chiapas, Mexico. The meeting was attended by National Agricultural Library employee Lynn Jones Stewart, and the items she collected make up the bulk of the series.
Materials in this collection are stored in two ways. Materials that can be stored in the traditional acid-free folders are housed in this way and designated as a folder in the container list. Other materials, designated as an item in the container list, have been wrapped in archival quality tissue paper and placed in archival zip lock bags. The storage methods are distinguished on the container list with a "Folder" or "Item" number designation. All materials, regardless of storage method, are labeled with the Series, Box, and Folder/Item number for unique identification.
Series I. Textiles. 1991-2002. 4 boxes.
Series I consists of textile items including t-shirts, polo shirts, caps, aprons, flags, and tote bags. Items are first arranged into subseries by geographical area. The items are then grouped alphabetically by item type and listed in chronological order.
- Subseries I.A. Belize. 1993.
Contains two t-shirts from the 1993 "Be Vigilant!" campaign.
- Subseries I.B. Costa Rica. n.d.
One cap and six t-shirts from the Costa Rica awareness campaign.
- Subseries I.C. Honduras. n.d.
Includes two t-shirts with the atomic fly logo.
- Subseries I.D. Mexico. 1991-2002.
Items include a cap, flag, pajamas, a jersey, and nine t-shirts.
- Subseries I.E. Nicaragua. 1998.
Nicaraguan items include an apron, three caps, and two t-shirts.
- Subseries I.F. Panama. n.d.
One cap from the Panamanian eradication program are included.
- Subseries I.G. Unknown Origin. n.d.
Several items have no discernable country of origin. These items include three caps and four t-shirts.
Series II. Souvenirs. 1977-2001. 3 boxes.
Series II consists of items such as key chains, mugs, pens, pencils, pins, and other souvenir-type materials. Items are first arranged into subseries by geographical area. The items are the grouped alphabetically by item type and listed in chronological order.
- Subseries II.A. Belize. 1992-1993.
Three mugs from the 1992 and 1993 eradication campaigns in Belize are available in this subseries.
- Subseries II.B. Costa Rica. n.d.
This subseries contains one keychain.
- Subseries II.C. Honduras. n.d.
A keychain with a sheep graphic is available in this subseries.
- Subseries II.D. Mexico. 2000-2001.
This subseries contains 10 items, including an eraser, keychains, mugs, a nametag, pen, pocketknife, and water bottle.
- Subseries II.E. Mission, Texas. 1977.
One button from the 1977 "Stamp Out Screwworms" campaign is included in this subseries.
- Subseries II.F. Unknown Origin. n.d.
This subseries contains souvenirs from indeterminable locations. Materials include a button, a keychain, a lapel pin, several writing utensils, and paper cups.
Series III. Memorabilia, Photographs, and Paper Items. 1969-2004. 3 boxes.
Series III consists of agendas, calendars, photographs, folders, pamphlets, posters, handouts, propaganda literature, and stationery. Items are first arranged into subseries by geographical area. The items are then grouped alphabetically by type and listed in chronological order.
- Subseries III.A. Belize. n.d.
This subseries contains one pamphlet; the topic of the pamphlet is the cooperation between the Ministry of Agriculture of Belize and the Mexican-American Commission.
- Subseries III.B. Costa Rica. 1996.
This subseries contains three items: two Costa Rican license plates and a black vinyl folder from a 1996 meeting.
- Subseries III.C. Dominican Republic. n.d.
This subseries contains multiple duplicates of two pamphlets on the topic of screwworm eradication in the Dominican Republic.
- Subseries III.D. Mexico. 1977-2004.
This is one of the more diverse subseries in the collection. Items include several calendars, a holiday card, pamphlets, and other paper-based materials. The arrangement is alphabetically by the type of material.
- Subseries III.E. Mission, Texas. 1977-1978.
Photographs, with accompanying captions, make up the majority of this subseries. Other items include business cards, handouts, patches, stamps, and stickers. Items are arranged alphabetically by the type of material.
- Subseries III.F. North Africa. 1988-1992.
Two posters for the screwworm program in North Africa are included in this subseries.
- Subseries III.G. Panama. 1996-1997.
Materials from the Panama eradication program include a leather agenda and an announcement for a speech by John Welch.
- Subseries III.H. United States. 1972-1974.
Two pamphlets are included in this subseries.
- Subseries III.I. Unknown Origin. 1969-2004.
This subseries contains souvenirs from indeterminable locations. Souvenirs include a pop-up calendar, nametag, plaque, poster, sign, and a variety of stickers. Items are arranged alphabetically by the type of object.
Series IV. 30th Anniversary of Mexican-American Commission for the Eradication of the Screwworm. 2001-2002. 1 box.
Series IV consists of materials from the 30th Anniversary meeting of the Mexican-American Commission for the Eradication of the Screwworm, held in 2002 in Chiapas, Mexico. Items include folders, tablet covers, mouse pads, t-shirt, keychain, copies of speeches and presentations, and other records and memorabilia from the convention. Items are first arranged alphabetically by item type, and then listed chronologically.
Sources Used for Finding Aid:
Baumhover, A.H. "A Personal Account of Programs to Eradicate the Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in the United States and Mexico with Special Emphasis on the Florida Program." Accessed October 3, 2005 from http://www.flaentsoc.org/webbaum/baumhover.html.
Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Special Collections, National Agricultural Library.
Screwworm Research Unit. "History of USDA-ARS Screwworm Research and the USDA-ARS Screwworm Research Unit." Accessed May 5, 2006 from https://www.ars.usda.gov/.
Appendix A: Related Collections
Listed below are screwworm related manuscript collections housed in Special Collections, National Agricultural Library as of June 2007:
Artifacts: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 348.
Audiovisual Materials: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 215.
Baumhover, Alfred H., Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 266.
Graham, Owen Hugh, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 213.
Husman, Chester N., Awards: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 349.
International Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 355.
Knipling, Edward Fred, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 210.
Oral Histories: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 305.
Promotional Materials: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 214.
Severn Run's Cazador (Caz), Screwworm Detection Dog, Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 310.
Southeastern United States Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 212.
Southwestern United States and Mexico Collection: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 211.
USDA Entomology Research Division Records. Manuscript Collection 237.
Wyss, John, Papers: Screwworm Eradication Program Records. Manuscript Collection 338.