PROJECT SUMMARY/ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Blood or lung infectionscaused by extreme drug resistant (XDR) A. baumannii have 50% mortality rates, and the antimicrobialpipeline for such infections is inadequate. We screened 11,862 compounds against A. baumannii strains thatwere cultured in RPMI with serum as a nutrient-depleted media to mimic in vivo conditions, rather thannutrient-rich MHII. In RPMI, rifabutin (RBT) was 133-fold more active than rifampin (RIF) against A.baumannii, with MICs of 0.031 Âµg/ml and 4 Âµg/ml respectively. However, no difference in activity wasobserved when MHII was used as the culture media. Furthermore, in preliminary studies, RBT was superior toRIF in our murine models of lethal XDR A. baumannii infections. Finally, spiking MHII media into RPMI alsoreversed the increased activity of RBT, indicating that some component of MHII actively antagonizes the RBT. In our preliminary data, RBT is more effective than RIF in vitro and in preliminary mouse studies. Thegoal of this proposal is to determine the translational potential of a fundamental modification of antibacterialscreening methodologies by defining the basis of enhanced efficacy of RBT vs. RIF as a treatment for A.baumannii, and defining RBT efficacy in pneumonia and bacteremia.Specific Aim 1: Define the mechanistic driver of RBT vs. RIF differential efficacy.MHII media will be fractionated by size and/or chromatography. The composition of the fractions that inhibitRBT activity will be defined by LC-MS/MS.Specific Aim 2: Defining the relative in vivo efficacy of RBT vs. RIF in murine models of A.baumannii pneumonia and bacteremia with and without other antibiotic therapy. RBT will bedose optimized to maximize improvement in survival. Treatment with RBT at multiple doses will be comparedto placebo, using time to moribund condition as the primary endpoint. We will also evaluate RBT/colistin orRIF/colistin combination therapy in mice.Specific Aim 3: Define the breadth of efficacy of RBT Gram-negative and positive bacteria.We will determine the in vitro activity of RBT vs RIF monotherapy against ESBL or carbapenem-resistant A.baumannii, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus by MIC assay (50isolates each). Lastly, the activity of RBT vs RIF monotherapy against will be evaluated against the previouslymentioned bacteria.Impact: Since RFB is already FDA approved, these results will lead to immediate translation to clinical trialsto determine if adjunct RFB therapy improves survival of patients infected with A. baumannii. Furthermore,these results may support a fundamental change in screening methodologies to identify novel antibiotics.