The proposed study is designed to develop technologies to help ensure safety of food and food contact surfaces. In addition, this study will also ensure the technology developed will not induce different foodborne pathogens into the VBNC state.Specific objectives are:Objective 1. Systematically evaluate the efficacy of ferrous sulfate and sodium hydroxide activated persulfate in inactivating E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium DT104, and L. monocytogenes in both cell suspension and from fresh produce.Objective 2. Development of biodegradable films using solution casting method with TiO2 NPs and measure the surface characteristics and photocatalytic activity of coated packaging films.Objective 3. To determine the bactericidal activity and stability of the TiO2 coated films and its efficacy through a simulated real use scenarios of fresh and processed foods during distribution and storage.Objective 4. To determine the effect of different chemical sanitizers and physical treatments on the induction of the VBNC state in Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes and to establish relative risks of cross contamination during fresh-produce washing using different sanitizing treatments.