1. Determine the effect of low heat high pressure homogenization (up to 600 MPa) and spray drying temperature on survival of Cronobacter sakazakii, Geogacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus licheniformis, and Paenibacillus lautus in skim milk powder. </P>
2. Determine the effect of homogenization pressure (up to 600 MPa) and spray drying temperatur eon the physicochemical properties and shelf life of skim milk powder.
Spores continue to be a major challenge in the production of dairy powders. This project will evaluate high pressure processing as a feasible technology for producing dairy powders with very low or no levels of microorganisms (vegetative cells and spores) for various food applications (such as infant formula) where low or no spores are desired. </P>Researchers will process milk concentrates inoculated with four different microorganisms (1 pathogen and 3 spores) that are relevant to the dairy industry and show that high pressure homogenization is a feasible technology to obtain low heat milk powders with good visual quality and shelf life, and contain low or no spores. The inocuated reconstituted milk powders will be homogenized with pressures up to 600 MPa (87,000 psi)