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The Origin and Formation of 3-MCPD in Foods and Food Ingredients


<OL> <LI>
Determine the kinetics of 2- and 3-MCPD production and breakdown in model systems. <LI>
Determine the factors affecting the formation of 3-MCPD during the roasting of cereal grains and of other roasted foods, such as coffee. <LI>
Determine the factors affecting the formation and stability of 2-and 3-MCPD in model and whole doughs during the baking process. <LI>

Determine the factors affecting the production of 3-MCPD in a number of meat products, salted fish and cheese products identified as containing detectable levels of 3-MCPD.

More information

3-monochloropropane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a carcinogenic contaminant of acid hydrolysed vegetable protein (acid-HVP), producing genotoxic intermediates on metabolism such as epoxide glycidol. Recent toxicological studies carried out in the UK by the European Union's Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) and the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) have lead to a recommended provisional maximum Tolerable Daily Intake of 2 µg/kg/bodyweight/day for 3-MCPD.
In view of this toxicity the European Commission adopted a regulatory limit of 0.02 mg/kg for 3-MCPD in soy sauce and hydrolysed vegetable protein (HVP).
After a survey of foods formulated both with and without acid-HVP, a number of common food ingredients were found to contain 3-MCPD that had previously not been suspected of containing HVP. In particular, 3-MCPD was quantifiable most frequently in samples of malt and malt-based ingredients.
Despite its widespread occurrence, mechanisms of 3-MCPD formation have not been studied in foods other than HVP. Developments in analytical techniques now permit the detection of low levels of 3-MCPD and thus its formation can be studied in both model systems and foods.
This project will allow the Food Standards Agency to formulate advice and recommend strategies to food manufacturers that can be used to reduce 3-MCPD formation during food storage and processing, while assisting the Agency in discussions about domestic and EC legislation for 3-MCPD in foods and ingredients.
<p>Find more about this project and other FSA food safety-related projects at the <a href="; target="_blank">Food Standards Agency Research webpage</a>.

Central Science Laboratory
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Project number
C03017, C03018 and C03019