1. Determine the impact of frequency and amplitude on various physical properties such as viscosity of milk, concentrated milk and solubility, color, heat stability and bulk density in milk powder. </P>
2. Determine the impact of sonication on protein stability. </P>
3. Evaluate the impact of ultrasonication on viscosity of milk protein concentrates and the density of the milk powder. </P>
4. Determine the placement and conditions of an ultrasound probe in a flow cell during the thermal processing of milk with solids content up to 40%.
This research will investigate the effect of ultrasound on milk, concentrated milk, and milk protein concentrate with respect to changes in milk properties such as viscosity, color, protein stability, and heat stability. The concentrated milks will be dried and evaluated for changes in bulk density. Researchers will also determine if sonication can be used during plate exchange pasteurization to reduce biofilm formation and extend processing time between cleaning cycles. </P>Researchers hypothesize that ultrasonication will reduce the viscosity of milk concentrate so processors can dry the product to higher solids and increase the bulk density of powders.