Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia

Humane endpoints are chosen to minimize or terminate the pain or distress of the experimental animals via euthanasia rather than waiting for their deaths as the endpoint.
AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia  ( pdf | 160 KB )

American Veterinary Medical Association.

This 2020 report provides recommendations to give veterinarians guidance in relieving pain and suffering of animals that are to be euthanatized. (NOTE: This document updates the previous guidelines published in 2013 and 2007).

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA).

A summary of statutory and regulatory provisions addressing the euthanasia of companion animals.

American Veterinary Medical Association.

Position statements covering recommendations on antimicrobial use, euthanasia, abuse, pain, and other important animal welfare concerns.

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

This publication contains citations pertinent to the humane euthanasia of animals. It is divided into 8 groups as follows: Aquatic Animals, Birds, Dogs and Cats, General, Livestock, Reptiles, Rodents and Rabbits, Wildlife: Captive and Free Ranging.

DHHS. NIH. Office of Animal Care and Use.

This document states that selection of appropriate endpoints requires careful consideration of the study's scientific requirements, possible pain, distress or illness the research animals may experience, the most likely time course and progression of those adverse effects, and the earliest most predictive indicators of present or impending adverse effects.