Humane Endpoints and Euthanasia

Humane endpoints are chosen to minimize or terminate the pain or distress of the experimental animals via euthanasia rather than waiting for their deaths as the endpoint.

American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA).

A summary of statutory and regulatory provisions addressing the euthanasia of companion animals.

AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia  ( pdf | 160 KB )

American Veterinary Medical Association.

This 2013 report provides recommendations to give veterinarians guidance in relieving pain and suffering of animals that are to be euthanatized. (NOTE: This documents updates the previous guidelines published in 2007).

Working Group on Humane Endpoints.

The proceedings of two international conferences that address issues relating to the recognition and assessment of adverse effects in animals, and the determination, validation and acceptance of humane endpoints.

The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing.

From a CAAT, NIH, NAS conference held in November 1998. Topics include philosophy, assessment, alleviation, and policies for the regulation of pain.

American Veterinary Medical Association.

Position statements covering recommendations on antimicrobial use, euthanasia, abuse, pain, and other important animal welfare concerns.

DHHS. NIH. Office of Animal Care and Use.

This document states that selection of appropriate endpoints requires careful consideration of the study's scientific requirements, possible pain, distress or illness the research animals may experience, the most likely time course and progression of those adverse effects, and the earliest most predictive indicators of present or impending adverse effects.