Reducing Pain and Distress

This section contains resources on pain management, pain assessment and scoring, alleviation of pain and distress, USDA-categories of pain, guidelines for recognizing pain, and analgesics and analgesia.

The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing.

From a CAAT, NIH, NAS conference held in November 1998. Topics include philosophy, assessment, alleviation, and policies for the regulation of pain.

International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management.

This organization's web site provides a list of signs, causes and treatment of pain in many animal species.