Reducing Pain and Distress

This section contains resources on pain management, pain assessment and scoring, alleviation of pain and distress,USDA categories of pain, guidelines for recognizing pain, and analgesics and analgesia.

International Veterinary Academy of Pain Management.

This organization's web site provides a list of signs, causes and treatment of pain in many animal species.

The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing.

From a CAAT, NIH, NAS conference held in November 1998. Topics include philosophy, assessment, alleviation, and policies for the regulation of pain.