The science of aquaculture includes both the cultivation of underwater plants, and the breeding, rearing and harvesting of underwater fish, shellfish and other living organisms. The practice of aquaculture can both fulfill future food needs and sustain natural resources.
Aquaponics is a combination of fish and plant production and hydroponics (growing plants without soil).
On this page find links to resources, videos, government programs, research articles, and literature.
Resources about Aquaponics
The "go-to" resource by D. Allen Pattillo at the North Central Regional Aquaculture Center. Contains information, diagrams, and links to additional resources.
Program provides an introduction to and recommended practices for starting an aquaponics operation. Discusses the relationship between aquaponics, aquaculture and hydroponics.
An overview of aquaponics, production issues and marketing considerations. Includes links to additional information.
A series of videos recorded by D. Allen Pattillo at Iowa State University that showcase and detail aquaponics topics.
Access to Research Articles
At the federal level, "aquaculture" is defined in the National Aquaculture Act of 1980 as the “propagation and rearing of aquatic species in controlled or selected environments, including but not limited to, ocean ranching (except private ocean ranching of Pacific for profit in those States where such ranching is prohibited by law).” 16 U.S.C.A. § 2802 (1)
Resources about Aquaculture
Access to Research Articles
Research and Selected Resources
U.S. Department of Agriculture
- Animal Plant Health Inspection Service. Aquaculture Information [usda.gov]; Aquaculture Regulations by State [usda.gov].
- National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Aquaculture. [usda.gov]
- National Agricultural Statistics Service. Census of Aquaculture [usda.gov]
- USDA Aquaculture [usda.gov]
Seventeen USDA Agencies fall under eight Mission Areas to support aquaculture through their program leadership. USDA primarily supports aquaculture through the programs administered in the Mission Areas and Agencies outlined on this site.
U.S. Department of Commerce
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Program. [cdc.gov]
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research and proposes practices to reduce occupational diseases, injuries and fatalities among workers in the aquaculture industry.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Provides information on aquaculture production; best management practices; and regulatory requirements and compliance. EPA stresses aquaculture-related environmental requirements.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
- Aquaculture. [fda.gov]
- Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. [fda.gov]
The Center focuses on safe and effective drugs used in the aquaculture industry.
- Seafood Guidance Documents and Regulatory Information [fda.gov]
- Seafood HACCP [fda.gov].
Aquaculture farmers and researchers may be eligible for grant or financial assistance programs.