Canadian Journal of Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Sat, 02/15/2020 - 03:24
Serratia marcescens is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium and the most recognized producer of the hydrophobic pigment prodigiosin. Previous work has shown that prodigiosin both increases ATP production during population lag phase and approximately doubles the stationary-phase cell yield. Here, we employed both batch and chemostat culture methods to investigate prodigiosin’s role during high rate...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:39
Intensive poultry production due to public demand raises the risk of contamination, creating potential foodborne hazards to consumers. The prevalence and microbial load of the pathogens Campylobacter, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli was determined by standard methods at the farm level. After disinfection, swab samples collected from wall crevices, drinkers, and vents were...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:24
Nisin is a class I polycyclic bacteriocin produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis, which is used extensively as a food additive to inhibit the growth of foodborne Gram-positive bacteria. Nisin also inhibits growth of Gram-negative bacteria when combined with membrane-disrupting chelators such as citric acid. To gain insight into nisin’s mode of action, we analyzed chemical–genetic...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
Growth and productivity of rice are negatively affected by soil salinity. However, some salt-tolerant rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria can improve salt resistance of plants, thereby augmenting plant growth and production. Here, we isolated a total of 53 plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) from saline and non-saline areas in Bangladesh where electrical conductivity was measured as >7.45...
Tue, 12/17/2019 - 03:25
The high frequency and incidence of foodborne outbreaks related to fresh vegetables consumption is a major public health concern and an economic burden worldwide. This study evaluated the effect of individual and combined application of ultrasound (40 kHz, 100 W) and ozone on the inactivation of foodborne Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as well as their impact on cabbage color and vitamin C...
Fri, 11/15/2019 - 03:24
The use of the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis as a new cell factory is a promising alternative expression system for producing a desired protein. The Omp16-IL2 fusion protein antigen was cloned, expressed, and purified in this study. The Omp16-IL2 fusion gene was designed and cloned in pGH plasmid with appropriate restriction sites and subcloned in pAMJ2008 expression vector digested...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:27
Lysobacter antibioticus HS124 inhibited mycelial growth of Fusarium graminearum (74.66%) under the dual culture method. Microscopic investigation clearly showed that amendment with different concentrations (10%, 30%, and 50%) of HS124 bacterial culture filtrate on potato dextrose agar plates caused abnormal hyphal structures, including swelling and distortion. Its inhibition toward mycelial...
Tue, 10/22/2019 - 03:27
Blue light (BL) exerts an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria. It has been hypothesized that its bactericidal activity depends upon the generation of reactive oxygen species (such as anion superoxides) and the resultant cellular damage. However, some aspects of this hypothesis needed to be tested and investigated. Thus, the work conducted herein examined the molecular impact of BL...
Wed, 10/16/2019 - 03:28
This study reports the use of reverse transcription – loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT–LAMP) to detect Listeria monocytogenes in meat. The assay was designed to target the iap gene of L. monocytogenes, to which four primers, recognizing six distinct iap sites, were designed. We optimized the RT–LAMP conditions and established the following optimal systems: 60 min, 63 °C, 2.0 mmol/L...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is rapidly replacing other molecular techniques for identifying and subtyping bacterial isolates. The resolution or discrimination offered by WGS is significantly higher than that offered by other molecular techniques, and WGS readily allows infrequent differences that occur between 2 closely related strains to be found. In this investigation, WGS...
Thu, 05/30/2019 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Oysters from a reef in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA, were screened for more virulent clinical strains versus less virulent environmental strains of Vibrio vulnificus using a combination of quantitative PCR assays for the virulence correlating gene (clinical variant, vcgC) and 16S rRNA types A and B (type A = environmental, type B = clinical). The combination of vcgC and 16S rRNA...
Tue, 05/21/2019 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Penicillium chrysogenum F1 is very efficient in bioleaching heavy metals from the soil and is used for that purpose. We found that F1 can extract 19.8 mg Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from 2.5 g soil; the total heavy metals’ bioleaching ratio was 60.4%. In this study, the bioleaching mechanism was investigated by means of metabonomics; different metabolite ions were screened (relative...
Fri, 05/10/2019 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Gastric acidity is one of the earliest host defences faced by ingested organisms, and successful pathogens need to overcome this hurdle. The objective of this study was the systematic assessment of acid-stress response of Vibrio vulnificus isolated from coastal regions of Mangaluru. Acid-shock experiments were carried out at pH 4.0 and pH 4.5, with different experimental...
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 03:00
e-First Articles. The antimicrobial activity of metal-based compounds, including metal oxides, has resulted in numerous agricultural, industrial, and medical applications. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as to some fungi. In this study we assess the sensitivity of Campylobacter fetus, a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen of humans and animals...
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg causes foodborne infections and is a major threat to the food chain and public health. In this study, we aimed to develop a rapid molecular typing approach to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg. Using comparative genomics, four serovar-specific gene fragments were identified, and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
Tue, 02/05/2019 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium chloride (BC) has been observed in many Listeria monocytogenes strains worldwide and is associated with cadmium chloride (CC) resistance. Therefore, the aims of this study were to evaluate the susceptibility to BC and CC, detect the presence of resistance genes, and investigate the possible role of efflux pumps...
Tue, 12/11/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of genes associated with adhesion (cadF), invasion (ciaB), and cytotoxin production (cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) among Campylobacter jejuni isolates from a poultry slaughterhouse and to investigate the effect of different temperatures on the expression of these virulence-associated genes. A total of 88 C. jejuni isolates from...
Mon, 11/05/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. A real-time PCR (qPCR) regimen, using up to six genetic targets, was developed to rapidly detect Salmonella and in particular identify Salmonella Enteritidis. The test regimen was first evaluated using a reference culture collection of Salmonella to confirm the appropriateness of the selected targets, which included up to three genetic markers for discrimination of Salmonella...
Mon, 11/05/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 is a potential probiotic strain isolated from Chinese infant feces. In this study, the antagonistic activity of E. faecium WEFA23 on adhesion to pathogens was investigated. Enterococcus faecium WEFA23 was able to compete, exclude, and displace the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 13311, Listeria monocytogenes...
Fri, 10/19/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Campylobacter jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen transmitted through the “farm to fork” route. Outbreaks are generally associated with the consumption of chicken meat; however, dairy cows, birds, wild and domestic food animals, and pets are other important sources. Currently, there are not enough data comparing the virulence of strains isolated from these reservoirs. In this study...
Mon, 08/27/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. The fate of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in swine or dairy manure amended into sandy loam or loam soil under field conditions was studied. Soil was amended with manure inoculated with a Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 cocktail, then transferred to 0.22 μm pore size membrane walled vials. The vials were then placed on the surface or at 15 cm depth in the test plots....
Mon, 07/30/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. The use of bdellovibrios has been regarded as an alternative to control multidrug-resistant pathogens and fish bacteriosis. However, scarce information is available on the potential of bdellovibrios in the presence of copper sulfate, which is an algicide widely used to treat cyanobacterial blooms in aquaculture. In the present study, the effects of copper sulfate at sublethal...
Tue, 07/10/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Salmonella is a common and widely distributed foodborne pathogen that is frequently implicated in gastrointestinal infections. The emergence and spread of Salmonella strains resistant to multiple antibiotics poses a significant health threat, highlighting the urgent need for early and effective therapeutic strategies. We isolated a total of 32 phages from water samples and...
Mon, 06/04/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common and important pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis worldwide. A rapid, sensitive, and specific assay is urgently required for detection and differentiation of V. parahaemolyticus strains. We designed three sets of primers and probes using groEL and two virulence genes (tdh and trh) from V. parahaemolyticus, and developed a multiplex...
Fri, 05/18/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Soil is an important reservoir for Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen implicated in numerous produce-related outbreaks. Our objectives were to (i) compare the survival of L. monocytogenes among three soils, (ii) compare the native bacterial communities across these soils, and (iii) investigate relationships between L. monocytogenes survival, native bacterial...
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Enrofloxacin is registered for therapeutic use in beef cattle to treat bovine respiratory disease in Canada. A murine model was used to experimentally examine the impact of therapeutic administration of enrofloxacin on fluoroquinolone resistance development in Campylobacter jejuni. Administration of enrofloxacin to mice via subcutaneous injection or per os routes resulted in...
Tue, 04/24/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. The marine dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has been proposed as a suitable model for the dimorphism study. In this study, the morphological behaviour of two marine strains of Y. lipolytica (NCIM 3589 and NCIM 3590) was studied under stress of different heavy metals. Scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphological features of yeast cells. This study...
Fri, 01/19/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. A novel RPA–IAC assay using recombinase polymerase and an internal amplification control (IAC) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus detection was developed. Specific primers were designed based on the coding sequence for the toxR gene in V. parahaemolyticus. The recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reaction was conducted at a constant low temperature of 37 °C for 20 min. Assay...
Wed, 01/03/2018 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Mechanistic features that characterize the interaction and inhibition of the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by members of the genus Bifidobacterium still remain unclear. In the present work, we tried to shed light on the influence that co-cultivation of L. monocytogenes with Bifidobacterium breve may exert on both microorganisms and on virulence of the pathogen....
Wed, 11/01/2017 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Swarming motility is ultimately mediated by the proton-powered lateral flagellar (laf) system in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Expression of laf genes is tightly regulated by a number of environmental conditions and regulatory factors. The nucleoid-associated DNA-binding protein H-NS is a small and abundant protein that is widely distributed in bacteria, and H-NS-like protein-...
Tue, 10/31/2017 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Serotyping of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is a critical step for foodborne salmonellosis investigation. To identify Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovars, we have developed a new assay based on a triplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with pyrosequencing for amplicon confirmation and phylogenetic discrimination of strains. The top 54 most prevalent serovars of...
Wed, 09/20/2017 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Gram-positive rods Bacillus cereus sensu lato (sl) are common in natural habitats and food products. It is believed that they are restricted to spores; however, their ecology in aquatic habitats is still poorly investigated. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the rain-dependent fluctuations in the concentration of B. cereus sl vegetative cells and spores, with evaluation...
Fri, 08/18/2017 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen of foodborne origin. The pathogen produces a variety of toxins that include the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and expression of 5 SE genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see) in S. aureus isolated from outbreaks occurred in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. All isolates, with...
Tue, 05/30/2017 - 03:00
e-First Articles. The open reading frames SEN0085 and SeKA_A4361, from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis NalR and serovar Kentucky 3795, respectively, corresponding to the acid-inducible sulfatase gene aslA from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were previously suggested by microarray analysis to be differentially expressed under acid conditions. However, growth and enzyme activity...
Mon, 05/08/2017 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Brucella is Gram-negative intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects humans and animals and contributes to great economic losses in developing countries. Presently, live attenuated Brucella vaccines (Brucella melitensis M5-90) are the most effective means of brucellosis control and prevention in animals. However, these vaccines have several drawbacks, such as an inability...
Fri, 12/02/2016 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Bacterial noncoding RNAs (ncRNA) regulate diverse cellular processes, including virulence and environmental fitness. The malS 5′ untranslated region (named malS-5′UTR) was identified as a regulatory ncRNA that increases the invasive capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. An IntaRNA search suggested base pairing between malS-5′UTR and hisG mRNA, a key gene in the...
Mon, 08/29/2016 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Metal fatty acid salts (MFAS) in untreated industrial effluents cause environmental pollution. The use of biocompatible agents for remediation may help in reducing the harm caused to the ambient aquatic organism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that thrives under harsh conditions and is resistant to toxic metal ions. The present study shows a proof-of-concept...
Tue, 06/14/2016 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Bacillus strains were isolated from termitarium soil and screened for their antifungal activity through the production of diffusible and volatile metabolites. Further, the bacterial strains that showed antifungal activity were evaluated for their biocontrol potential on the basis of their plant-growth-promoting attributes. Termitarium-inhabiting Bacillus strains TSH42 and...
Tue, 06/07/2016 - 03:00
e-First Articles. In natural environments, bacteria often exist in close association with surfaces and interfaces by establishing biofilms. Here, we report on the ability of Burkholderia fungorum strains DBT1 and 95 to survive in high concentrations of hydrocarbons, and we compare their growth as a biofilm vs. planktonic cells. The 2 compounds tested were dibenzothiophene (DBT) and a mixture of...
Tue, 03/22/2016 - 02:45
e-First Articles. Campylobacter spp. are a substantial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. Human infection can result from ingestion of contaminated food or water from a variety of sources, including the consumption of fresh produce that is contaminated with the pathogen via the use of contaminated irrigation water. Using molecular methods, we investigated the occurrence of Campylobacter in the...
Thu, 03/17/2016 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Sewage sludge recovered from wastewater treatment plants contains antibiotic residues and is rich in antibiotic resistance genes, selected for and enriched in the digestive tracts of human using antibiotics. The use of sewage sludge as a crop fertilizer constitutes a potential route of human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes through consumption of contaminated crops....
Thu, 12/17/2015 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Aeromonas are autochthonous inhabitants of aquatic environments, including chlorinated and polluted waters, although they can also be isolated from a wide variety of environmental and clinical sources. They cause infections in vertebrates and invertebrates and are considered to be an emerging pathogen in humans, producing intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases. Most of the...
Tue, 12/15/2015 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The persistence of HuNoV in the environment contributes significantly to its transmission to humans. Surrogate viruses are used to study HuNoV owing to the lack of a cell culture system for this virus. Here, the persistence of Tulane virus (TV) — a novel HuNoV surrogate — in surface...
Tue, 11/24/2015 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Cronobacter sakazakii is a severe virulent strain that is frequently detected in powdered infant formula (PIF). Therefore, it is necessary to develop a fast and specific detection method. The specificity of our newly developed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT–PCR) was validated with DNA from 46 strains. Among them, 12 C. sakazakii strains were correctly amplified, whereas no...
Tue, 11/24/2015 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Vibrio cholerae exochitinase ChiA2 plays a key role in acquisition of nutrients by chitin hydrolysis in the natural environment as well as in pathogenesis in the intestinal milieu. In this study we demonstrate the importance of ChiA2 in horizontal gene transfer in the natural environment. We found that the expression of ChiA2 and TfoX, the central regulator of V. cholerae...
Wed, 11/18/2015 - 03:00
e-First Articles. Toxigenic isolates of Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 from aquatic reservoirs are a key source for recurrent epidemics of cholera in human populations. However, we do not have an optimal understanding of the microbiology of the strains within these reservoirs, particularly outside of the time periods when there are active cholera cases in the surrounding community. The...
Thu, 11/05/2015 - 03:00
e-First Articles. La fièvre Q est une zoonose de répartition mondiale excepté la Nouvelle-Zélande. Elle est due à une bactérie intracellulaire : Coxiella burnetii. Cette infection passe souvent inaperçue car la manifestation principale de la forme aiguë de la maladie est un syndrome pseudogrippal spontanément résolutif. C’est l’épidémie qui a eu lieu aux Pays-Bas qui a attiré l’attention sur...
Wed, 09/30/2015 - 01:21
e-First Articles. Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-...
Sat, 09/26/2015 - 01:20
Shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2, also called verocytotoxins) are commonly associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Tesh and O’Brien 1991). Recent studies have documented cases of stx carriage in other Shigella species, including S. sonnei linked to travel to Morocco (Nyholm et al. 2015) and S. flexneri with travel history to Caribbean (Gray et al...
Wed, 09/16/2015 - 01:25
e-First Articles. Yersinia enterocolitica is a food-borne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis with occasional postinfection sequels. This study was aimed to determinate the pathogenic potential, antimicrobial susceptibility, and genomic relationships of Y. enterocolitica strains of different bioserotypes (B/O) isolated from foods and human samples in San Luis, Argentina. Strains obtained by...

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