Frontiers in Plant Science

Wed, 04/14/2021 - 16:00
We previously isolated a single domain antibody (VHH) that binds Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) with the end-goal being the enteromucosal passive immunization of cattle herds. To improve the yield of a chimeric fusion of the VHH with an IgA Fc, we employed two rational design strategies, supercharging and introducing de novo disulfide bonds, on the bovine IgA Fc component of the...
Wed, 04/14/2021 - 16:00
An increase in environmental pollution resulting from toxic heavy metals and metalloids [e.g., cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb)] causes serious health risks to humans and animals. Mitigation strategies need to be developed to reduce the accumulation of the toxic elements in plant-derived foods. Natural and genetically-engineered plants with hyper-tolerant and hyper-accumulating capacity...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 16:00
Tomato is subject to several diseases that affect both field- and greenhouse-grown crops. To select cost-effective potential biocontrol agents, we used laboratory throughput screening to identify bacterial strains with versatile characteristics suitable for multipurpose uses. The natural diversity of tomato root–associated bacterial communities was bioprospected under a real-world environment...
Wed, 04/07/2021 - 16:00
Resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) of spelt wheat was investigated in field trials carried out at three European locations between 2016 and 2018. Resistance was assessed after artificial inoculation by visual scoring of symptoms and the determination of the contamination of grains and glumes with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). It was found that typical spelt traits such as tall plant...
Wed, 03/24/2021 - 16:00
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are group of plant steroidal hormones that modulate developmental processes and also have pivotal role in stress management. Biosynthesis of BRs takes place through established early C-6 and late C-6 oxidation pathways and the C-22 hydroxylation pathway triggered by activation of the DWF4 gene that acts on multiple intermediates. BRs are recognized at the cell surface by...
Tue, 03/23/2021 - 16:00
Decomposed organic materials, in combination with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), are environmentally friendly and reduce synthetic fertilizer use in rice production. A bio-organic fertilizer (BoF) was prepared using kitchen waste (79%), chita-dhan (unfilled rice grain) biochar (15%), rock phosphate (5%), and a consortium of 10 PGPB (1%) to supplement 30% nitrogen and to replace triple...
Mon, 03/22/2021 - 16:00
African countries face key challenges in the deployment of GM crops due to incongruities in the processes for effective and efficient commercial release while simultaneously ensuring food and environmental safety. Against the backdrop of the preceding scenario, and for the effective and efficient commercial release of GM crops for cultivation by farmers, while simultaneously ensuring food and...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 16:00
Cadmium (Cd) pollution in soils is an increasing problem worldwide, and it affects crop production and safety. We identified Cd-tolerant and -sensitive cultivars by testing 258 accessions of Medicago truncatula at seedling stage, using the relative root growth (RRG) as an indicator of Cd tolerance. The factorial analysis (principal component analysis method) of the different growth parameters...
Thu, 03/11/2021 - 16:00
Contamination of agricultural soil by arsenic (As) is a serious menace to environmental safety and global food security. Symbiotic plant–microbe interaction, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), is a promising approach to minimize hazards of As contamination in agricultural soil. Even though the potential of AM fungi (AMF) in redeeming As tolerance and improving growth is well recognized, the...
Thu, 02/25/2021 - 16:00
Vitamin A deficiency remains a common public health problem among the rice-dependent poor people in the developing countries of Asia. Conventional milled rice does not contain provitamin A (β-carotene) in is edible part (endosperm) and is also deficient in essential minerals, such as iron and zinc. Transgenic Golden Rice event GR2E, which produces β-carotene in its endosperm, was used as a parent...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 16:00
Nickel, a micronutrient essential for plant growth and development, has been recognized as a metallic pollutant in wastewater. The concentration of nickel ions in the water course, exceeding the maximum tolerable limit, has called for an alarming attention, due to the bioaccumulative entry in the water–plant–human food chain, leaving a burden of deteriorative effects on visible characteristics,...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 16:00
Human norovirus is the leading cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide. Currently, no licensed norovirus vaccine, pharmaceutical drug, or therapy is available for the control of norovirus infection. Here, we used a rice transgenic system, MucoRice, to produce a variable domain of a llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) specific for human norovirus (MucoRice...
Fri, 02/19/2021 - 16:00
Rice, a staple crop for nearly half the planet’s population, tends to absorb and accumulate excessive cadmium (Cd) when grown in Cd-contaminated fields. Low levels of Cd can degrade the quality of rice grains, while high levels can inhibit the growth of rice plants. There is genotypic diversity in Cd distribution and Cd tolerance in different rice varieties, but their underlying genetic...
Tue, 02/09/2021 - 16:00
Scientists anxiously follow instances of heavy metals augmenting in the environment and undergoing bioaccumulation and trace their biomagnification across food webs, wary of their potent toxicity on biological entities. Engineered nanoparticles supplement natural pools of respective heavy metals and can mimic their effects, exerting toxicity at higher concentrations. Thus, a thorough...
Thu, 02/04/2021 - 16:00
Cereals are the major contributors to global food supply, accounting for more than half of the total human calorie requirements. Sustainable availability of quality cereal grains is an important step to address the high-priority issue of food security. High concentrations of heavy metals specifically lead (Pb) in the soil negatively affect biochemical and physiological processes regulating grain...
Thu, 01/28/2021 - 16:00
Hg is an environmental pollutant with severe biotoxicity. Epiphytic Tillandsia species, especially Spanish moss T. usneoides, are widely used as the bioindicator of Hg pollution. However, the effects of different Hg concentrations on Tillandsia have been rarely studied and the occurrence of hormesis in Tillandsia species has not been determined. In this study, T. usneoides was subjected to stress...
Thu, 01/28/2021 - 16:00
Photosynthesis sustains plant life on earth and is indispensable for plant growth and development. Factors such as unfavorable environmental conditions, stress regulatory networks, and plant biochemical processes limits the photosynthetic efficiency of plants and thereby threaten food security worldwide. Although numerous physiological approaches have been used to assess the performance of key...
Mon, 01/25/2021 - 16:00
Accurate genotype identification is imperative for effective use of Coffea canephora L. germplasm to breed new varieties with tolerance or resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses (including moisture stress and pest and disease stresses such as coffee berry borer and rust) and for high yield and improved cup quality. The present study validated 192 published single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...
Mon, 01/25/2021 - 16:00
Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain is a significant public health concern. Inorganic As (iAs) is of particular concern because it has increased toxicity as compared to organic As. Irrigation management practices, such as alternate wetting and drying (AWD), as well as genotypic differences between cultivars, have been shown to influence As accumulation in rice grain. A 2 year field study...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 16:00
Different anthropogenic activities result in the continuous increase of metal lead (Pb) in the environment and adversely affect living organisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate the tolerance mechanism in a model organism. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an important green eukaryotic model microalga for studying different kinds of biological questions. In this study, the responses of C....
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 16:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious fungal disease affecting wheat and other cereals worldwide. This fungus causes severe yield and quality losses from a reduction in grain quality and contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Intensive breeding efforts led to the release of AAC Tenacious, which was the first spring wheat cultivar registered in Canada with a resistant (R) rating to FHB. To...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 16:00
During double fertilization in angiosperms, two male gametes (sperm cells), are released from a pollen tube into the receptive region between two female gametes; the egg cell and the central cell of the ovule. The sperm cells fertilize the egg cell and the central cell in a one-to-one manner to yield a zygote and an endosperm, respectively. The one-to-one distribution of the sperm cells to the...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 16:00
While aflatoxin metabolism in animals has been clarified, very limited information is so far available on the possible biotransformation occurring in plants. Therefore, this work aimed at investigating whether AFB1 metabolites could occur in field-grown infected maize and the putative role of Zea mays L. metabolism in their production. For such scope, asymptomatic in vitro–grown plantlets and in...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 16:00
Mosses number about 13,000 species and are an important resource for the study of the plant evolution that occurred during terrestrial colonization by plants. Recently, the physiological and metabolic characteristics that distinguish mosses from terrestrial plants have received attention. In the Arctic, in particular, mosses developed their own distinct physiological features to adapt to the...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 16:00
Improving growth and productivity of plants that are vulnerable to environmental stresses, such as heavy metals, is of significant importance for meeting global food and energy demands. Because heavy metal toxicity not only causes impaired plant growth, it has also posed many concerns related to human well-being, so mitigation of heavy metal pollution is a necessary priority for a cleaner...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 16:00
Durum wheat is an economically important crop for Canadian farmers. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive diseases that threatens durum production in Canada. FHB reduces yield and end-use quality and most commonly contaminates the grain with the fungal mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, also known as DON. Serious outbreaks of FHB can occur in durum wheat in Canada, and combining...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 16:00
The presence of cadmium in rice stems is a limiting factor that restricts its function as biomass. In order to prevent potential risks of heavy metals in rice straws, this study introduced a fast detection method of cadmium in rice stems based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and chemometrics. The wavelet transform (WT), area normalization and median absolute deviation (MAD) were...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 16:00
Melting mountainous snowfields are populated by extremophilic microorganisms. An alga causing orange snow above timberline in the High Tatra Mountains (Poland) was characterised using multiple methods examining its ultrastructure, genetics, life cycle, photosynthesis and ecophysiology. Based on light and electron microscopy and ITS2 rDNA, the species was identified as Chloromonas krienitzii (...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 16:00
Global climate change and the expected increase in temperature are altering the relationship between geography and grapevine (V. vinifera) varietal performance, and the implications of which are yet to be fully understood. We investigated berry phenology and biochemistry of 30 cultivars, 20 red and 10 white, across three seasons (2017–2019) in response to a consistent average temperature...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 16:00
High concentrations of heavy metal (HM) ions impact agronomic staple crop production in acid soils (pH ≤ 5) due to their cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects. Among cytotoxic ions, the trivalent aluminum cation (Al3+) formed by solubilization of aluminum (Al) into acid soils, is one of the most abundant and toxic elements under acidic conditions. In recent years, several studies have...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 16:00
Lysine (Lys) is indispensable nutritionally, and its levels in plants are modulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control during plant ontogeny. Animal glutamate receptor homologs have been detected in plants, which may participate in several plant processes through the Lys catabolic products. Interestingly, a connection between Lys and serotonin metabolism has been established...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 16:00
Calcium (Ca2+) ion is a critical ubiquitous intracellular second messenger, acting as a lead currency for several distinct signal transduction pathways. Transient perturbations in free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) concentrations are indispensable for the translation of signals into adaptive biological responses. The transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt levels is sensed by an array of Ca2+ sensor relay...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
The role of ascorbate (AsA) in antioxidant defense system-associated resistance to cadmium (Cd) in oilseed rape plants has not yet been clearly demonstrated. The present study investigated the critical role of exogenous AsA on the physiological and biochemical responses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant scavenging defense systems in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Tammi)...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat, barley, and other grains. During infection, F. graminearum produces deoxynivalenol (DON), which contaminates grain and functions as a virulence factor to promote FHB spread throughout the wheat head. F. graminearum secretes hundreds of putative effectors, which can interfere with plant immunity to promote disease development....
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 16:00
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel human infectious disease provoked by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, no specific vaccines or drugs against COVID-19 are available. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to slow the virus spread and to contain the disease outbreak. Hence, new diagnostic tests and devices for virus...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 16:00
In the last decades, UV-B radiation has attracted attention due to its potential to increase nutraceutical values of fruit and vegetables, especially by inducing the accumulation of phenolics in a structure-dependent way. However, most current studies have investigated the UV-B-driven changes only in the peel or focusing on individual phenolic classes. Adopting an “-omics” approach, this work...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 16:00
Hyperaccumulators are the preferred materials for phytoremediation. Sedum alfredii Hance is a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator plant in China, although its detoxification mechanism remains unresolved. In our study, we cloned a gene belonging to the plant cadmium resistance (PCR) family, named SaPCR2, from the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of S. alfredii. Sequence analysis indicated that SaPCR2...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 16:00
Early detection of plant diseases is a crucial factor to prevent or limit the spread of a rising infection that could cause significant economic loss. Detection test on plant diseases in the laboratory can be laborious, time consuming, expensive, and normally requires specific technical expertise. Moreover, in the developing countries, it is often difficult to find laboratories equipped for this...
Mon, 10/26/2020 - 16:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating fungal disease of small-grain cereals that results in severe yield and quality losses. FHB resistance is controlled by resistance components including incidence, field severity, visual rating index, Fusarium damaged kernels (FDKs), and the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Resistance conferred by each of these components is partial and...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 16:00
Two oilseed rape genotypes (Jiu-Er-13XI and Zheyou-50), differing in seed oil content, were subjected to cadmium (Cd) stress in hydroponic experiment. Genotypic differences were observed in terms of tolerance to Cd exposure. Cd treatment negatively affected both genotypes, but the effects were more devastating in Jiu-Er-13XI (low seed oil content) than in Zheyou-50 (high seed oil content). Jiu-Er...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 16:00
Cyclophilins constitute a family of ubiquitous proteins that bind cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant drug. Several of these proteins possess peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity that catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline residue, essential for correct folding of the proteins. Compared to prokaryotes and other eukaryotes studied until...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 16:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating wheat disease, results in loss of yield and production of mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) in infected grains. DON is harmful to human and animal health and facilitates the spread of FHB symptoms. Its conversion into DON-3-glucoside (D3G) by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) is correlated with FHB resistance, and only few gene members in wheat have...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 16:00
Maize is a staple for billions across the globe. However, in tropical and sub-tropical regions, maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus section Flavi fungi. There is an ongoing search for sources of aflatoxin resistance in maize to reduce continuous exposures of human populations to those dangerous mycotoxins. Large variability in susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 16:00
Preharvest mycotoxin contamination of field-grown crops is influenced not only by the host genotype, but also by inoculum load, insect pressure and their confounding interactions with seasonal weather. In two different field trials, we observed a preference in the natural infestation of corn earworm (CEW; Helicoverpa zea Boddie) to specific maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and investigated this...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 16:01
Lead–zinc (Pb–Zn) mine tailings pose a great risk to the natural environment and human health because of their high toxicity. In this study, the responses of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme of Melia azedarach and Ligustrum lucidum in the soil contaminated by Pb–Zn mine tailings were investigated. Results showed that Pb–Zn mine tailings significantly reduced net...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 16:00
Chelator-assisted phytoremediation is an economical, sustainable, and ecologically friendly method of extracting heavy metals and metalloids from the soil. Organic chelators are thought to enhance metal availability and mobility in contaminated media, thereby improving phytoextraction. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exogenous application of glutamic acid (GA) could improve...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 16:00
Cold atmospheric pressure (CP) plasma irradiation of seeds has been shown to promote plant growth, but the molecular basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. In our study, optimum irradiation of common sunflower seeds using a dielectric barrier discharge CP device stimulated growth of sunflower lateral organs and roots by 9–14% compared to the control. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 16:00
Edible plant oil (EPO) is an indispensable nutritional resource for human health. Various cultivars of oil-bearing plants are grown worldwide, and the chemical compositions of different plant oils are diverse. The extremely complex components in oils lead to diverse standards for evaluating the quality and safety of different EPOs. The environment poses great challenges to the EPO safety and...
Fri, 08/14/2020 - 16:00
To understand the roles of Malus rootstock, scion, and their interaction in Cd accumulation and tolerance, four scion/rootstock combinations consisting of the apple cultivars “Hanfu” (HF) and “Fuji” (FJ) grafted onto M. baccata (Mb) or M. micromalus “qingzhoulinqin” (Mm) rootstocks differing in relative Cd tolerance were exposed either to 0 µM or 50 µM CdCl2 for 18 d. Cd accumulation and...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 16:00
The first successful attempt to generate genetically modified plants expressing a transgene was preformed via T-DNA-based gene transfer employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Limitations over infectivity and in vitro tissue culture led to the development of other DNA delivery systems, such as the biolistic method. Herein, we developed a new one-step protocol for...

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