Frontiers in Plant Science

Mon, 01/25/2021 - 16:00
Accurate genotype identification is imperative for effective use of Coffea canephora L. germplasm to breed new varieties with tolerance or resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses (including moisture stress and pest and disease stresses such as coffee berry borer and rust) and for high yield and improved cup quality. The present study validated 192 published single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...
Mon, 01/25/2021 - 16:00
Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain is a significant public health concern. Inorganic As (iAs) is of particular concern because it has increased toxicity as compared to organic As. Irrigation management practices, such as alternate wetting and drying (AWD), as well as genotypic differences between cultivars, have been shown to influence As accumulation in rice grain. A 2 year field study...
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 16:00
Different anthropogenic activities result in the continuous increase of metal lead (Pb) in the environment and adversely affect living organisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate the tolerance mechanism in a model organism. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is an important green eukaryotic model microalga for studying different kinds of biological questions. In this study, the responses of C....
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 16:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious fungal disease affecting wheat and other cereals worldwide. This fungus causes severe yield and quality losses from a reduction in grain quality and contamination of grain with mycotoxins. Intensive breeding efforts led to the release of AAC Tenacious, which was the first spring wheat cultivar registered in Canada with a resistant (R) rating to FHB. To...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 16:00
During double fertilization in angiosperms, two male gametes (sperm cells), are released from a pollen tube into the receptive region between two female gametes; the egg cell and the central cell of the ovule. The sperm cells fertilize the egg cell and the central cell in a one-to-one manner to yield a zygote and an endosperm, respectively. The one-to-one distribution of the sperm cells to the...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 16:00
While aflatoxin metabolism in animals has been clarified, very limited information is so far available on the possible biotransformation occurring in plants. Therefore, this work aimed at investigating whether AFB1 metabolites could occur in field-grown infected maize and the putative role of Zea mays L. metabolism in their production. For such scope, asymptomatic in vitro–grown plantlets and in...
Fri, 01/08/2021 - 16:00
Mosses number about 13,000 species and are an important resource for the study of the plant evolution that occurred during terrestrial colonization by plants. Recently, the physiological and metabolic characteristics that distinguish mosses from terrestrial plants have received attention. In the Arctic, in particular, mosses developed their own distinct physiological features to adapt to the...
Thu, 01/07/2021 - 16:00
Improving growth and productivity of plants that are vulnerable to environmental stresses, such as heavy metals, is of significant importance for meeting global food and energy demands. Because heavy metal toxicity not only causes impaired plant growth, it has also posed many concerns related to human well-being, so mitigation of heavy metal pollution is a necessary priority for a cleaner...
Wed, 12/23/2020 - 16:00
Durum wheat is an economically important crop for Canadian farmers. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive diseases that threatens durum production in Canada. FHB reduces yield and end-use quality and most commonly contaminates the grain with the fungal mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, also known as DON. Serious outbreaks of FHB can occur in durum wheat in Canada, and combining...
Fri, 12/18/2020 - 16:00
The presence of cadmium in rice stems is a limiting factor that restricts its function as biomass. In order to prevent potential risks of heavy metals in rice straws, this study introduced a fast detection method of cadmium in rice stems based on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and chemometrics. The wavelet transform (WT), area normalization and median absolute deviation (MAD) were...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 16:00
Melting mountainous snowfields are populated by extremophilic microorganisms. An alga causing orange snow above timberline in the High Tatra Mountains (Poland) was characterised using multiple methods examining its ultrastructure, genetics, life cycle, photosynthesis and ecophysiology. Based on light and electron microscopy and ITS2 rDNA, the species was identified as Chloromonas krienitzii (...
Thu, 12/17/2020 - 16:00
Global climate change and the expected increase in temperature are altering the relationship between geography and grapevine (V. vinifera) varietal performance, and the implications of which are yet to be fully understood. We investigated berry phenology and biochemistry of 30 cultivars, 20 red and 10 white, across three seasons (2017–2019) in response to a consistent average temperature...
Wed, 12/16/2020 - 16:00
High concentrations of heavy metal (HM) ions impact agronomic staple crop production in acid soils (pH ≤ 5) due to their cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects. Among cytotoxic ions, the trivalent aluminum cation (Al3+) formed by solubilization of aluminum (Al) into acid soils, is one of the most abundant and toxic elements under acidic conditions. In recent years, several studies have...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 16:00
Lysine (Lys) is indispensable nutritionally, and its levels in plants are modulated by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control during plant ontogeny. Animal glutamate receptor homologs have been detected in plants, which may participate in several plant processes through the Lys catabolic products. Interestingly, a connection between Lys and serotonin metabolism has been established...
Thu, 12/03/2020 - 16:00
Calcium (Ca2+) ion is a critical ubiquitous intracellular second messenger, acting as a lead currency for several distinct signal transduction pathways. Transient perturbations in free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) concentrations are indispensable for the translation of signals into adaptive biological responses. The transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt levels is sensed by an array of Ca2+ sensor relay...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
The role of ascorbate (AsA) in antioxidant defense system-associated resistance to cadmium (Cd) in oilseed rape plants has not yet been clearly demonstrated. The present study investigated the critical role of exogenous AsA on the physiological and biochemical responses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant scavenging defense systems in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Tammi)...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat, barley, and other grains. During infection, F. graminearum produces deoxynivalenol (DON), which contaminates grain and functions as a virulence factor to promote FHB spread throughout the wheat head. F. graminearum secretes hundreds of putative effectors, which can interfere with plant immunity to promote disease development....
Tue, 11/24/2020 - 16:00
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel human infectious disease provoked by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, no specific vaccines or drugs against COVID-19 are available. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are essential in order to slow the virus spread and to contain the disease outbreak. Hence, new diagnostic tests and devices for virus...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 16:00
In the last decades, UV-B radiation has attracted attention due to its potential to increase nutraceutical values of fruit and vegetables, especially by inducing the accumulation of phenolics in a structure-dependent way. However, most current studies have investigated the UV-B-driven changes only in the peel or focusing on individual phenolic classes. Adopting an “-omics” approach, this work...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 16:00
Hyperaccumulators are the preferred materials for phytoremediation. Sedum alfredii Hance is a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator plant in China, although its detoxification mechanism remains unresolved. In our study, we cloned a gene belonging to the plant cadmium resistance (PCR) family, named SaPCR2, from the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of S. alfredii. Sequence analysis indicated that SaPCR2...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 16:00
Early detection of plant diseases is a crucial factor to prevent or limit the spread of a rising infection that could cause significant economic loss. Detection test on plant diseases in the laboratory can be laborious, time consuming, expensive, and normally requires specific technical expertise. Moreover, in the developing countries, it is often difficult to find laboratories equipped for this...
Mon, 10/26/2020 - 16:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating fungal disease of small-grain cereals that results in severe yield and quality losses. FHB resistance is controlled by resistance components including incidence, field severity, visual rating index, Fusarium damaged kernels (FDKs), and the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Resistance conferred by each of these components is partial and...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 16:00
Two oilseed rape genotypes (Jiu-Er-13XI and Zheyou-50), differing in seed oil content, were subjected to cadmium (Cd) stress in hydroponic experiment. Genotypic differences were observed in terms of tolerance to Cd exposure. Cd treatment negatively affected both genotypes, but the effects were more devastating in Jiu-Er-13XI (low seed oil content) than in Zheyou-50 (high seed oil content). Jiu-Er...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 16:00
Cyclophilins constitute a family of ubiquitous proteins that bind cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant drug. Several of these proteins possess peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity that catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond preceding a proline residue, essential for correct folding of the proteins. Compared to prokaryotes and other eukaryotes studied until...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 16:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating wheat disease, results in loss of yield and production of mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) in infected grains. DON is harmful to human and animal health and facilitates the spread of FHB symptoms. Its conversion into DON-3-glucoside (D3G) by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) is correlated with FHB resistance, and only few gene members in wheat have...
Thu, 09/24/2020 - 16:00
Maize is a staple for billions across the globe. However, in tropical and sub-tropical regions, maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus section Flavi fungi. There is an ongoing search for sources of aflatoxin resistance in maize to reduce continuous exposures of human populations to those dangerous mycotoxins. Large variability in susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 16:00
Preharvest mycotoxin contamination of field-grown crops is influenced not only by the host genotype, but also by inoculum load, insect pressure and their confounding interactions with seasonal weather. In two different field trials, we observed a preference in the natural infestation of corn earworm (CEW; Helicoverpa zea Boddie) to specific maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes and investigated this...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 16:01
Lead–zinc (Pb–Zn) mine tailings pose a great risk to the natural environment and human health because of their high toxicity. In this study, the responses of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme of Melia azedarach and Ligustrum lucidum in the soil contaminated by Pb–Zn mine tailings were investigated. Results showed that Pb–Zn mine tailings significantly reduced net...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 16:00
Chelator-assisted phytoremediation is an economical, sustainable, and ecologically friendly method of extracting heavy metals and metalloids from the soil. Organic chelators are thought to enhance metal availability and mobility in contaminated media, thereby improving phytoextraction. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exogenous application of glutamic acid (GA) could improve...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 16:00
Cold atmospheric pressure (CP) plasma irradiation of seeds has been shown to promote plant growth, but the molecular basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. In our study, optimum irradiation of common sunflower seeds using a dielectric barrier discharge CP device stimulated growth of sunflower lateral organs and roots by 9–14% compared to the control. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 16:00
Edible plant oil (EPO) is an indispensable nutritional resource for human health. Various cultivars of oil-bearing plants are grown worldwide, and the chemical compositions of different plant oils are diverse. The extremely complex components in oils lead to diverse standards for evaluating the quality and safety of different EPOs. The environment poses great challenges to the EPO safety and...
Fri, 08/14/2020 - 16:00
To understand the roles of Malus rootstock, scion, and their interaction in Cd accumulation and tolerance, four scion/rootstock combinations consisting of the apple cultivars “Hanfu” (HF) and “Fuji” (FJ) grafted onto M. baccata (Mb) or M. micromalus “qingzhoulinqin” (Mm) rootstocks differing in relative Cd tolerance were exposed either to 0 µM or 50 µM CdCl2 for 18 d. Cd accumulation and...
Wed, 08/12/2020 - 16:00
The first successful attempt to generate genetically modified plants expressing a transgene was preformed via T-DNA-based gene transfer employing Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation. Limitations over infectivity and in vitro tissue culture led to the development of other DNA delivery systems, such as the biolistic method. Herein, we developed a new one-step protocol for...
Thu, 08/06/2020 - 16:00
The nitrogen fixing ability of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in association with rhizobia is often characterized as poor compared to other legumes, and nitrogen fertilizers are commonly used in bean production to achieve high yields, which in general inhibits nitrogen fixation. In addition, plants cannot take up all the nitrogen applied to the soil as a fertilizer leading to runoff and...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 16:00
Bisphenol A (BPA), an intermediate chemical used for synthesizing polycarbonate plastics, has now become a wide spread organic pollutant. It percolates from a variety of sources, and plants are among the first organisms to encounter, absorb, and metabolize it, while its toxic effects are not yet fully known. Therefore, we experimentally studied the effects of aqueous BPA solutions (50 and 100 mg...
Wed, 08/05/2020 - 16:00
Oryza sativa L. is a worldwide food-crop frequently growing in cadmium (Cd)/arsenic (As) polluted soils, with its root-system as the first target of the pollutants. Root-system development involves the establishment of optimal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, also requiring the conversion of the IAA natural precursor indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) into IAA, causing nitric oxide (NO) formation....
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 16:00
Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the U.S., can produce mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), during infection. Contamination of wheat grain with DON is a major concern for wheat producers and millers, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has set advisory levels for DON in finished wheat products for human and...
Tue, 07/21/2020 - 16:00
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. Deficiency and suboptimality of Se in human populations are a potential health risk. The reduction of such health risk by biofortification of crops, particularly in wheat has drawn much attention, especially for color-grained wheat as it is rich in anthocyanins and can be used as a major source of antioxidants in diet. Herein, a two-...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Toxic heavy metals and metalloids in agricultural ecosystems are crucial factors that limit global crop productivity and food safety. Industrial toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as cadmium, lead, and arsenic have contaminated large areas of arable land in the world and their accumulation in the edible parts of crops is causing serious health risks to humans and animals. Plants have co-...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Wheat productivity has been significantly improved worldwide through the incorporation of novel genes from various gene pools, not least from wild relatives of wheat, into the commonly cultivated bread and durum wheat. Here, we present and summarize results obtained from a diverse set of wheat-alien introgression lines with mainly introgressions of rye, but also of Leymus spp. and Thinopyrum...
Fri, 07/17/2020 - 16:00
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major staple food crops of the world. The productivity of rice is considerably affected by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola. Modern nematode management strategies targeting the physiological processes have established the potency of use of neuromotor genes for their management. Here, we explored the utility of two FMRFamide like peptide coding...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 16:00
As an important nitrogen source, nitrate (NO3−) absorbed by plants is carried throughout the plant via short-distance distribution (cytoplasm to vacuole) and long-distance transportation (root to shoot), the two pathways that jointly regulate the content of NO3− in plants. NO3− accumulation within the vacuole depends on the activities of both tonoplast proton pumps and chloride channel (CLC)...
Thu, 07/16/2020 - 16:00
Among the biotic constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, leaf rust (LR), caused by Puccinia triticina, and stripe rust (SR) caused by Puccinia striiformis are problematic fungal diseases worldwide. Each can significantly reduce grain yield while FHB causes additional food and feed safety concerns due to mycotoxin...
Wed, 07/15/2020 - 16:00
Although most point sources of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are at lower latitudes, the Arctic region is contaminated. In particular, PAHs now dominate the POP body burden of the region’s marine biota at the lower trophic levels. Greenlandic Inuits have the most elevated levels of POPs in their blood compared to any other population, due...
Thu, 07/09/2020 - 16:00
In the present work, we used a double cell screening approach based on phenanthrene (phe) epifluorescence histochemical localization and oxygen radical detection to generate new data about how some specialized cells are involved in tolerance to organic xenobiotics. Thereby, we bring new insights about phe [a common Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH)] cell specific detoxification, in two...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 16:00
Excessive cadmium (Cd) damages plants by causing cell death. The present study discusses the function of natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) on cell death caused by Cd in Malus hupehensis. MhNRAMP1 was isolated from M. hupehensis roots, and its protein was located in the cell membrane as a transmembrane protein characterized by hydrophobicity. MhNRAMP1 expression in the roots...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 16:00
Trace metal contaminations in natural waters, wetlands, and wastewaters pose serious threats to aquatic ecosystems—mainly via targeting microalgae. In this work, we investigated the effects of toxic amounts of chromium and cadmium ions on the structure and function of the photosynthetic machinery of Chlorella variabilis cells. To halt the propagation of cells, we used high concentrations of Cd...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 16:00
Bacterial microorganisms which are latent in in vitro cultures can limit the efficiency of in vitro methods for the conservation of genetic resources. In this study we screened 2,373 accessions from the in vitro sweetpotato germplasm collection of the International Potato Center in Lima, Peru for bacteria associated with plantlets in tissue culture through a combination of morphological methods...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 16:00
The high background value of cadmium (Cd) in the Panax notoginseng planting soil is the main reason for the Cd content in P. notoginseng exceeding the limit standards. The main goal of this study was to reveal the mechanism by which potassium (K) reduces Cd accumulation in P. notoginseng from the perspective of the influences of soil microbial communities on soil pH, total organic matter (TOM)...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
In the present study, we conducted field surveys to detect the population density of the most important invasive weed species and their associated virus vectoring aphids in crops grown under high input field (HIF) vs. low-input field (LIF) conditions, with and without fertilizers and pesticides. The most frequent invasive weed species were annual fleabane, Erigeron annua (L.), Canadian horseweed...

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