Letters in Applied Microbiology

Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:17
The aim of the present study was to examine the sterility of follicular fluid in large ovarian follicles in dairy cows. Seventeen samples of paired follicular fluids and uterine contents collected from post‐slaughtered dairy cows were cultured to detect aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Further, the origin of the bacterial isolates from samples of follicular fluid and the uteri was also...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:17
Bacterial communities strongly influence the digestion, health and immune status of fish. This study investigates the microbial distribution of the anterior, middle and distal gut sections of three economically‐important carp species in Bangladesh, rohu, catla and mrigal (commonly known as Indian major carps), using 16S rRNA‐based Illumina sequencing technology. The alpha diversity measurement...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:16
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus, which causes vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The aim of this study was to evaluate Mrr2 mutation and its expression levels and Candida drug resistance 1 (Cdr1) in C. albicans associated with fluconazole (FCA) resistance. We identified 80 isolates of C. albicans from 155 vaginal secretions and performed FCA drug sensitivity tests, using M27‐A3 micro‐...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:16
Attiéké is the major fermented plant food in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to identify hazards and critical control points (CCP) in order to implement a HACCP system for the production of attiéké. Physico‐chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out. pH of the cossettes used as raw material for attieke process was slightly acidic (6·5 ± 0·23). But attiéké produced had an acid...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:18
This study investigated potential contamination sources in a commercial, closed hydroponic system. Water, substrate, and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples were evaluated for microbiological indicator populations, including aerobic plate count (APC), coliform bacteria (CB), and yeast and mold (YM). Listeria spp. detection via cultural enrichment and agglutination was negative for all samples. Peat...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:22
Hog production takes place mostly in large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) where waste is managed by storing in lagoons prior to land application of lagoon liquid. Salmonella, including antibiotic resistant Salmonella, have been found in the farm environment and lagoons. The objective of this research was to determine whether Salmonella resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:21
Cronobacter infections of infants are commonly regarded as due to the ingestion of contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Cronobacter, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in different brands of natural mineral waters as sold in 20L returnable bottles in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The quantification of total coliforms and E. coli was performed by Most Probable...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:21
The sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) is a small, arboreal, nocturnal, gliding mammalian possum belonging to the marsupial infraclass. Exotic marsupials, including sugar gliders, are becoming popular companion pets and, consequently, the risk of potential infections that can be transmitted to humans should be investigated. Data on the role of the sugar glider as a possible carrier of pathogenic...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:23
Significance and Impact of the Study: Fermented chopped pepper is an important ingredient in traditional Chinese foods. As of yet, the bacterial community dynamics that take place during the fermentation of chopped pepper have not been described. In this study, we used high‐throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial community, deepening our understanding of the microbial mechanisms...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:21
The present study aimed to investigate the incidence, virulence and antibiotic properties in Vibrio spp. isolated from cockles (Tegillarca granosa) marketed in Korea. A total of 32 Vibrio spp. isolates including V. parahaemolyticus (n=4), V. alginolyticus (n=11), V. diabolicus (n=14), and V. harveyi (n=3) were detected using gyrB sequencing. The phenotypic pathogenicity revealed DNase, amylase...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:21
The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in aquaculture results in antibiotic selection pressure and proliferation of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria. Frequent assessment of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture environment is inevitable so as to reduce the passage of clinically important AMR from aquatic to other environment. The present study analysed the antimicrobial resistance of...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:20
The present study assessed the occurrence, virulence determinants and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Vibrio spp. isolated from live Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum). A total of 31 Vibrio spp. including 27 V. diabolicus, 2 V. fluvialis, 1 V. alginolyticus, and 1 V. antiquarius were isolated and identified. Phenotypic detection of DNase, lipase, phospholipase, amylase, and caseinase...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:21
Significance and Impact of the Study: Microbial contamination of air and surfaces in hospitals play an important role in healthcare‐associated infections. The aim was the assessment of Klebsiella pneumoniae elimination using radiant catalytic ionization (RCI). K. pneumoniae are aetiological agent of nosocomial infections, such as: pneumonia, infections of urinary tract, blood, e.t.c. The strains...
Sun, 09/29/2019 - 03:15
Four cases of listeriosis in a hospital (A) in New Zealand were identified in 2012. Pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis used at the time identified four pulsotypes amongst the clinical isolates. Two of the pulsotypes matched to L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from ready‐to‐eat (RTE) meat samples from a RTE producer tested during a nationwide microbiological survey the month prior. The outbreak...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:15
Sixteen sites in the watershed of the South Fork of the Broad River (SFBR) in Northeastern Georgia, USA, were sampled in two seasons to detect Campylobacter. Sites were classified as mostly influenced by forest, pasture, wastewater pollution control plants (WPC) or mixed‐use. Sampling was repeated in the late spring and late fall for two years for a total of 126 samples. Free‐catch water and...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
Significance and Impact of the Study: The present study investigates the virucidal activity of tungsten carbide nanoparticles using the quantitative suspension test in accordance with the European norm EN 14476+A1 and the German DVV/RKI guidelines. Due to highly standardized assay conditions, results of this test are considered very reliable for evaluation of the virucidal activity of...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 11:14
Abstract This study investigated the existence of sulfonamides and colistin resistance genes among extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL)‐producing E. coli recovered from fish gut in Vietnam and evaluated the susceptibility patterns of the ESBL‐producing E. coli to relevant antimicrobials. A total of 88 ESBL‐producing E. coli isolates were analyzed for the presence of the ESBLs, sul (1,2,3) and...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 10:58
Abstract Clostridium perfringens is the main cause of sudden death in dogs and currently there is no vaccine to prevent it. In this study, a canine C. perfringens type A strain was used to prepare a vaccine. C. perfringens was inactivated by formaldehyde and adjuvants were added. The safety and immunological characteristics of the inactivated C. perfringens vaccine were evaluated in mice and dogs...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 04:28
Abstract ESBL producing STEC are posing a constant threat to public health throughout the world leading to serious infections and raising key therapeutic issues. A total of 219 fecal samples were collected from piglets with diarrheoa, pig farmers, and water sources in North East India; and were processed for isolation of Escherichia coli. The isolates were screened for antimicrobial resistance...
Thu, 08/22/2019 - 11:14
Abstract Five tungsten carbide nanoparticle preparations (denoted WC1‐WC5) were investigated for broad spectrum virucidal activity against four recommended model viruses. These are modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV‐5), poliovirus type 1 (PV‐1) and murine norovirus (MNV). All virucidal tests were performed two to five times using the quantitative suspension test,...
Tue, 08/20/2019 - 07:18
Abstract Alfalfa sprouts have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study evaluated the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during sprouting of alfalfa seeds and the effectiveness of daily chlorine dioxide & ozone rinsing in controlling the growth. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with L. monocytogenes were sprouted for 5 days (25°C) with a daily aqueous ClO2 (3 ppm, 10 min) or...
Fri, 08/09/2019 - 08:26
Significance and Impact of the Study: Treated wastewater effluent contains Listeria monocytogenes which survives conventional wastewater treatment processes and can re‐enter human food chain, thus it is imperative to detect L.  monocytogenes using a rapid and an inexpensive method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay,...
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 09:23
Abstract The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the retail fish markets of the Kerala, India was investigated by screening 227 samples comprising of marine finfish (n=97) shellfish (n=19), ready‐to‐cook fish products (n=47), ready‐to‐eat fish products (n=10), dried fish (n=11) and retail ice (n=43). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua was 2.7% and 17.2% respectively. Sample...
Mon, 08/05/2019 - 10:59
Abstract Although norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of gastroenteritis, with the largest number of NoV food poisoning cases in Japan, limited information is available regarding NoV detection in food. This study aimed to detect NoV in food samples during the 2015–2016 suspected foodborne outbreaks in Tokyo; 352 food samples from 64 NoV food poisoning outbreaks were collected. Bacterial culturing...
Mon, 08/05/2019 - 10:59
Significance and Impact of the Study: It was demonstrated that hydrogen production using food waste was influenced by the hydraulic retention time (HRT), and closely related to changes in microbial communities together with differences in metabolic patterns (e.g. volatile fatty acids, lactate, etc.). The decrease in the HRT led to the dominance of lactic acid bacteria within the microbial...
Mon, 08/05/2019 - 10:22
Abstract This study evaluated the survival responses of L. monocytogenes strains (individually and mixed) in a soft lactic cheese following acid and salt stress exposures. The Weibull and log‐linear with tail models were used to predict the survival responses of the pathogen in the cheese stored at 4°C for 15 d. Both models showed a good prediction accuracy for stressed L. monocytogenes cells (Af...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 06:29
Abstract Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, two bacterial strains commonly associated with biofilm‐related medical infections and food poisoning, can rapidly colonize biotic and abiotic surfaces. The present study investigates the ability of anodic alumina surfaces with nanoporous surface topography to minimize the attachment and biofilm formation mediated by these pathogenic...
Fri, 07/19/2019 - 12:13
Abstract Contaminated wastewater plays an important role in the transmission of L. monocytogenes in the environment. In the present study, a loop – mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for sensitive detection of L.monocytogenes in wastewater from treatment plants was developed, validated and compared to conventional PCR. The lmo0753 gene which codes for a Crp/Fnr family transcription...
Wed, 07/03/2019 - 15:04
Abstract Efflux mediated multidrug resistance is a well‐known phenomenon facilitated by multidrug resistant (MDR) transporters. One of the approaches to counteract efflux mediated resistance is the use of MDR pump inhibitors, and thus be used in combination with the conventional antibiotics to treat deadly diseases like typhoid fever. We have previously reported that STY4874, an efflux...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 14:39
Abstract Although norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of gastroenteritis, with the largest number of NoV food poisoning cases in Japan, limited information is available regarding NoV detection in food. This study aimed to detect NoV in food samples during the 2015–2016 suspected foodborne outbreaks in Tokyo; 352 food samples from 64 NoV food poisoning outbreaks were collected. Bacterial culturing...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 05:19
Abstract The influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the microbial communities was evaluated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) using organic waste from a restaurant as the substrate. The relationship between Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Bacillus as key‐microorganisms on hydrogen production from organic solid waste was studied. The effect of the HRT (8 to 48 h) on the...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 04:03
Abstract This research aims to compare the culturing conditions for enterohepatic Helicobacter, evaluating culture media, incubation atmosphere and susceptibility to antimicrobials used to generate selective conditions. Four common media for the closely related genus Campylobacter (Columbia, Bolton, Brucella, and CCDA agar), as well as the need for hydrogen in the microaerobic incubation...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 15:54
Abstract The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) Retail Food Surveillance (RFS) Program screens retail meat samples for the presence of Salmonella spp. to track antimicrobial resistance in food. In this study, a laboratory developed real‐time PCR assay that detects Salmonella spp. was evaluated as a screening method to replace the discountinued 3M™...
Tue, 05/14/2019 - 15:38
Abstract The present study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of beta‐lactamase and biofilm producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy ducks. A total 202 cloacal swabs were collected from ducks kept in organized (n=92) and backyard (n=110) farms in West Bengal (India). The ducks had no history of antibiotic intake. Among the 87 phenotypically beta‐lactamase producing E. coli, 19 (17·43%), six (...
Tue, 04/30/2019 - 09:59
Abstract Agricultural or food processing wastes cause serious environmental burden and economic losses. Solid‐state fermentation using these wastes is an attractive option to valorize these wastes. However, conventional autoclaving of substrate may degrade nutrients and generate toxins. Unsterilization of the substrate will cause undesired microbial contamination. Therefore, we compared...
Sat, 04/20/2019 - 09:33
Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inhabits a wide range of hosts, including poultry, and causes acute gastroenteritis in humans that may result in death. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme present in nearly all living cells exposed to oxygen. Recently, we reported the novel roles of SOD in serum resistance and biofilm formation in S....
Sat, 04/13/2019 - 07:13
Abstract Aeromonas spp. are opportunistic pathogenic bacteria which are associated with various diseases in ornamental fish, aquaculture raised species, and wild fisheries. In our study, antimicrobial resistance patterns, antimicrobial resistance genes, and class 1 integron gene cassettes of 52 guppy‐borne Aeromonas spp. were examined. The isolates were identified as A. veronii (n=34), A....
Wed, 04/03/2019 - 09:22
Abstract Industrialization often causes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metal contamination of soil and water. In this study, we isolated a bacterium from bottom mud water around a park of Kawasaki Port, Japan, that degrades the 5‐ring PAH dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA). The strain, Comamonas sp. 3ah48, degraded 29% of DBA (30 μg ml−1) in 7 days, and the degradation level increased...
Mon, 04/01/2019 - 11:26
Abstract Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio parahaemolyticus cannot be detected by the standard cultivation‐based methods. In this study, commonly used viability assessment methods were evaluated for the detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in a VBNC state. V. parahaemolyticus cells exposed to nutrient‐deficiency at cold temperature were used for epifluorescence microscopy with SYTO9 and...
Mon, 04/01/2019 - 05:44
Abstract The occurrence of E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. in solid bovine manure was investigated through a multi‐county survey in California. Solid bovine manure samples (n=91) were collected from 13 dairy farms located in multiple counties in California between June 2016 and August 2017. To quantify pathogens, DNA was extracted from bacteria in manure samples. Afterward, the prevalence and...
Thu, 03/28/2019 - 09:53
Abstract This study aimed to analyse the frequency of genes encoding virulence factors and to characterize resistance profiles in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw milk. Forty‐seven and nine S. aureus isolates were recovered from 150 and 100 raw bovine and ovine milk samples, respectively, in Tunisia. The majority of isolates was resistant to penicillin, and no methicillin‐resistant S....
Sun, 03/24/2019 - 14:20
Significance and Impact of the Study: Clostridioides difficile is a Gram‐positive pathogenic bacteria that caused gastrointestinal illness via toxic production. The emergence of highly virulence and foodborne C. difficile strains has further increased the incident and severity of C. difficile‐infections (CDIs). Numerous studies have reported the immunomodulatory activity of Lactobacillus, a...
Tue, 03/19/2019 - 10:21
Significance and Impact of the Study: PCR screening revealed the significant presence of the genetic markers of Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (stx + /stx + eae + ) on the surfaces of sheep carcasses. Citrobacter braakii (stx 1 + eae + ) was isolated for the first time in this study. The risk of foodborne diseases due to STEC must be taken into account...
Tue, 03/12/2019 - 06:16
Abstract Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen. Different strategies to reduce the antimicrobial resistance to conventional antimicrobials (AMBs) have been proposed, including the combined use with essential oils (EOs). The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of cinnamon, oregano, common thyme and red thyme EOs and their main components (...
Fri, 03/08/2019 - 07:54
Significance and Impact of the Study: Alkaloids are abundant secondary metabolites in plants and represent one of the most widespread class of compounds endowed with multiple and varied pharmacological properties. In this work, we propose two aporphinoid alkaloids extracted from plants as new antimicrobial agents. Oliveridine and pachypodanthine inhibited Yersinia enterocolitica growth for up to...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 13:04
Abstract Aeromonas spp. are Gram‐negative opportunistic bacteria which have been commonly associated with fish diseases. In this study, antibiogram, antimicrobial resistance genes and integrons of 43 zebrafish‐borne Aeromonas spp. were studied. The isolates were identified as 7 Aeromonas species [A. veronii biovar veronii (n=26), A. veronii biovar sobria (n=3), A. hydrophila (n=8), A. caviae (n=3...
Sun, 02/17/2019 - 11:13
Abstract This study aimed to investigate the effect of some plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with potassium dissolution ability on different forms of potassium in soil under the cultivation of wheat. The factorial experiment was conducted as a randomized complete design with three replications in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of bacterium inoculation (without inoculation,...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 12:50
Significance and Impact of the Study: Single‐chain variable fragments (scFvs) are recombinant antibodies that are difficult to produce as a functional form in Escherichia coli. This study demonstrates the production of functional scFvs against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (scFv‐BM3) using Escherichia coli by extracellular secretion. While periplasmic expression of scFv‐BM3 resulted in formation of...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 12:50
Significance and Impact of the Study: Using state‐of‐the‐art methods we determined the microbiota composition of dadih, an artisanal, traditional fermented buffalo milk of West Sumatra with health benefits. We show that the artisanal practice leaves room for standardization and optimization with respect to the presence of potential pathogenic species in the final product. The Dadih Initiative in...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 12:50
Significance and Impact of the Study: Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) is an important forage crop throughout the world. Despite the abiotic nutritional components of alfalfa having been extensively studied, there is only limited information available on alfalfa endophytes. Beneficial bacteria residing in the host intestine have been shown to affect host longevity. However, there is limited...

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