Letters in Applied Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:30
Inactivation of Bacillales and Clostridiales spores is of interest, since some cause food spoilage and human diseases. A recent publication (Schlievert et al. 2018) reported that glycerol monolaurate (GML) in a non‐aqueous gel (GMLg) effectively killed spores of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridioides difficile, and Bacillus anthracis spores somewhat We now show that: 1) the B....
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:31
The honey bee has long been known to be a bioindicator of environmental pollution and the use of antimicrobials in the beekeeping industry is strictly regulated. For these reasons, this paper was aimed to evaluate for the first time the role of Apis mellifera as a possible indicator of environmental AMR. The study isolated and analysed the resistance patterns of Enterobacteriaceae from a pool of...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:18
Significance and Impact of the Study: Arcobacter species are emerging food‐ and water‐borne human pathogens. In this study, Arcobacter butzleri was predominant in fish compared to A. cryoaerohilus and A. skirrowii. Higher incidence of arcobacters in fish market samples suggests cross contamination and unhygienic handling of fish in markets. Virulence genes profile and antibiotics resistance of...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:27
Chitosan with higher molecular weight exhibited higher antimicrobial efficacy against foodborne pathogens. However, the poor water solubility of higher or medium molecular weight chitosan limits its applications. To overcome the challenge, our research team was searching for simple preparation procedure for fast dissolving MMW chitosan in water. Through the process, we were also able to obtain a...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:18
Significance and Impact of the Study: The highlight of our research is about the detection of bacteria resistance genes to antibiotics by advanced molecular methods, which means high‐resolution melting curve (HRM) analysis. We determined that the HRM method in identifying colistin‐resistant P. aeruginosa has high accuracy and speed, and with high sensitivity and specificity. Abstract Colistin‐...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:18
Food poisoning risk related to the consumption of contaminated food with known foodborne pathogens or antibiotic‐resistant bacteria is currently a serious threat for public health. Thus, pathogenic Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus strains are considered as one of the major cause of food‐borne diseases in hospitals. The present study aims to determine the prevalence and the antibiotic...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:16
The aim of this study was to investigate if HtrA is responsible for differences in adherence and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni towards human and chicken cell lines. Gentamicin protection assays were performed with either human Caco‐2 or chicken 2G4 cells using C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 to compare the adhesion and invasion rates towards these two cell types. The results revealed significant...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:16
Significance and Impact of the Study: Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria, also found as aetiological agents in seafood‐borne illness. We conducted this study to disclose the potential risk of consuming cockles, which is one of the most preferred seafood delicacies in Korea. Particularly, with the prevalence of enterotoxin genes in mesophilic A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida and A. veronii...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:16
Emerging virulent and antibiotic resistant pathogens present a global public health risk. Routine monitoring of prevalence within the clinical, environmental and food production setting is vital. Real time qPCR (qPCR) coupled with melting curve analysis can rapidly and accurately characterize pathogens. We evaluated commercial qPCR mixes based on SYBR Green l and EvaGreen for developing an assay...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:30
Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis are often connected to contaminated drinking water. The assessment of the water quality relies on cultivation of indicator bacteria, and little is known of the fate of viruses in groundwater, especially in arctic regions. In Iceland, the groundwater temperature is between 3°C and 6°C. The aim of this study was to determine virus inactivation at low temperature...
Sun, 12/29/2019 - 03:18
Enterococci are included in the United States National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System to track antibiotic resistance among commensal gram‐positive enteric bacteria, largely due to their high abundance in food animals and in retail meat. In the U.S. cattle industry, macrolides are used to prevent and control liver abscesses, which cause significant economic losses. Previous studies...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:16
An incident of sudden deaths in the breeding stock was reported from a farrow‐to‐finish commercial pig farm in Greece. The 8·4% of sows during lactation and gestation period presented anorexia, fever, hematuria, return‐to‐oestrus, and sudden deaths (mortality rate: 2·3%). Blood and urine samples were collected from 4 diseased sows. Furthermore, swabs from urine bladders were collected from 2 dead...
Fri, 12/20/2019 - 03:17
Hard‐shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) is a popular seafood in Korea. This study aimed to determine the virulence markers and antimicrobial resistance patterns of 33 Aeromonas strains isolated from mussels. The isolates were identified as A. salmonicida (n = 14), A. veronii (n = 9), A. enteropelogenes (n = 4), A. caviae (n = 3), A. allosaccharophila (n = 2) and A. bivalvium (n = 1) by gyrB gene...
Mon, 12/16/2019 - 03:16
Ready‐to‐eat food contamination with ESBL‐producing Escherichia coli is a growing health concern. Some of these strains also are epidemic clones and can cause community‐associated infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the occurrence of ESBL‐producing E. coli contaminated ready‐to‐eat street food in Quito‐Ecuador was evaluated. One hundred and fifty samples were collected randomly...
Sat, 12/14/2019 - 03:17
Significance and Impact of the Study: Prevalence, genetic diversity and geographic distribution of SAFV in Italy is currently unknown. This study represents the first detection of SAFV in sewage samples in Italy, suggesting that it is circulating in the population despite lack of clinical reporting. Whether the virus is associated with asymptomatic cases or with undetected gastroenteritis or...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:18
The purpose of this study was to find out the mechanism of quinolone resistance in Shigella sp. isolated from environmental water samples from various parts of Kolkata, India. Out of 196 Shigella sp. isolated from 2014‐17, we selected 32 Shigella isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Quinolones ranged from 30 μg ml‐1 to 50 μg ml‐1 for...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:17
The aim of the present study was to examine the sterility of follicular fluid in large ovarian follicles in dairy cows. Seventeen samples of paired follicular fluids and uterine contents collected from post‐slaughtered dairy cows were cultured to detect aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Further, the origin of the bacterial isolates from samples of follicular fluid and the uteri was also...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:17
Bacterial communities strongly influence the digestion, health and immune status of fish. This study investigates the microbial distribution of the anterior, middle and distal gut sections of three economically‐important carp species in Bangladesh, rohu, catla and mrigal (commonly known as Indian major carps), using 16S rRNA‐based Illumina sequencing technology. The alpha diversity measurement...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:16
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus, which causes vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The aim of this study was to evaluate Mrr2 mutation and its expression levels and Candida drug resistance 1 (Cdr1) in C. albicans associated with fluconazole (FCA) resistance. We identified 80 isolates of C. albicans from 155 vaginal secretions and performed FCA drug sensitivity tests, using M27‐A3 micro‐...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:16
Attiéké is the major fermented plant food in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to identify hazards and critical control points (CCP) in order to implement a HACCP system for the production of attiéké. Physico‐chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out. pH of the cossettes used as raw material for attieke process was slightly acidic (6·5 ± 0·23). But attiéké produced had an acid...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:18
This study investigated potential contamination sources in a commercial, closed hydroponic system. Water, substrate, and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples were evaluated for microbiological indicator populations, including aerobic plate count (APC), coliform bacteria (CB), and yeast and mold (YM). Listeria spp. detection via cultural enrichment and agglutination was negative for all samples. Peat...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:22
Hog production takes place mostly in large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) where waste is managed by storing in lagoons prior to land application of lagoon liquid. Salmonella, including antibiotic resistant Salmonella, have been found in the farm environment and lagoons. The objective of this research was to determine whether Salmonella resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:21
Cronobacter infections of infants are commonly regarded as due to the ingestion of contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Cronobacter, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in different brands of natural mineral waters as sold in 20L returnable bottles in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The quantification of total coliforms and E. coli was performed by Most Probable...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:21
The sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) is a small, arboreal, nocturnal, gliding mammalian possum belonging to the marsupial infraclass. Exotic marsupials, including sugar gliders, are becoming popular companion pets and, consequently, the risk of potential infections that can be transmitted to humans should be investigated. Data on the role of the sugar glider as a possible carrier of pathogenic...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:23
Significance and Impact of the Study: Fermented chopped pepper is an important ingredient in traditional Chinese foods. As of yet, the bacterial community dynamics that take place during the fermentation of chopped pepper have not been described. In this study, we used high‐throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial community, deepening our understanding of the microbial mechanisms...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:21
The present study aimed to investigate the incidence, virulence and antibiotic properties in Vibrio spp. isolated from cockles (Tegillarca granosa) marketed in Korea. A total of 32 Vibrio spp. isolates including V. parahaemolyticus (n=4), V. alginolyticus (n=11), V. diabolicus (n=14), and V. harveyi (n=3) were detected using gyrB sequencing. The phenotypic pathogenicity revealed DNase, amylase...
Sat, 10/12/2019 - 03:21
The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in aquaculture results in antibiotic selection pressure and proliferation of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria. Frequent assessment of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture environment is inevitable so as to reduce the passage of clinically important AMR from aquatic to other environment. The present study analysed the antimicrobial resistance of...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:20
The present study assessed the occurrence, virulence determinants and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Vibrio spp. isolated from live Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum). A total of 31 Vibrio spp. including 27 V. diabolicus, 2 V. fluvialis, 1 V. alginolyticus, and 1 V. antiquarius were isolated and identified. Phenotypic detection of DNase, lipase, phospholipase, amylase, and caseinase...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:21
Significance and Impact of the Study: Microbial contamination of air and surfaces in hospitals play an important role in healthcare‐associated infections. The aim was the assessment of Klebsiella pneumoniae elimination using radiant catalytic ionization (RCI). K. pneumoniae are aetiological agent of nosocomial infections, such as: pneumonia, infections of urinary tract, blood, e.t.c. The strains...
Sun, 09/29/2019 - 03:15
Four cases of listeriosis in a hospital (A) in New Zealand were identified in 2012. Pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis used at the time identified four pulsotypes amongst the clinical isolates. Two of the pulsotypes matched to L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from ready‐to‐eat (RTE) meat samples from a RTE producer tested during a nationwide microbiological survey the month prior. The outbreak...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:15
Sixteen sites in the watershed of the South Fork of the Broad River (SFBR) in Northeastern Georgia, USA, were sampled in two seasons to detect Campylobacter. Sites were classified as mostly influenced by forest, pasture, wastewater pollution control plants (WPC) or mixed‐use. Sampling was repeated in the late spring and late fall for two years for a total of 126 samples. Free‐catch water and...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:16
Significance and Impact of the Study: The present study investigates the virucidal activity of tungsten carbide nanoparticles using the quantitative suspension test in accordance with the European norm EN 14476+A1 and the German DVV/RKI guidelines. Due to highly standardized assay conditions, results of this test are considered very reliable for evaluation of the virucidal activity of...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 11:14
Abstract This study investigated the existence of sulfonamides and colistin resistance genes among extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL)‐producing E. coli recovered from fish gut in Vietnam and evaluated the susceptibility patterns of the ESBL‐producing E. coli to relevant antimicrobials. A total of 88 ESBL‐producing E. coli isolates were analyzed for the presence of the ESBLs, sul (1,2,3) and...
Tue, 09/17/2019 - 10:58
Abstract Clostridium perfringens is the main cause of sudden death in dogs and currently there is no vaccine to prevent it. In this study, a canine C. perfringens type A strain was used to prepare a vaccine. C. perfringens was inactivated by formaldehyde and adjuvants were added. The safety and immunological characteristics of the inactivated C. perfringens vaccine were evaluated in mice and dogs...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 04:28
Abstract ESBL producing STEC are posing a constant threat to public health throughout the world leading to serious infections and raising key therapeutic issues. A total of 219 fecal samples were collected from piglets with diarrheoa, pig farmers, and water sources in North East India; and were processed for isolation of Escherichia coli. The isolates were screened for antimicrobial resistance...
Thu, 08/22/2019 - 11:14
Abstract Five tungsten carbide nanoparticle preparations (denoted WC1‐WC5) were investigated for broad spectrum virucidal activity against four recommended model viruses. These are modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV‐5), poliovirus type 1 (PV‐1) and murine norovirus (MNV). All virucidal tests were performed two to five times using the quantitative suspension test,...
Tue, 08/20/2019 - 07:18
Abstract Alfalfa sprouts have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study evaluated the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during sprouting of alfalfa seeds and the effectiveness of daily chlorine dioxide & ozone rinsing in controlling the growth. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with L. monocytogenes were sprouted for 5 days (25°C) with a daily aqueous ClO2 (3 ppm, 10 min) or...
Fri, 08/09/2019 - 08:26
Significance and Impact of the Study: Treated wastewater effluent contains Listeria monocytogenes which survives conventional wastewater treatment processes and can re‐enter human food chain, thus it is imperative to detect L.  monocytogenes using a rapid and an inexpensive method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay,...
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 09:23
Abstract The prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in the retail fish markets of the Kerala, India was investigated by screening 227 samples comprising of marine finfish (n=97) shellfish (n=19), ready‐to‐cook fish products (n=47), ready‐to‐eat fish products (n=10), dried fish (n=11) and retail ice (n=43). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua was 2.7% and 17.2% respectively. Sample...
Mon, 08/05/2019 - 10:59
Abstract Although norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of gastroenteritis, with the largest number of NoV food poisoning cases in Japan, limited information is available regarding NoV detection in food. This study aimed to detect NoV in food samples during the 2015–2016 suspected foodborne outbreaks in Tokyo; 352 food samples from 64 NoV food poisoning outbreaks were collected. Bacterial culturing...
Mon, 08/05/2019 - 10:59
Significance and Impact of the Study: It was demonstrated that hydrogen production using food waste was influenced by the hydraulic retention time (HRT), and closely related to changes in microbial communities together with differences in metabolic patterns (e.g. volatile fatty acids, lactate, etc.). The decrease in the HRT led to the dominance of lactic acid bacteria within the microbial...
Mon, 08/05/2019 - 10:22
Abstract This study evaluated the survival responses of L. monocytogenes strains (individually and mixed) in a soft lactic cheese following acid and salt stress exposures. The Weibull and log‐linear with tail models were used to predict the survival responses of the pathogen in the cheese stored at 4°C for 15 d. Both models showed a good prediction accuracy for stressed L. monocytogenes cells (Af...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 06:29
Abstract Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, two bacterial strains commonly associated with biofilm‐related medical infections and food poisoning, can rapidly colonize biotic and abiotic surfaces. The present study investigates the ability of anodic alumina surfaces with nanoporous surface topography to minimize the attachment and biofilm formation mediated by these pathogenic...
Fri, 07/19/2019 - 12:13
Abstract Contaminated wastewater plays an important role in the transmission of L. monocytogenes in the environment. In the present study, a loop – mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for sensitive detection of L.monocytogenes in wastewater from treatment plants was developed, validated and compared to conventional PCR. The lmo0753 gene which codes for a Crp/Fnr family transcription...
Wed, 07/03/2019 - 15:04
Abstract Efflux mediated multidrug resistance is a well‐known phenomenon facilitated by multidrug resistant (MDR) transporters. One of the approaches to counteract efflux mediated resistance is the use of MDR pump inhibitors, and thus be used in combination with the conventional antibiotics to treat deadly diseases like typhoid fever. We have previously reported that STY4874, an efflux...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 14:39
Abstract Although norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of gastroenteritis, with the largest number of NoV food poisoning cases in Japan, limited information is available regarding NoV detection in food. This study aimed to detect NoV in food samples during the 2015–2016 suspected foodborne outbreaks in Tokyo; 352 food samples from 64 NoV food poisoning outbreaks were collected. Bacterial culturing...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 05:19
Abstract The influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the microbial communities was evaluated in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) using organic waste from a restaurant as the substrate. The relationship between Lactobacillus, Clostridium, and Bacillus as key‐microorganisms on hydrogen production from organic solid waste was studied. The effect of the HRT (8 to 48 h) on the...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 04:03
Abstract This research aims to compare the culturing conditions for enterohepatic Helicobacter, evaluating culture media, incubation atmosphere and susceptibility to antimicrobials used to generate selective conditions. Four common media for the closely related genus Campylobacter (Columbia, Bolton, Brucella, and CCDA agar), as well as the need for hydrogen in the microaerobic incubation...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 15:54
Abstract The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS) Retail Food Surveillance (RFS) Program screens retail meat samples for the presence of Salmonella spp. to track antimicrobial resistance in food. In this study, a laboratory developed real‐time PCR assay that detects Salmonella spp. was evaluated as a screening method to replace the discountinued 3M™...
Tue, 05/14/2019 - 15:38
Abstract The present study was undertaken to detect the occurrence of beta‐lactamase and biofilm producing Enterobacteriaceae in healthy ducks. A total 202 cloacal swabs were collected from ducks kept in organized (n=92) and backyard (n=110) farms in West Bengal (India). The ducks had no history of antibiotic intake. Among the 87 phenotypically beta‐lactamase producing E. coli, 19 (17·43%), six (...

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