Letters in Applied Microbiology

Sun, 10/25/2020 - 22:10
Escherichia coli is a symbiotic bacterium in humans and animals and an important pathogen of humans and animals. Prevention and suppression of E. coli infection is of great concern. In this study, we isolated a strain of L. agilis 32 from pig manure and evaluated its biological characteristics, and found that its bacterial survival rate was 25% after 4 hours of treatment at pH 2, and under the...
Sun, 10/25/2020 - 22:10
The transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes commonly occurs via vertical and horizontal gene transfer, as such genes are often found on the same mobile genetic element. This occurrence can lead to the co‐selection of resistance to antimicrobials without their application. Dairy cattle located in the southwestern United States were enrolled in a matched‐pair longitudinal study to evaluate the...
Sun, 10/25/2020 - 22:10
We re‐engineered a classic tool for mutagenesis and gene expression studies in Gram‐negative bacteria. Our modified Tn5‐based transposon contains multiple features that allow rapid selection for mutants, direct quantification of gene expression, and straightforward cloning of the inactivated gene. The promoter‐less gfp‐km cassette provides selection and reporter assay depending on the activity of...
Sun, 10/25/2020 - 22:10
Colistin is one of the antibiotics of last resort for human health. However, the dissemination of the plasmid‐mediated colistin resistance gene mcr‐1 is of great concern globally. In the One Health framework, the environment is an important component for managing antimicrobial resistance. However, little information is available concerning the prevalence of mcr‐1 in water environments. We aimed...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 22:09
Shigella spp. are water‐borne pathogens responsible for mild to severe cases bacilli dysentery all around the world known as Shigellosis. The progressively increasing of antibiotic resistance among Shigella calls for developing and establishing novel alternative therapeutic methods. The present study aimed to evaluate a novel phage cocktail of lytic phages against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 22:11
Endophytic fungi are broadly dispersed residing inside plant tissues and have been demonstrated as a treasure for bioactive natural products. Unexplored harsh and heavy metal contaminant habitat of Avicennia marina may have diverse and potential fungal association. Therefore, this work aimed to isolate the culturable fungal endophytes associated with leaves of A. marina and to evaluate their...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 22:11
Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic pathogen with the ability to adapt to different environmental conditions, resulting in safety issues for food producers. Foods contaminated by L. monocytogenes can represent a risk if consumed by susceptible individuals such as elderly, pregnant women and the immunocompromised. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of a collection...
Sat, 10/10/2020 - 22:10
Carvacrol has been recognized as an efficient growth inhibitor of food pathogens. However, carvacrol oil is poorly water‐soluble and can be oxidized, decomposed or evaporated when exposed to the air, light, or heat. To overcome these limitations, a carvacrol nanoemulsion was developed and its antimicrobial activity against food pathogens evaluated in this study. The nanoemulsion containing 3%...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 22:11
The loop‐mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique was used to investigate six salmonella‐specific sequences for their suitability to serve as targets for the pathogen identification. Sequences selected for designing LAMP primers were genes invA, bcfD, phoP, siiA, gene62181533 and a region within the ttrRSBCA locus. Primers including single nucleotide polymorphisms were configured as...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 22:11
Contamination of ready‐to‐eat (RTE) foods by pathogenic bacteria may predispose consumers to foodborne diseases. This study investigated the presence of bacterial contaminants and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in three locally processed RTE foods (eko, fufu and zobo) vended in urban markets in Ogun state, Nigeria. Bacteria isolated from a total of 120 RTE food samples were identified...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 22:11
A triplex‐PCR assay was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) recovered from various biological samples of pig. Three sets of primers were designed to target mecA, 16S rRNA and nuc genes of MRSA. The specific amplification generated 3 bands on agarose gel, with sizes 280 bp for mecA, 654 bp for 16S rRNA and 481 bp for nuc, respectively....
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:10
One of the main impacts of urban sprawl in rapidly growing countries has been contamination of coastal environments by waterborne pathogens, posing a critical risk to ecosystem and human health. Microbial source tracking (MST) has been a robust tool to identify the origin of these pathogens globally. This study compared the occurrence of a human‐associated Bacteroides marker (BT‐α) with faecal...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:10
This research aims to investigate the presence and pathogenic potential of Arcobacter in poultry meat samples purchased in the retail market of Valdivia (South of Chile) as well as in fecal samples from backyard chickens from rural areas around this city. The isolates obtained were identified by molecular methods. Furthermore, putative virulence genes were assessed by PCR and the antimicrobial...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:10
Recent studies have shown that Salmonella shedding status affects sows’ microbiota during gestation and that these modifications are reflected in the faecal microbiota of their piglets at weaning. The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the persistence, up to the fattening period, of the previously measured link between the microbiota of piglets and their mothers’ Salmonella shedding status;...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 22:09
Significance and Impact of the Study: Blown pack spoilage of vacuum packaged beef caused by Clostridium estertheticum and Clostridium gasigenes is a significant problem for the beef industry. At present, control is reliant on regular disinfection of the abattoir and equipment with sporicidal agents, but it has been suggested that preventing contamination of cattle at the source could be more...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:10
Campylobacter spp. is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and poultry are the primary reservoir. The aim of this study was to investigate the survival and/or growth of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 in broiler digestate prepared from commercial starter, grower and finisher feed formulations. Bolton broth and digestates were prepared, inoculated with C. jejuni NCTC 11168 (approximately...
Wed, 09/23/2020 - 22:10
Successful human norovirus (HuNoV) cultivation in stem cell‐derived human intestinal enteroids (HIE) was recently reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti‐HuNoV efficacy of two alcohol‐based commercial hand sanitizers and 60% ethanol by suspension assay using RNase‐RT‐qPCR, with subsequent validation of efficacy by HuNoV cultivation using the HIE model. In suspension, when...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 22:11
Significance and Impact of the Study: Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis (Cfv) is frequently associated with lowered fertility and abortion in ruminants. These infections are responsible for significant reproductive wastage in infected beef and dairy herds and may reduce gross profit margins up to 66%. In India, decreased fertility rates in productive animals are traditionally attributed to...
Mon, 09/14/2020 - 22:11
Clostridium difficile (C.difficile) can cause antibiotic‐associated diarrhea or pseudo‐membranous colitis in humans and animals. Currently, the various methods such as microbiological culture,cytotoxic assay, ELISA and PCR have been used to detect Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). These conventional methods, however, require long detection time and professional staff. The paper is to...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 22:11
Significance and Impact of the Study: Due to the resistance of the Plasmodium parasite to antimalarial drugs, only a few attempts have been made to use nanocarriers with the specific targeting approach in malaria treatment. In this article, we verified the antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory activity of silver nanoparticles prepared from Indigofera oblongifolia extract (AgNPs) against the...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 22:11
The emergence of novel resistant markers hampers the efficacy of beta‐lactam antibiotics to treat infections caused by microrganisms carrying such resistances. This study investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, the carpapenem associated determinants and the molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae showing a New Delhi (NDM) metallo‐β‐lactamase phenotype, isolated from a...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 22:11
Significance and Impact of the Study: Surfactants with emulsifying bioactivity are known to be produced by Bacillus subtilis. Here, a colorimetric assay for methylene blue active substances is adapted for use in bacterial plaque to describe surfactant bioactivity, and supplemental salts of calcium during culture are shown to enrich cultured plaque for said bioactivity. Where B. subtilis is...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 22:11
This study aims to investigate the gut microbiota and metabolites in breastfed infants with breast milk jaundice (BMJ) using gut microbiome‐metabolomics. Breastfed newborns diagnosed with BMJ and those without BMJ (control group) were enrolled. Fecal samples were collected from the participants and subjected to high‐throughput sequencing of the 16s rDNA V3 and V4 regions of the gut flora and...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 22:10
ABSTRACT Antimicrobial resistance is a global emergency which needs one health approach to address. The present study was conducted to detect the prevalence of beta‐lactamase and biofilm‐producing‐Klebsiella strains in rectal swabs (n=624) collected from healthy dogs, cats, sheep and goats reared as companion or household animals in India. The dogs and cats were frequently exposed to third or...
Tue, 09/01/2020 - 22:10
Significance and impact of the study: The emergence of carbapenemases and extended‐spectrum β‐lactamases (ESBLs) in bacteria has now become a global problem leading to failure of advanced antimicrobial therapy. We report for the first time the blaNDM‐1 gene in non‐fermenting Gram‐negative bacterial isolates, and the blaKPC‐2 gene in an Escherichia coli isolate from goat meat in India. The...
Mon, 08/24/2020 - 21:27
Significance and Impact of the Study: The role of probiotics in alleviation of the novel COVID‐19 has not been established. This review provides an insight about the anti‐inflammatory, antiviral effects of probiotics in vitro, animal models and human. The latter can provide an indirect evidence and/or hypothesis‐driven approach to investigate the use of probiotics as adjunctive therapy in the...
Tue, 08/18/2020 - 22:10
Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria that cause diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. They are the natural inhabitants of different aquatic environments, such as freshwater, brackishwater and marinewater. Extrinsic stressors, such as crowding, unhygienic handling, poor water quality, polluted feeding and inadequate nutrition, can predispose fish to Aeromonas infection. In ornamental fish...
Mon, 08/17/2020 - 22:10
Listeria monocytogenes, a well‐known foodborne pathogen and the causative agent of listeriosis, has the ability to persist in food processing environments due to its high adhesion ability in different surfaces, playing an important role in the food industry. The aim of this study was to assess how the main stressing conditions, usually observed in meat processing facilities (sanitizers, NaCl,...
Thu, 08/13/2020 - 22:10
Widespread of heavy metals contamination has led to several environmental problems. Some biological methods to remove heavy metals from contaminated wastewater are being widely explored. In the present study, the efficiency of a white‐rot fungus, Phlebia brevispora to remove different metals (Pb, Cd and Ni) has been evaluated. Atomic absorption spectroscopy of treated and untreated metal...
Tue, 08/11/2020 - 22:10
Significance and Impact of the Study: The occurrence and severity of fungal infections have increased in recent decades due to resistance to available antifungal drugs and the appearance of new emerging pathogens. Thus, the search for new antifungal agents is mandatory. From a series of 23 cinnamyl Schiff bases, two compounds (1 and 23) were interrogated as new anticryptococcal agents without...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 22:09
The present study was aimed at determining antimicrobial susceptibility by a CLSI standard microdilution testing protocol and detecting the resistance genes of motile Aeromonas species isolated from cultured fish. The importance of the minimum inhibitory concentrations was assessed based on statistically determined epidemiological cut‐off values calculated by normalized resistance analysis....
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:10
This study investigated the effects of dietary Bifidobacterium bifidum (BFD) and mannan‐oligosaccharide (MOS), as a synbiotic, on the production performance, gut microbiology, serum biochemistry, antioxidant profile, and health indices of broiler chicken. Six dietary treatments were T1 (negative control), T2 (positive control‐20 mg antibiotic BMD/kg diet; BMD: bacitracin methylene disalicylate),...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 22:08
Staphylococci from Sheedal of Northeast India was isolated, identified and characterized. All the isolated Staphylococci were found to be coagulase‐negative. Based on the rpoB gene sequences followed by analysis using NCBI‐BLAST software, seven species of Staphylococcus namely, S. piscifermentans, S. condimenti, S. arlettae, S. sciuri, S. warneri, S. nepalensis and S. hominis were recognized....
Sun, 07/12/2020 - 22:09
In a 2018 survey, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) identified microbial contamination in 42 (49%) of 85 unopened tattoo and permanent makeup (PMU) inks purchased from 13 manufacturers in the US between November 2015 and April 2016. To confirm the results of our previous survey, we evaluated the level of microbial contamination in an additional 27 samples from 10 manufacturers from...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 22:09
The present work intended to evaluate the applicability of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri with toluidine blue O (TBO), a commercial photosensitizer, as a strategy to control citrus canker. Assays were conducted with cell suspensions and biofilms, constructed either on polypropylene microtubes (in vitro assays) or on the surface of orange leaves (ex vivo assays...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 22:09
Phage therapy is considered an alternative modality in the treatment of different bacterial diseases. However, their therapeutic and preventive roles against infections caused by S.Kentucky and E.coli O119 were of little attention. In this study, two phages were isolated, characterized, and assessed for their potential therapeutic and preventive roles against S.Kentucky and E.coli O119 infections...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 22:09
The aims of the present study were to examine the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. in the tonsils of slaughtered pigs in a regional slaughterhouse in Greece, the antibiotic resistance of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates, and the enteroxigenicity of the S. aureus isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated in 70 (48.61%) out of the total 144 tonsil samples. The predominant species was S. aureus...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 22:09
Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows the prevalence of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from shrimp that is commercialized in Reynosa city. This could represent a risk to consumers' health, since outbreaks related to shrimp contaminated with Vibrio have been previously reported. Additionally, shrimp fishing has a major role in...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:09
ABSTRACT The deferred antagonism technique has been utilized for several decades for detecting antibiosis activity. Most protocols require the elimination of antibiotic‐producing cells by exposing them to chloroform vapor, UV radiation, or filter‐sterilizing the filtrate; steps that require additional time and expense to complete. We provide a modified approach to current soft agar overlay...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:09
The objective was to screen 10 snake venoms for their efficacy to control growth and mycotoxin production by important mycotoxigenic fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. westerdijkiae, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium graminearum and F. langsethiae. The Bioscreen C rapid assay system was used. The venoms from the Viperidae snake family delayed growth of some of the test fungi, especially F....
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:27
A Coxiella sp. closely related to the agent of Q‐fever, Coxiella burnetii, has been associated with mortalities in redclaw crayfish, (Cherax quadricarinatus), in farms and experimental facilities for three decades. Limited sequence data including 16S rRNA have placed the rickettsial species as a new species, candidatus Coxiella cheraxi closely related to C. burnetii. MinION sequencing was...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:29
Sediment samples were taken from sediment adjacent to an urban river in Sheffield in Northern England that had suffered heavy metal pollution due to previous activity of the steel industry (between the 17th and 19th centuries). The most abundant heavy metals found in the samples were lead, chromium, nickel, arsenic and cobalt, with maximum concentrations of 412.80 mg kg‐1 25.232 mg kg‐1, 25.196...
Tue, 05/26/2020 - 03:29
A strain named as P. aeruginosa 2016NX1, which could produce phenazine and cereusitin, was isolated from the root of Millettia specisoa. Phenazines were extracted, isolated and purified by chloroform, thin‐layer chromatography, column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Then the purified materials were identified by analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The major...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:25
Significance and Impact of the Study: In this study, the microbiological quality and safety of minimally processed vegetables sold in the city of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, were evaluated through the detection of Salmonella spp., generic Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae. The results obtained point to poor microbiological quality and safety of a few samples, as generic E. coli was...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:25
Significance and Impact of the Study: Vibrio harveyi is a major pathogen of marine animals. The bacterium could enter into a viable but non‐culturable state (VBNC) state when exposed to harsh conditions, and retains its pathogenicity after resuscitation. In this work, we analysed the enzyme activities of a resuscitation‐promoting factor YeaZ and the relationship of protease activities with its...
Tue, 05/12/2020 - 03:24
Filter feeding is a biotic process that brings waterborne bacteria in close contact with each other and may thus support the horizontal transfer of their antimicrobial resistance genes. This laboratory study investigated whether the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis supported the transfer of vancomycin resistance between two Enterococcus faecalis strains that we previously demonstrated to...
Sun, 05/03/2020 - 03:25
Highly concentrated sugar solutions are known to be effective anti‐microbial agents. However, it is unknown whether this effect is solely the result of the collective osmotic effect imparted by a mixture of sugars or whether the type of carbohydrate used also has an individual chemical effect on bacterial responses, i.e., inhibition/growth. In view of this, in this work, the anti‐microbial...
Sun, 05/03/2020 - 03:25
The aim of this study was to examine whether the process of initial colonization and the formation of mature biofilm structure of foodborne bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium can be impeded by active essential oil components β‐caryophyllene, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol at their individual and combined effects. Among the essential oil components tested,...
Mon, 04/27/2020 - 03:24
Salmonellosis is a leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness, and numerous Salmonella enterica serovars have been responsible for foodborne outbreaks. In the United States outbreaks are often linked to poultry and poultry‐related products. The prevalence of Salmonella serovar Infantis has been increasing in poultry processing facilities over the past few years and in 2018 was identified as the...
Mon, 04/20/2020 - 03:24
Surface water is prone to bacterial contamination as it receives wastes and pollutants from human and animal sources, and contaminated water may expose local populations to health risks. This review provides a brief overview on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AR) phenotypes of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus, found in natural freshwaters. These bacteria are frequently...

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