Letters in Applied Microbiology

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Tue, 08/11/2020 - 22:10
Significance and Impact of the Study: The occurrence and severity of fungal infections have increased in recent decades due to resistance to available antifungal drugs and the appearance of new emerging pathogens. Thus, the search for new antifungal agents is mandatory. From a series of 23 cinnamyl Schiff bases, two compounds (1 and 23) were interrogated as new anticryptococcal agents without...
Thu, 07/30/2020 - 22:09
The present study was aimed at determining antimicrobial susceptibility by a CLSI standard microdilution testing protocol and detecting the resistance genes of motile Aeromonas species isolated from cultured fish. The importance of the minimum inhibitory concentrations was assessed based on statistically determined epidemiological cut‐off values calculated by normalized resistance analysis....
Tue, 07/28/2020 - 22:10
This study investigated the effects of dietary Bifidobacterium bifidum (BFD) and mannan‐oligosaccharide (MOS), as a synbiotic, on the production performance, gut microbiology, serum biochemistry, antioxidant profile, and health indices of broiler chicken. Six dietary treatments were T1 (negative control), T2 (positive control‐20 mg antibiotic BMD/kg diet; BMD: bacitracin methylene disalicylate),...
Mon, 07/27/2020 - 22:08
Staphylococci from Sheedal of Northeast India was isolated, identified and characterized. All the isolated Staphylococci were found to be coagulase‐negative. Based on the rpoB gene sequences followed by analysis using NCBI‐BLAST software, seven species of Staphylococcus namely, S. piscifermentans, S. condimenti, S. arlettae, S. sciuri, S. warneri, S. nepalensis and S. hominis were recognized....
Sun, 07/12/2020 - 22:09
In a 2018 survey, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) identified microbial contamination in 42 (49%) of 85 unopened tattoo and permanent makeup (PMU) inks purchased from 13 manufacturers in the US between November 2015 and April 2016. To confirm the results of our previous survey, we evaluated the level of microbial contamination in an additional 27 samples from 10 manufacturers from...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 22:09
The present work intended to evaluate the applicability of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri with toluidine blue O (TBO), a commercial photosensitizer, as a strategy to control citrus canker. Assays were conducted with cell suspensions and biofilms, constructed either on polypropylene microtubes (in vitro assays) or on the surface of orange leaves (ex vivo assays...
Tue, 07/07/2020 - 22:09
Phage therapy is considered an alternative modality in the treatment of different bacterial diseases. However, their therapeutic and preventive roles against infections caused by S.Kentucky and E.coli O119 were of little attention. In this study, two phages were isolated, characterized, and assessed for their potential therapeutic and preventive roles against S.Kentucky and E.coli O119 infections...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 22:09
The aims of the present study were to examine the occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. in the tonsils of slaughtered pigs in a regional slaughterhouse in Greece, the antibiotic resistance of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates, and the enteroxigenicity of the S. aureus isolates. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated in 70 (48.61%) out of the total 144 tonsil samples. The predominant species was S. aureus...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 22:09
Significance and Impact of the Study: This study shows the prevalence of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from shrimp that is commercialized in Reynosa city. This could represent a risk to consumers' health, since outbreaks related to shrimp contaminated with Vibrio have been previously reported. Additionally, shrimp fishing has a major role in...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:09
ABSTRACT The deferred antagonism technique has been utilized for several decades for detecting antibiosis activity. Most protocols require the elimination of antibiotic‐producing cells by exposing them to chloroform vapor, UV radiation, or filter‐sterilizing the filtrate; steps that require additional time and expense to complete. We provide a modified approach to current soft agar overlay...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 22:09
The objective was to screen 10 snake venoms for their efficacy to control growth and mycotoxin production by important mycotoxigenic fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. westerdijkiae, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium graminearum and F. langsethiae. The Bioscreen C rapid assay system was used. The venoms from the Viperidae snake family delayed growth of some of the test fungi, especially F....
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 03:27
A Coxiella sp. closely related to the agent of Q‐fever, Coxiella burnetii, has been associated with mortalities in redclaw crayfish, (Cherax quadricarinatus), in farms and experimental facilities for three decades. Limited sequence data including 16S rRNA have placed the rickettsial species as a new species, candidatus Coxiella cheraxi closely related to C. burnetii. MinION sequencing was...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:29
Sediment samples were taken from sediment adjacent to an urban river in Sheffield in Northern England that had suffered heavy metal pollution due to previous activity of the steel industry (between the 17th and 19th centuries). The most abundant heavy metals found in the samples were lead, chromium, nickel, arsenic and cobalt, with maximum concentrations of 412.80 mg kg‐1 25.232 mg kg‐1, 25.196...
Tue, 05/26/2020 - 03:29
A strain named as P. aeruginosa 2016NX1, which could produce phenazine and cereusitin, was isolated from the root of Millettia specisoa. Phenazines were extracted, isolated and purified by chloroform, thin‐layer chromatography, column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Then the purified materials were identified by analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The major...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:25
Significance and Impact of the Study: In this study, the microbiological quality and safety of minimally processed vegetables sold in the city of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, were evaluated through the detection of Salmonella spp., generic Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae. The results obtained point to poor microbiological quality and safety of a few samples, as generic E. coli was...
Sun, 05/24/2020 - 03:25
Significance and Impact of the Study: Vibrio harveyi is a major pathogen of marine animals. The bacterium could enter into a viable but non‐culturable state (VBNC) state when exposed to harsh conditions, and retains its pathogenicity after resuscitation. In this work, we analysed the enzyme activities of a resuscitation‐promoting factor YeaZ and the relationship of protease activities with its...
Tue, 05/12/2020 - 03:24
Filter feeding is a biotic process that brings waterborne bacteria in close contact with each other and may thus support the horizontal transfer of their antimicrobial resistance genes. This laboratory study investigated whether the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis supported the transfer of vancomycin resistance between two Enterococcus faecalis strains that we previously demonstrated to...
Sun, 05/03/2020 - 03:25
Highly concentrated sugar solutions are known to be effective anti‐microbial agents. However, it is unknown whether this effect is solely the result of the collective osmotic effect imparted by a mixture of sugars or whether the type of carbohydrate used also has an individual chemical effect on bacterial responses, i.e., inhibition/growth. In view of this, in this work, the anti‐microbial...
Sun, 05/03/2020 - 03:25
The aim of this study was to examine whether the process of initial colonization and the formation of mature biofilm structure of foodborne bacterial pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium can be impeded by active essential oil components β‐caryophyllene, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol at their individual and combined effects. Among the essential oil components tested,...
Mon, 04/27/2020 - 03:24
Salmonellosis is a leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness, and numerous Salmonella enterica serovars have been responsible for foodborne outbreaks. In the United States outbreaks are often linked to poultry and poultry‐related products. The prevalence of Salmonella serovar Infantis has been increasing in poultry processing facilities over the past few years and in 2018 was identified as the...
Mon, 04/20/2020 - 03:24
Surface water is prone to bacterial contamination as it receives wastes and pollutants from human and animal sources, and contaminated water may expose local populations to health risks. This review provides a brief overview on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AR) phenotypes of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus, found in natural freshwaters. These bacteria are frequently...
Mon, 04/20/2020 - 03:24
The effects of soil type and temperature on the survival of a cocktail of five Salmonella enterica serotypes (Enteritidis, Infantis, Montevideo, Typhimurium and Zanzibar) in manure‐amended soils under controlled laboratory conditions was assessed. Containers of clay loam or sandy soil, unaltered or amended with 2% (w/w) poultry manure, were inoculated with S. enterica (~5 log10 CFU g‐1) and held...
Thu, 04/16/2020 - 03:18
Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) is an important pathogenic Bacterium that threatens human health. A convenient, sensitive and specific method for the E. coli O157:H7 detection is necessary. We developed two pairs of monoclonal antibodies through traditional hybridoma technology, one specifically against E. coli O157 antigen and the other specifically against E. coli H7 antigen. Using...
Sun, 04/12/2020 - 03:17
Typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC‐HUS), caused by Shiga toxin (Stx)‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC), is a serious, life‐threating disease that mainly affects children. Bacteriological and genetic tests are commonly used in the routine laboratory diagnosis of STEC‐HUS; however, serological methods have emerged as useful and reliable diagnostic tools, especially when bacterial isolation...
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 03:31
One of the major problems to be addressed in aquaculture is the prominence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The occurrence of bacterial infections in cultured fishes promotes the continuous use of antibiotics in aquaculture, which results in the selection of proliferated antibiotic resistant bacteria and increases the possibility of transfer to the whole environment through horizontal gene...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:30
Inactivation of Bacillales and Clostridiales spores is of interest, since some cause food spoilage and human diseases. A recent publication (Schlievert et al. 2018) reported that glycerol monolaurate (GML) in a non‐aqueous gel (GMLg) effectively killed spores of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridioides difficile, and Bacillus anthracis spores somewhat We now show that: 1) the B....
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 03:31
The honey bee has long been known to be a bioindicator of environmental pollution and the use of antimicrobials in the beekeeping industry is strictly regulated. For these reasons, this paper was aimed to evaluate for the first time the role of Apis mellifera as a possible indicator of environmental AMR. The study isolated and analysed the resistance patterns of Enterobacteriaceae from a pool of...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:18
Significance and Impact of the Study: Arcobacter species are emerging food‐ and water‐borne human pathogens. In this study, Arcobacter butzleri was predominant in fish compared to A. cryoaerohilus and A. skirrowii. Higher incidence of arcobacters in fish market samples suggests cross contamination and unhygienic handling of fish in markets. Virulence genes profile and antibiotics resistance of...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 03:27
Chitosan with higher molecular weight exhibited higher antimicrobial efficacy against foodborne pathogens. However, the poor water solubility of higher or medium molecular weight chitosan limits its applications. To overcome the challenge, our research team was searching for simple preparation procedure for fast dissolving MMW chitosan in water. Through the process, we were also able to obtain a...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:18
Significance and Impact of the Study: The highlight of our research is about the detection of bacteria resistance genes to antibiotics by advanced molecular methods, which means high‐resolution melting curve (HRM) analysis. We determined that the HRM method in identifying colistin‐resistant P. aeruginosa has high accuracy and speed, and with high sensitivity and specificity. Abstract Colistin‐...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:18
Food poisoning risk related to the consumption of contaminated food with known foodborne pathogens or antibiotic‐resistant bacteria is currently a serious threat for public health. Thus, pathogenic Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus strains are considered as one of the major cause of food‐borne diseases in hospitals. The present study aims to determine the prevalence and the antibiotic...
Sun, 01/26/2020 - 03:16
The aim of this study was to investigate if HtrA is responsible for differences in adherence and invasion of Campylobacter jejuni towards human and chicken cell lines. Gentamicin protection assays were performed with either human Caco‐2 or chicken 2G4 cells using C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 to compare the adhesion and invasion rates towards these two cell types. The results revealed significant...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:16
Significance and Impact of the Study: Aeromonas spp. are ubiquitous bacteria, also found as aetiological agents in seafood‐borne illness. We conducted this study to disclose the potential risk of consuming cockles, which is one of the most preferred seafood delicacies in Korea. Particularly, with the prevalence of enterotoxin genes in mesophilic A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida and A. veronii...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:16
Emerging virulent and antibiotic resistant pathogens present a global public health risk. Routine monitoring of prevalence within the clinical, environmental and food production setting is vital. Real time qPCR (qPCR) coupled with melting curve analysis can rapidly and accurately characterize pathogens. We evaluated commercial qPCR mixes based on SYBR Green l and EvaGreen for developing an assay...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:30
Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis are often connected to contaminated drinking water. The assessment of the water quality relies on cultivation of indicator bacteria, and little is known of the fate of viruses in groundwater, especially in arctic regions. In Iceland, the groundwater temperature is between 3°C and 6°C. The aim of this study was to determine virus inactivation at low temperature...
Sun, 12/29/2019 - 03:18
Enterococci are included in the United States National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System to track antibiotic resistance among commensal gram‐positive enteric bacteria, largely due to their high abundance in food animals and in retail meat. In the U.S. cattle industry, macrolides are used to prevent and control liver abscesses, which cause significant economic losses. Previous studies...
Wed, 12/25/2019 - 03:16
An incident of sudden deaths in the breeding stock was reported from a farrow‐to‐finish commercial pig farm in Greece. The 8·4% of sows during lactation and gestation period presented anorexia, fever, hematuria, return‐to‐oestrus, and sudden deaths (mortality rate: 2·3%). Blood and urine samples were collected from 4 diseased sows. Furthermore, swabs from urine bladders were collected from 2 dead...
Fri, 12/20/2019 - 03:17
Hard‐shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) is a popular seafood in Korea. This study aimed to determine the virulence markers and antimicrobial resistance patterns of 33 Aeromonas strains isolated from mussels. The isolates were identified as A. salmonicida (n = 14), A. veronii (n = 9), A. enteropelogenes (n = 4), A. caviae (n = 3), A. allosaccharophila (n = 2) and A. bivalvium (n = 1) by gyrB gene...
Mon, 12/16/2019 - 03:16
Ready‐to‐eat food contamination with ESBL‐producing Escherichia coli is a growing health concern. Some of these strains also are epidemic clones and can cause community‐associated infections that are difficult to treat. In this study, the occurrence of ESBL‐producing E. coli contaminated ready‐to‐eat street food in Quito‐Ecuador was evaluated. One hundred and fifty samples were collected randomly...
Sat, 12/14/2019 - 03:17
Significance and Impact of the Study: Prevalence, genetic diversity and geographic distribution of SAFV in Italy is currently unknown. This study represents the first detection of SAFV in sewage samples in Italy, suggesting that it is circulating in the population despite lack of clinical reporting. Whether the virus is associated with asymptomatic cases or with undetected gastroenteritis or...
Fri, 12/13/2019 - 03:18
The purpose of this study was to find out the mechanism of quinolone resistance in Shigella sp. isolated from environmental water samples from various parts of Kolkata, India. Out of 196 Shigella sp. isolated from 2014‐17, we selected 32 Shigella isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for Quinolones ranged from 30 μg ml‐1 to 50 μg ml‐1 for...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:17
The aim of the present study was to examine the sterility of follicular fluid in large ovarian follicles in dairy cows. Seventeen samples of paired follicular fluids and uterine contents collected from post‐slaughtered dairy cows were cultured to detect aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria. Further, the origin of the bacterial isolates from samples of follicular fluid and the uteri was also...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:17
Bacterial communities strongly influence the digestion, health and immune status of fish. This study investigates the microbial distribution of the anterior, middle and distal gut sections of three economically‐important carp species in Bangladesh, rohu, catla and mrigal (commonly known as Indian major carps), using 16S rRNA‐based Illumina sequencing technology. The alpha diversity measurement...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:16
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus, which causes vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The aim of this study was to evaluate Mrr2 mutation and its expression levels and Candida drug resistance 1 (Cdr1) in C. albicans associated with fluconazole (FCA) resistance. We identified 80 isolates of C. albicans from 155 vaginal secretions and performed FCA drug sensitivity tests, using M27‐A3 micro‐...
Wed, 11/13/2019 - 03:16
Attiéké is the major fermented plant food in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to identify hazards and critical control points (CCP) in order to implement a HACCP system for the production of attiéké. Physico‐chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out. pH of the cossettes used as raw material for attieke process was slightly acidic (6·5 ± 0·23). But attiéké produced had an acid...
Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:18
This study investigated potential contamination sources in a commercial, closed hydroponic system. Water, substrate, and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) samples were evaluated for microbiological indicator populations, including aerobic plate count (APC), coliform bacteria (CB), and yeast and mold (YM). Listeria spp. detection via cultural enrichment and agglutination was negative for all samples. Peat...
Fri, 10/25/2019 - 03:22
Hog production takes place mostly in large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) where waste is managed by storing in lagoons prior to land application of lagoon liquid. Salmonella, including antibiotic resistant Salmonella, have been found in the farm environment and lagoons. The objective of this research was to determine whether Salmonella resistant to clinically relevant antibiotics...
Fri, 10/18/2019 - 03:21
Cronobacter infections of infants are commonly regarded as due to the ingestion of contaminated feed. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of Cronobacter, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in different brands of natural mineral waters as sold in 20L returnable bottles in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The quantification of total coliforms and E. coli was performed by Most Probable...
Thu, 10/17/2019 - 03:21
The sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) is a small, arboreal, nocturnal, gliding mammalian possum belonging to the marsupial infraclass. Exotic marsupials, including sugar gliders, are becoming popular companion pets and, consequently, the risk of potential infections that can be transmitted to humans should be investigated. Data on the role of the sugar glider as a possible carrier of pathogenic...
Tue, 10/15/2019 - 03:23
Significance and Impact of the Study: Fermented chopped pepper is an important ingredient in traditional Chinese foods. As of yet, the bacterial community dynamics that take place during the fermentation of chopped pepper have not been described. In this study, we used high‐throughput sequencing to investigate the bacterial community, deepening our understanding of the microbial mechanisms...

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