Bacterial pathogens

Wed, 12/02/2020 - 16:00
Acid treatment is commonly used for controlling or killing pathogenic microorganisms on medical devices and environments; however, inadequate acid treatment may cause acid tolerance response (ATR) and offer cr...
Wed, 12/02/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Débora Cristina Sampaio de Assis, Thaís Michelle Liziere da Silva, Rommel Furst Brito, Lorraine Cássia Gonçalves da Silva, William Gustavo Lima, Júlio César Moreira Brito We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the rate of contamination in bovine meat and meat products with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Brazil over the last fifteen years. Data...
Wed, 12/02/2020 - 04:02
Bacteria utilize versatile strategies to propagate infections within human cells, e.g., by the injection of effector proteins, which alter crucial signaling pathways. One class of such virulence-associated proteins is involved in the AMPylation of eukaryotic Rho GTPases with devastating effects on viability. In order to get an inventory of AMPylated proteins, several technologies have been...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
Background Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and can lead to systemic illness and complications. We aimed to characterize typhoid-related ileal perforation in the context of the population-based Surveillance of Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) in Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. Methods Between September 2016 and September 2019, all...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
Background Clinicians have limited therapeutic options for enteric as a result of increasing antimicrobial resistance, and therefore typhoid vaccination is recommended as a preventive measure. As a part of the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP), we investigated the extent measured the burden of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among confirmed enteric fever cases in Bangladesh,...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 12:01
Background Enteric fever, a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, frequently presents as a nonlocalizing febrile illness that is difficult to distinguish from other infectious causes of fever. Blood culture is not widely available in endemic settings and, even when available, results can take up to 5 days. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 10:02
FliA is a broadly conserved factor that directs transcription of genes involved in flagellar motility. We previously identified FliA-transcribed genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and we showed that E. coli FliA transcribes many unstable, non-coding RNAs from intragenic promoters. Here, we show that FliA in S. Typhimurium also directs transcription of large...
Tue, 12/01/2020 - 00:00
With the increased scientific interest in green technologies, many researches have been focused on the production of polymeric composites containing naturally occurring reinforcing particles. Apart from increasing mechanical properties, these additions can have a wide range of interesting effects, such as increasing the resistance to bacterial and fungal colonization. In this work, different...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 22:13
Aims The study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity and efficacy of chestnut and quebracho wood extracts against Salmonella by in vitro assays and in vivo trials. Methods and results The extracts showed inhibitory activity against Salmonella determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration method as well as on the adhesion and invasion of S. Gallinarum (SG) and S. Enteritidis (SE)...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 16:00
Salmonella infection associates with tissue hypoxia, while inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), relying for its activity on molecular oxygen, stands as a central host defence measure in murine salmonellosis. Here, we have detailed hypoxia and iNOS responses of murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells upon infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We noted that only a proportion of...
Mon, 11/30/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Hayriye Bozkurt, Tina Bell, Floris van Ogtrop, Kim-Yen Phan-Thien, Robyn McConchie Escherichia coli O157:H7 risk associated with the consumption of fresh cut-cos lettuce during Australian industrial practices was assessed. A probabilistic risk assessment model was developed and implemented in the @Risk software by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique with 1,000,000 iterations....
Sun, 11/29/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Haiying Cui, Hong Li, Mohamed A. Abdel-Samie, Duraiarasan Surendhiran, Lin Lin In this study, the anti-L monocytogenes biofilm mechanism of cold nitrogen plasma (CNP) treatment by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the changes of gene expression were explored. The treatment of L. monocytogenes (EDG-e, cultured in peptone yeast glucose) biofilm by CNP (600 W, for 220 s...
Sun, 11/29/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Morteza Yousefi, Hamed Ghafarifarsani, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Ghasem Rashidian, Hien Van Doan The present study aimed to investigate the potential effects of dietary marjoram extract on growth performance, health, and disease resistance in common carp, Cyprinus carpio. To this purpose, the fish were assigned into four treatments and fed by diets supplemented with 0 (control), 100,...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 06:32
Author(s): Benjamin R. Robinson, Dennis J. D’Amico Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has a long history of use as an antimicrobial in the dairy industry to preserve raw milk. The effect of H2O2 on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of Queso Fresco (QF) and the degradation of H2O2 on cheese during storage and in dip solutions following successive treatments were determined. Treatment of...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 06:22
Author(s): Arunmozhimaran Elavarasi, Vinay Goyal Hemi-facial spasm (HFS) is an off label but well-accepted indication for Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) therapy(Berardelli et al., 1997). BoNT has been used widely over the past few decades and has an excellent safety record. However, there are instances when patients with no neuromuscular disorders have developed symptoms of asthenia, dysphagia,...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 00:00
The increased use of antibiotics in food animals has resulted in the selection of drug-resistant bacteria across the farm-to-fork continuum. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli from intensively produced poultry in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected weekly between August and September 2017...
Sat, 11/28/2020 - 00:00
Probiotics have been shown to bind to host receptors, which are important for pathogen adhesion and induce the host’s production of defence factors. They can activate the goblet-cell-derived production of mucins, a major component of the mucus layer and a physical barrier participating in limiting the proximity of microorganisms to the epithelial layer. In the last decade, Bacillus spp...
Fri, 11/27/2020 - 16:00
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the inactivation efficacy of a 405-nm light-emitting diode (LED) against Cronobacter sakazakii biofilm formed on stainless steel and to determine the sensitivity change of illuminated biofilm to food industrial disinfectants. The results showed that LED illumination significantly reduced the population of viable biofilm cells, showing reduction of 2.0...
Fri, 11/27/2020 - 16:00
The family Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) includes several invasive stink bug species capable to attack a large number of wild and cultivated plants, causing several damages to different crops. Pentatomids rely on obligate symbiotic associations with bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, mainly of the genus Pantoea. A distinctive trait of these associations is the transmission route:...
Fri, 11/27/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Lang Sun, Emily C. Forauer, Stephanie R.B. Brown, Dennis J. D'Amico Listeria monocytogenes can form persistent biofilms on food processing surfaces, resulting in cross-contamination of food products, including milk and milk products. Natural glycolipids are a promising intervention to control undesirable microbes due to their antimicrobial activity and low toxicity. This study aimed to...
Fri, 11/27/2020 - 00:01
The extraordinarily potent clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) comprise tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and the seven established botulinum neurotoxin serotypes (BoNT/A-G). They are composed of four structurally independent domains: the roles of the catalytically active light chain, the translocation domain HN, and the C-terminal receptor binding domain HCC are largely resolved, but that of the HCN domain...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 16:00
A Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state is a bacterial survival strategy under reverse conditions. It poses a significant challenge for public health and food safety. In this study, the effect of external environmental conditions including acid, nutrition, and salt concentrations on the formation of S. aureus VBNC states at low temperatures were investigated. Different acidity and nutritional...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 16:00
Shiga toxin-producing Shigella species and Escherichia coli (STEC) are pathogenic bacteria that cause the bloody diarrheal diseases bacillary dysentery (Shigella spp.) and hemorrhagic colitis (STEC). Unfortunately, patients with these diarrheal diseases are at risk for developing potentially lethal extraintestinal complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), resulting in acute renal...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 16:00
The difference between left- and right-sided colon cancer has become the focus of global attention, and researchers have found differences in the morbidity, molecular biological characteristics, and response to targeted drug therapy between left- and right-sided colon cancer. Therefore, the identification of more effective predictive indicators is critical for providing guidance to future...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Although most of the approximately 94 million annual human cases of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella enterica resolve without medical intervention, antimicrobial therapy is recommended for patients with severe disease. Wild birds can be natural hosts of Salmonella that pose a threat to human health; however, multiple-drug-resistant serovars of S. enterica have rarely been described. In...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 06:26
Author(s): Jiyun Li, Yuqing Zhou, Dawei Yang, Shan Zhang, Zhiliang Sun, Yang Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) in chickens and pigs were investigated in Beijing and Shanxi, China. In total, 322 C. perfringens (chicken n = 60 and pig n = 262) were obtained from 620 feces of chickens (n = 256) and pigs (n = ...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 06:26
Author(s): Yizhi Tang, Yan Lai, Xingyuan Wang, Changwei Lei, Chao Li, Linghan Kong, Yulong Wang, Hongning Wang The optrA gene encodes an ABC-F protein which confers cross-resistance to oxazolidinones and phenicols, and its transmission has so far been associated with multiple transposable elements, including IS1216E, prophages, ICEs and Tn558. Here, we identified an optrA gene flanked by two...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 06:20
LWT
Author(s): Woo Bin Hyun, Hai Seong Kang, Jae Won Lee, Haftom Baraki Abraha, Kwang-Pyo Kim Previous studies on Bacillus subtilis-producing bacteriocins (or bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance, BLIS) against Clostridium perfringens provided with limited information to show their potentials. In this study, B. subtilis BSC35 was newly-isolated and its BLIS-containing cell-free supernatant exhibited...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 06:20
LWT
Author(s): Yifang Cao, Donggen Zhou, Xiaowei Zhang, Xinglong Xiao, Yigang Yu, Xiaofeng Li The combined effects of four substances, carvacrol, citral, thymol and caprylic acid, on the growth of Cronobacter sakazakii CICC 21544 were evaluated. Among the six combinations, only the combination of citral and carvacrol demonstrated a synergistic effect. This combination had a stronger growth inhibition...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 04:02
Staphylococcus aureus is a primary pathogen responsible for causing postoperative infections as it survives and persists in host cells, including osteoblasts and macrophages. These cells then serve as reservoirs resulting in chronic infections. Most traditional antibiotics have poor effects on intracellular S. aureus because they cannot enter the cell. Herein, a cell-penetrating peptide TAT-KR-12...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Antibiotic resistance (AR) remains a major threat to public and animal health globally. However, AR ramifications in developing countries are worsened by limited molecular diagnostics, expensive therapeutics, inadequate numbers of skilled clinicians and scientists, and unsanitary environments. The epidemiology of Gram-negative bacteria, their AR genes, and geographical distribution in...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:02
The third E. coli and the Mucosal Immune System (ECMIS) meeting was held at Ghent University in Belgium from 2 to 5 June 2019. It brought together an international group of scientists interested in mechanisms of colonization, host response, and vaccine development. ECMIS distinguishes itself from related meetings on these enteropathogens by providing a greater emphasis on animal health and...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:02
Campylobacter is among the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common species causing human disease. DNA sequence-based methods for strain characterization have focused largely on C. jejuni, responsible for 80 to 90% of infections, meaning that C. coli epidemiology has lagged behind. Here, we have analyzed the genome of 450 C....
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:02
Hospital wastewater is an increasingly recognized reservoir for resistant Gram-negative organisms. Factors involved in establishment and persistence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing organisms (KPCOs) in hospital wastewater plumbing are unclear. This study was conducted at a hospital with endemic KPCOs linked to wastewater reservoirs and robust patient perirectal screening for...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
Evolution of bacterial tolerance to antimicrobials precedes evolution of resistance and may result in cross-tolerance, cross-resistance, or collateral sensitivity to other antibiotics. Transient exposure of gut bacteria to glyphosate, the world’s most widely used herbicide, has been linked to the activation of the stress response and changes in susceptibility to antibiotics. In this study,...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes serious foodborne disease worldwide. It produces the very potent Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2). The Stx2-encoding genes are located on a prophage, and production of the toxin is linked to the synthesis of Stx phages. There is, currently, no good treatment for EHEC infections, as antibiotics may trigger lytic cycle activation of the phages and increased Stx...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
Postweaning diarrhea (PWD) is an economically important, multifactorial disease affecting pigs within the first 2 weeks after weaning. The most common agent associated with PWD is enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Currently, antibiotics are used to control PWD, and this has most likely contributed to an increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains. This puts pressure on...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are important pathogens for humans and farm animals such as pigs. Porcine ETEC strains induce diarrhea through the production of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxins (pSTa/STb). Although LT secretion levels differ between porcine ETEC strains, and this has been linked to virulence, it is unclear whether ST secretion levels...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, including E. coli O157:H7, cause severe illness in humans due to the production of Shiga toxin (Stx) and other virulence factors. Because Stx is coregulated with lambdoid prophage induction, its expression is especially susceptible to environmental cues. Infections with Stx-producing E. coli can be difficult to model due to the wide range of...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains producing K88 (F4) or F18 fimbriae and enterotoxins are the predominant cause of pig postweaning diarrhea (PWD). We recently identified neutralizing epitopes of fimbriae K88 and F18, heat-labile toxin (LT), heat-stable toxins type I (STa) and type II (STb), and Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e). In this study, we explored a novel epitope- and structure-based...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:01
Fimbriae mediate the initial adherence of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to the piglet small intestine and play an important role in development of ETEC-driven postweaning diarrhea (PWD). PWD inflicts huge economic losses on the swine industry each year, making development of alternative treatment and prevention measures for PWD essential. Vaccine candidates that induce antifimbria...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 08:02
Rapid and sensitive detection technology is the key to preventing food-borne disease outbreaks. In this study, a low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) biosensor based on polyamidoamine dendrimers was prepared for the rapid detection of Salmonella in milk. The polyamidoamine dendrimer was biotinylated by amide reaction and chelated to diethylene triamine pentacetate acid and gadolinium to...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 08:02
Klebsiella pneumoniae is an opportunistic and environmental mastitis-causing pathogen, with potential for contagious transmission. Repetitive element sequence-based PCR was used to determine genetic diversity and explore potential transmission and reservoirs for mastitis caused by K. pneumoniae on 2 large Chinese dairy farms. A total of 1,354 samples was collected from the 2 dairy farms,...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 08:02
Author(s): Silvia Cassimiro Brasão, Roberta Torres de Melo, Renata Rezende Prado, Guilherme Paz Monteiro, Fernanda Aparecida Longato dos Santos, Raquelline Figueiredo Braz, Daise Aparecida Rossi (Source: Food Bioscience)
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Cooper J. Park, Jinfeng Li, Xinglu Zhang, Fengxiang Gao, Christopher S. Benton, Cheryl P. Andam Salmonella enterica, the causative agent of gastrointestinal diseases and typhoid fever, is a human and animal pathogen that causes significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this study, we examine the genomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 63 S. enterica isolates from...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Jinming Dai, Changzhu Li, Haiying Cui, Lin Lin Recently, natural essential oils have been extensively studied for anti-bacterial application in foods due to their safety and high biological activity. Herein, Litsea cubeba essential oil (LC-EO) was applied as a natural anti-bacterial agent for exploring its anti-bacterial mechanism against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 06:11
LWT
Author(s): Shihyu Chuang, Shiowshuh Sheen, Christopher H. Sommers, Lee-Yan Sheen As the consumption of poultry continues to increase, actions are needed to strengthen food safety approaches against contamination with the pathogens of concern, e.g., Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes. This study applied response surface methodology (RSM) using a central composite design to investigate...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Nicholas J. Davison, Andrew Brownlow, Mariel Ten Doeschate, Emma-Jane Dale, Geoffrey Foster, Jakub Muchowski, Lorraine L. Perrett, Mara Rocchi, Adrian M. Whatmore, Mark P. Dagleish Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Brucella ceti infection has been described in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba), Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus), short-beaked common dolphins (...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
L. monocytogenes was associated with more than 60 produce recalls between 2017 and 2020 including tomato, cherry, broccoli, lemon, and lime recalls. This study describes the effects of temperature, time and food substrate as factors influencing L. monocytogenes behavior on whole intact raw fruits and vegetables. A cocktail of five L. monocytogenes strains previously associated with foodborne...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 04:02
Numerous outbreak investigations and case-control studies of campylobacteriosis have provided evidence that handling Campylobacter -contaminated chicken products is a high risk factor for infection and illness. In this study, the cross-contamination and transfer rates of Campylobacter jejuni from chicken to ready-to-eat foods were determined in various food-handling scenarios. Skinless raw...

Pages