Bacterial pathogens

Tue, 07/07/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) has been used for over 25 years in the management of pediatric lower and upper limb hypertonia, with the first reports in 1993. The most common indication is the injection of the triceps surae muscle for the correction of spastic equinus gait in children with cerebral palsy. The upper limb injection goals include improvements in function, better positioning of the...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): M.F. Peruzy, M. Aponte, Y.T.R. Proroga, F. Capuano, D. Cristiano, E. Delibato, K. Houf, N. Murru Conventional methods for Yersinia enterocolitica detection in food samples are generally considered inadequate. Problems arise from the presence of the so-called “background flora”, coupled to the low contamination level of the pathogen. Since, data on the microbial ecology occurring in...
Mon, 07/06/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Ellen Mendez, Diane K. Walker, Jessie Vipham, Valentina Trinetta Listeria monocytogenes is one of the most concerning pathogens for the food industry due to its ability to form biofilms, particularly in difficult-to-clean sites of processing facilities. There is a current industry-wide lack of data to refer to when selecting a strategy to control L. monocytogenes biofilms in the food...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 08:02
Edible films can be designed to serve as carriers of antimicrobial agents and be used to control pathogenic foodborne viruses and bacteria. This research tested this concept by dissolving green tea extract (GTE) in chitosan film-forming solutions (FFS) and using it to prepare dried chitosan edible films. As a control, the GTE was also dissolved in deionized water (DW). The FFS and the dried...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Ling Jin, Ting Li, Tan Yang, Xuehua Liang, Bin Wu, Dengchao Zou, Liwen Hu, Ganhui Huang, Jinsheng Zhang The monitoring and control of foodborne pathogenic microorganisms to protect food safety is of great significance. A biosensor based on superparamagnetic ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (USIO NPs) combined with membrane filtration and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Madeleine Moazzami, Lise-Lotte Fernström, Ingrid Hansson It is critical to maintain low levels of microbes in the whole food production chain. Due to high speed of slaughter, lack of time, and structural characteristics of crates, sufficient cleaning and disinfection of crates used for transporting chickens to abattoirs is a challenge. Inadequately cleaned transport crates for broiler...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 02:02
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is one of the most common and widely distributed food-borne bacteria. Thus, it is necessary to establish a rapid, specific, and sensitive detection approach for V. parahaemolyticus. The strategy of combining immunomagnetic separation method (IMS) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measure was established successfully for V. parahaemolyticus detection...
Sat, 07/04/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Shuangfang Hu, YigangYu, Ziquan Lv, Jianzhong Shen, Yuebin Ke, Xinglong Xiao Salmonella Enteritidis is a major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and is thus a persistent threat to global public health. The acid adaptation response helps Salmonella survive exposure to gastric environment during ingestion. In a previous study we highlighted the damage caused to cell membrane and the...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 22:13
Aims This article presents models of artificial neural networks employed to predict the biological activity of chemical compounds based of their structure. Regression and classification models were designed to determine antimicrobial properties of quaternary ammonium salts against Escherichia coli strain. Methods and Results The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microbial growth Escherichia...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 16:00
Bacterial microorganisms which are latent in in vitro cultures can limit the efficiency of in vitro methods for the conservation of genetic resources. In this study we screened 2,373 accessions from the in vitro sweetpotato germplasm collection of the International Potato Center in Lima, Peru for bacteria associated with plantlets in tissue culture through a combination of morphological methods...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 16:00
The objective of this study was to explore the genetic and biological features of the tet(M)-harboring plasmid pTS14 in Salmonella enterica strain S14 isolated from a chicken fecal sample. Plasmid pTS14 was identified by conjugation, S1-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Southern hybridization, and plasmid sequencing. The biological characteristics of pTS14 were assessed via stability,...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 10:02
The aim of this research was to investigate the efficacy of the duty ratio and applied voltage in the inactivation of pathogens in soybean curd by pulsed ohmic heating (POH). The heating rate of soybean curd increased rapidly as the applied voltage increased, although the duty ratio did not affect the temperature profile. We supported this result by verifying that electrical conductivity...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 10:02
Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen mostly associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat foods and can cause severe disease and death. It can be introduced into food chains from raw materials, but often the contamination source is the food production environment, where certain clones can persist for years. In the meat chain, ST9 is one of the most commonly encountered L. monocytogenes sequence...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 08:02
by Eli J. Cohen, Daisuke Nakane, Yoshiki Kabata, David R. Hendrixson, Takayuki Nishizaka, Morgan Beeby Campylobacter jejuni rotates a flagellum at each pole to swim through the viscous mucosa of its hosts’ gastrointestinal tracts. Despite their importance for host colonization, however, how C. jejuni coordinates rotation of these two opposing flagella is unclear. As well as their polar placement...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 08:02
by Feng Wu, Biao Chen, Sha Liu, Xiongjian Xia, Liuling Gao, Xiaoyong Zhang, Qing Pan The present study investigated the effects of four woody forages (Moringa oleifera Lam (MOL), fermented MOL, Folium mori (FM) and fermented FM) on biodiversity and bioactivity of aerobic culturable gut bacteria of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by a traditional culture-dependent method. A total of 133 aerobic...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 08:02
by Zhao Chen, Dai Kuang, Xuebin Xu, Narjol González-Escalona, David L. Erickson, Eric Brown, Jianghong Meng We sequenced 25 isolates of phenotypically multidrug-resistant Salmonella Indiana (n = 11), Typhimurium (n = 8), and Enteritidis (n = 6) using both MinION long-read [SQK-LSK109 and flow cell (R9.4.1)] and MiSeq short-read (Nextera XT and MiSeq Reagent Kit v2) sequencing technologies to...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): B.R. Wagle, A.M. Donoghue, S. Shrestha, I. Upadhyaya, K. Arsi, A. Gupta, R. Liyanage, N.C. Rath, D.J. Donoghue, A. Upadhyay Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens act as the reservoir host for C. jejuni, wherein the pathogen asymptomatically colonizes the ceca leading to contamination of carcasses during slaughter. The major...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 04:02
Aeromonas hydrophila, a pathogenic bacterium, is harmful to humans, domestic animals, and fishes and, moreover, of public health concern due to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant strains. The cell wall has been discovered as a novel and efficient drug target against bacteria, and d-alanine–d-alanine ligase (Ddl) is considered as an essential enzyme in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis....
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are toxins produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, the causing agent for botulism, in different serotypes, seven of which (A–G) are well characterized, while others, such as H or FA, are still debated. BoNTs exert their action by blocking SNARE (soluble N-ethylmale-imide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors) complex formation and vesicle...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 22:14
This study was carried out to comprehend the pathogenicity of the bacteria in the epidermis of Labeo rohita inoculated with Aeromonas hydrophila. Alterations in the histopathology of the epidermis were examined using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy and the localization of iNOS and caspase 3 + ve cells by means of immunohistochemical methods. Skin samples obtained from infected fish...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 16:00
The inhibitory properties of novel antimicrobial proteins against food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes offer extensive benefits to the food and medical industries. In this study, we have identified antimicrobial proteins from a milk curd–derived bacterial isolate that exhibits antilisterial activity using genome mining and mass spectrometry analysis. The analysis of the draft...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Spores, the infectious agents of many Firmicutes, are remarkably resilient cell forms. Even distant relatives can have similar spore architectures although some display unique features; they all incorporate protective proteinaceous envelopes. We previously found that Bacillus spores can achieve these protective properties through extensive disulfide cross-linking of self-assembled arrays...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT Since the late 1990s, changes in the epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were recognized with the emergence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). CA-MRSA belonging to clonal complex 152 (CC152), carrying the small staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type V and encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), has been observed in Europe. The aim...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 10:03
In this report, the draft genome sequence of Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a strain IZSAM_Lm_14-16064, isolated in Italy from a cooked ham, is announced. The genome is similar to that of a clinical strain isolated in 2014.
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 08:02
by Csaba Varga, Patience John, Martin Cooke, Shannon E. Majowicz Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) causes a substantial health burden to human populations in Canada and worldwide. Exposure sources and demographic factors vary by location and can therefore have a major impact on salmonellosis clustering. We evaluated major NTS serotypes: S. Enteritidis (n = 620), S. Typhimurium (n = 150), S....
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 08:02
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of bovine mastitis, and intramammary infections caused by this pathogen are often characterized as mild, chronic, or persistent. The strains of Staph. aureus associated with mastitis belong to several distinct bovine-adapted bacterial lineages. Studies of host-pathogen interactions have demonstrated that significant differences exist between Staph....
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Xiao Fei, Qiuchun Li, John Elmerdahl Olsen, Xinan Jiao S. Pullorum and S. Enteritidis are closely related in genetic terms, but they show very different pathogenicity and host range. S. Enteritidis infects many different hosts, usually causing acute gastroenteritis, while S. Pullorum is restricted to avian, where it causes systemic disease in young animals. The reason why they differ...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Dhafer Alshaibani, Robson A.M. Machado, Beth L. Calder, Jennifer J. Perry Survival of L. monocytogenes (LM) and shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) during manufacture and aging of unpasteurized, farmstead-style cheese was investigated. Cheese produced with fresh, unpasteurized milk inoculated with a two-strain cocktail of LM and STEC (both ∼4.5 log cfu mL-1) was aged for 84 days at...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Ihab Habib, John Coles, Mark Fallows, Stan Goodchild Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) is a methodology used to organize and analyze scientific information to both estimate the probability and severity of an adverse event as well as prioritize efforts to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens. No QMRA efforts have been applied to Campylobacter in the Australian...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): John A. Porter, Amit Morey, Emefa A. Monu Essential oils in combination with other antimicrobials can be added to food products to reduce the levels of target microbes below the infectious dose required to cause human illness. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of white mustard essential oil (WMEO) and carvacrol against Salmonella in ground chicken...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 04:02
Past studies have shown that the on-farm distribution of Listeria monocytogenes is affected by environmental factors (e.g., weather). However, the majority of studies were conducted at large scales (e.g., across farms), while few studies examined drivers of L. monocytogenes prevalence at smaller scales (e.g., within a single field). This study was performed to address this knowledge gap by (i)...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 04:02
Pet food has been identified as a source of pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella and Escherichia coli. A recent outbreak linked to Salmonella -contaminated pet treats infected over 150 people in the United States. The mechanism by which contaminated pet food leads to human illness has not been explicated. Pet owners’ food safety knowledge and their pet food handling practices have not been...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 02:02
Food poisoning from consumption of food contaminated with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. is a global problem. A modified high resolution DNA melting curve analysis (m-HRMa) was introduced to provide effective discrimination among closely related HRM curves of amplicons generated from selected Salmonella genome sequences enabled Salmonella spp. to be classified into discrete clusters. Combination...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 00:00
In this study, the inhibitory potential of 3-(5-nitrofuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one derivatives was evaluated against a panel of bacteria, as well as mammalian cell lines to determine their therapeutic index. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of antibiotic action of the derivatives to identify their therapeutic target. We discovered compound 2 to be an extremely potent inhibitor of...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:16
Eudragit RS100 nanoparticles containing Baccharis dracunculifolia DC essential oil (N‐EO) was developed by the nanoprecipitation method. N‐EO presented an average diameter of 151.6 nm, zeta potential (ζ) of +51.7 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 99.4%. The antibacterial activity of N‐EO and free essential oil (EO) was evaluated in BHI broth against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus,...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 22:13
Vibrio vulnificus is a foodborne pathogen causing septicemia with high mortality rate. In this study, we explored how Escherichia coli, one of the commensal bacteria in human gastrointestinal tract, can interact with V. vulnificus. Our study showed that, the amount of biofilm produced by V. vulnificus was reduced in the presence of E. coli ATCC 35218, although the growth of V. vulnificus L‐180...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 12:00
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli is primarily known as a commensal colonising the gastrointestinal tract of infants very early in life but some strains being responsible for diarrhoea, which can be especially severe in young children. Intestinal pathogenic E. coli include six pathotypes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC), namely, the (i) enterotoxigenic E. coli, (ii) enteroaggregative E. coli, (iii)...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 08:02
by Yemane Weldu, Mulugeta Naizgi, Amanuel Hadgu, Abraham Aregay Desta, Amlsha Kahsay, Letemichael Negash, Genet Gebrehiwet Hailu, Araya Gebreyesus Wasihun Background Neonatal septicemia is a life threatening medical emergency that requires timely detection of pathogens with urgent rational antibiotics therapy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2017 to September 2018...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 08:02
by Joelle K. Salazar, Vidya Natarajan, Diana Stewart, Megan Fay, Lauren J. Gonsalves, Tanvi Mhetras, Chinmyee Sule, Mary Lou Tortorello Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) dips often have pH and water activity combinations conducive to the proliferation of foodborne pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes. This study conducted product assessments of five refrigerated RTE dips: baba ghanoush,...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 08:02
Mycobacterium avium is a human and animal pathogen that infects the host through the mucosal surfaces. Past work has demonstrated that the bacterium can interact with both the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Those surfaces in the body are covered by a bilayer of a glycoprotein, mucin, which works as a physical barrier and a gel which contains antibacterial and antivirus properties. This...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 06:10
LWT
Author(s): Marianna M. Furtado, Beatriz S. Silva, César Faviero, Verônica O. Alvarenga, Anderson S. Sant’Ana In this study, dry inocula were developed using four different carriers [talc, fine sand (0.05–0.2 mm), regular sand (0.2–0.6 mm), and calcium carbonate] for validation of inactivation steps of low moisture foods against Salmonella enterica. Besides, the changes in aw and the survival of S...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 06:10
LWT
Author(s): Prashant Singh, Gabriel Cubillos, Gabrielle Kirshteyn, Joseph M. Bosilevac Strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are major foodborne pathogens. These strains are frequently involved in foodborne outbreaks. The aim of this study was to develop high-resolution melting (HRM) real-time PCR assays for the specific detection of O26 and O111. Then apply HRM analysis for...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:04
Bacterial septicemia commonly occurs and usually cause huge losses in sericulture industry. Here, two pathogenic bacterial strains were isolated from dead silkworm and named as ZJ-1 and ZJ-2. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis results revealed that both of these two strains are closely related to Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens). The morphological as well as physiological and biochemical...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 00:00
Antimicrobial resistance is one of today’s major public health challenges. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria have been responsible for an increasing number of deaths in recent decades. These resistant bacteria are also a concern in the food chain, as bacteria can resist common biocides used in the food industry and reach consumers. As a consequence, the search for...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:12
Aim The purpose of this work was to identify and genetically characterize enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O80:H2 from diarrheic and septicemic calves in Belgium and to comparing them with human EHEC after whole genome sequencing. Methods and Results Ten EHEC and 21 EPEC O80 identified by PCR between 2009 and 2018 from feces, intestinal content and a kidney of...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
CexE is a 12 kDa protein that was originally reported to be present in just three strains of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC); a frequent cause of diarrheal illnesses worldwide. However, an examination of sequenced genomes has revealed that CexE is actually present in a majority of ETEC strains. In addition, homologs of CexE are present in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Yersinia...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Recent in vitro studies reported the exceptional ability of some bacterial species to form biofilm-like aggregates in human and animal synovial fluids (SF), but evidences from infected clinical samples are still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether this bacterial phenotype was present in infected SFs collected from joint infections and if it was maintained in in vitro settings. SFs...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Grapholita molesta, the oriental fruit moth, is a serious global pest of many Rosaceae fruit trees. Gut microorganisms play important roles in host nutrition, digestion, detoxification, and resistance to pathogens. However, there are few studies on the microbiota of G. molesta, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, the diversity of gut microbiota across the holometabolous life cycle of G....
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
Escherichia coli strains carrying Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (stx1 and stx2), intimin (eae), and hemolysin (ehxA) production genes were found in grass shoot, rhizosphere soil, and stable manure samples from a small-scale cattle farm located at the center of Netherlands, using cultivation-dependent and -independent microbiological detection techniques. Pasture land with grazing heifers in the first year...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 16:00
ObjectiveThe aims of this study were to describe azithromycin (AZM) susceptibility patterns among Shigella isolates in Anhui, China and identify predictors of resistance with mobile element-mediated genes.MethodsA total of 517 non-duplicate Shigella isolates (449 S. flexneri and 68 S. sonnei) were collected in the Anhui Province of China from September 2011–September 2015, and screened for the...

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