Campylobacter

Sun, 07/05/2020 - 06:12
Author(s): Madeleine Moazzami, Lise-Lotte Fernström, Ingrid Hansson It is critical to maintain low levels of microbes in the whole food production chain. Due to high speed of slaughter, lack of time, and structural characteristics of crates, sufficient cleaning and disinfection of crates used for transporting chickens to abattoirs is a challenge. Inadequately cleaned transport crates for broiler...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 08:02
by Eli J. Cohen, Daisuke Nakane, Yoshiki Kabata, David R. Hendrixson, Takayuki Nishizaka, Morgan Beeby Campylobacter jejuni rotates a flagellum at each pole to swim through the viscous mucosa of its hosts’ gastrointestinal tracts. Despite their importance for host colonization, however, how C. jejuni coordinates rotation of these two opposing flagella is unclear. As well as their polar placement...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): B.R. Wagle, A.M. Donoghue, S. Shrestha, I. Upadhyaya, K. Arsi, A. Gupta, R. Liyanage, N.C. Rath, D.J. Donoghue, A. Upadhyay Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans. Chickens act as the reservoir host for C. jejuni, wherein the pathogen asymptomatically colonizes the ceca leading to contamination of carcasses during slaughter. The major...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Ihab Habib, John Coles, Mark Fallows, Stan Goodchild Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) is a methodology used to organize and analyze scientific information to both estimate the probability and severity of an adverse event as well as prioritize efforts to reduce the risk of foodborne pathogens. No QMRA efforts have been applied to Campylobacter in the Australian...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 10:03
ABSTRACT The most direct route by which microbes might assimilate sulfur would be by importing cysteine. However, alone among the amino acids, cysteine does not have well-characterized importers. We determined that Escherichia coli can rapidly import cysteine, but in our experiments, it did so primarily through the LIV ATP-driven system that is dedicated to branched-chain amino acids. The...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 14:06
Mechanisms of host–pathogen interactions resulting in immunopathological responses upon human Campylobacter jejuni infection are not completely understood, but the recent availability of murine infection models mimicking key features of campylobacteriosis helps solving this dilemma. During a screen for proteases expressed by C. jejuni, we identified a peptidase of the M24 family as a potential...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:02
Florfenicol belongs to a class of phenicol antimicrobials widely used as feed additives and for the treatment of respiratory infections. In recent years, increasing resistance to florfenicol has been reported in Campylobacter spp., the leading foodborne enteric pathogens causing diarrheal diseases worldwide. Here, we reported the identification of fexA, a novel mobile florfenicol resistance gene...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter is a zoonotic pathogen that causes foodborne diarrheal illness globally. To better understand health risks in Southeastern China, Campylobacter spp. were surveyed in humans and representative poultry products over 3 years. One hundred and ninety-five representative isolates (n = 148, Campylobacter jejuni; n = 45, Campylobacter coli; n = 2 Campylobacter hyointestinalis) were examined...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 10:02
Small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in many important physiological functions in pathogenic microorganisms. Previous studies have identified the presence of noncoding RNAs in the major zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni; however, few have been functionally characterized to date. CjNC110 is a conserved ncRNA in C. jejuni, located downstream of the luxS gene, which is responsible for the...
Mon, 06/22/2020 - 22:17
This study was carried out to investigate the frequency and genetic diversity of pestiviruses in abortion cases in cattle and small ruminants in Turkey. During January 2012 and December 2017, a total of 2029 aborted foetuses (553 bovine foetuses, 1388 sheep foetuses and 88 goat foetuses) were collected from different regions of Turkey. Real‐time RT‐PCR (RRT‐PCR) assays were used to detect...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis, is a fastidious organism when grown in the laboratory. Oxygen is required for growth, despite the presence of the metabolic mechanism for anaerobic respiration. Amino acid auxotrophies are variably reported and energy metabolism can occur through several electron donor/acceptor combinations. Overall, the...
Thu, 06/18/2020 - 10:02
The microbiota plays a vital role in maintaining gut health and influences the overall performance of chickens. Most gut microbiota-related studies have been performed in broilers, which have different microbial communities compared to those of layers. The normal gut microbiota of laying chickens is dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria at the...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
Antimicrobial use in agricultural animals is known to be associated with increases in antimicrobial resistance. Most prior studies have utilized culture and susceptibility testing of select organisms to document these phenomena. In this study we aimed to detect 66 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes for 10 antimicrobial agent classes directly in swine fecal samples using our previously developed...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
Campylobacter fetus is commonly associated with venereal disease and abortions in cattle and sheep, and can also cause intestinal or systemic infections in humans that are immunocompromised, elderly, or exposed to infected livestock. It is also believed that C. fetus infection can result from the consumption or handling of contaminated food products, but C. fetus is rarely detected in food since...
Wed, 06/17/2020 - 16:00
Raw milk is a frequent vehicle for transmission of thermophilic Campylobacter, leading to reported outbreaks. Milk is a challenging food matrix for pathogen detection, due to its high protein and lipid content. Limited detection of Campylobacter colony-forming unit (CFU) in raw milk might underestimate the pathogen’s infectious potential. We optimized a viability real-time PCR (qPCR) for...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 22:16
Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and the most frequently reported foodborne pathogen in the European Union (EU). The predominant source of infection is poultry. The reduction of Campylobacter spp. in the poultry meat chain in the EU can only be achieved with an integrated meat safety assurance approach. Abstract Campylobacter is the most common cause...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 00:00
Campylobacteriosis is the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, very often associated with poultry consumption. Thermophilic Campylobacter (Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli) isolates (n = 158) recovered from broiler neck skin and caecal contents in Ireland over a one-year period, resistant to at least one of three clinically relevant antimicrobial classes, were screened for...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:52
It is important for the poultry industry to maximize product safety and quality by understanding the connection between bacterial diversity on chicken carcasses throughout poultry processing to the end of shelf life and the impact of the local processing environment. Enumeration of total aerobic bacteria, Campylobacter and Pseudomonas, and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing were used to evaluate...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:47
Understanding consumers’ perceptions toward chicken meat safety and quality could provide valuable information to public health educators since it is the most consumed meat. This study explores perceptions of a group of South African consumers on the safety and quality of chicken meat based on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes and identifies related safety risks. Data were collected through a...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:48
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In the United States, New Hampshire was one of the 18 states that reported cases in the 2016 to 2018 multistate outbreak of multidrug-resistant C. jejuni. Here, we aimed to elucidate the baseline diversity of the wider New Hampshire C. jejuni population during the outbreak. We used genome sequences of 52...
Wed, 05/27/2020 - 03:36
Campylobacter jejuni monitors intestinal metabolites produced by the host and microbiota to initiate intestinal colonization of avian and animal hosts for commensalism and infection of humans for diarrheal disease. We previously discovered that C. jejuni has the capacity to spatially discern different intestinal regions by sensing lactate and the short-chain...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:47
Bacteria of the genus Campylobacter are major foodborne pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to clinically important antimicrobial agents (1). In China, Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of human Campylobacter infections, whereas Campylobacter coli isolates exhibit a distinctly higher multidrug resistance rate. Fluoroquinolones and macrolides are the most frequently used...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:39
Aim To investigate factors influencing Campylobacter spp. colonization of broiler chickens. Methods and Results Campylobacters were isolated from caeca from 319 flocks of two different breeds (199 Cobb and 120 Hubbard), reared as standard (199), Freedom Food/corn fed (57), free‐range (47) or organic (16). The standard category exclusively used Cobb birds slaughtered at 38‐41 days. The Freedom...
Wed, 05/20/2020 - 03:35
Modern agriculture has dramatically changed the distribution of animal species on Earth. Changes to host ecology have a major impact on the microbiota, potentially increasing the risk of zoonotic pathogens being transmitted to humans, but the impact of intensive livestock production on host-associated bacteria has rarely been studied. Here, we...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is an integral component of the Campylobacter cell membrane with a structure of core oligosaccharides forming inner and outer core regions and a lipid A moiety. The gene content of the LOS core biosynthesis cluster exhibits extensive sequence variation, which leads to the production of variable cell surface LOS structures in Campylobacter. Some LOS outer core molecules...
Tue, 05/12/2020 - 03:43
Author(s): Akram R. Alaboudi, Ismail M. Malkawi, Tareq M. Osaili, Ehab A. Abu-Basha, Javier Guitian Campylobacter is the world's leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, causing nearly 9 million cases of food poisoning in Europe every year. Poultry is considered the main source of Campylobacter infection to humans. The objectives of the study were to determine occurrence of C. jejuni and C....
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:48
Author(s): Matthew J. Sylte, Daniel C. Shippy, Bradley L. Bearson, Shawn M.D. Bearson Consumption of contaminated poultry products, including chicken livers, is the main source of human campylobacteriosis and approximately 90% of human cases are caused by Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni (C. jejuni). Recent culinary trends that favor undercooked chicken livers may be responsible for outbreaks....
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:40
Aiming at investigating the potential sources of Campylobacter spp. contamination in pig slaughterhouse in eastern China, a total of 2056 samples were collected in pork production chain stretching from the upstream farm to the slaughterhouse, including 54 cloacal swabs from 54 live pigs on farm, 1726 samples from 214 pig carcasses along the eight main steps in the slaughtering line, and 276...
Wed, 05/06/2020 - 03:45
The present study investigated the effects of combined ultrasound (37 kHz, 380 W for 5 min) and peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 50–200 ppm) treatment on the reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter jejuni on chicken skin. Ultrasound was not sufficient to inactivate S. Typhimurium (0.48 log CFU/g reduction) or C. jejuni (0.25 log CFU/g reduction), whereas PAA significantly (p < .05)...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:43
Background Campylobacter bacteria infect both humans and animals. Sources of human exposure include contaminated food and water, contact with animals and/or their faeces, and contact with infected individuals. The objectives of this study were to: (a) identify environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in humans in four regions of Ontario, and (b) identify pooled...
Mon, 05/04/2020 - 03:38
Campylobacteriosis is one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide causing economic costs. The high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat is a result of several contamination and cross‐contamination sources through the production chain. Moreover, survival mechanisms, such as biofilm formation, viable but nonculturable state, and antimicrobial resistance, enable its persistence...
Fri, 05/01/2020 - 03:46
Campylobacter species are the leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide and an emerging threat in developing countries. Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequences of 51 Campylobacter jejuni and 12 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from patients with gastroenteritis in Santiago, Chile.
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:46
ABSTRACT Bacterial flagella are rotating nanomachines required for motility. Flagellar gene expression and protein secretion are coordinated for efficient flagellar biogenesis. Polar flagellates, unlike peritrichous bacteria, commonly order flagellar rod and hook gene transcription as a separate step after production of the MS ring, C ring, and flagellar type III secretion system (fT3SS) core...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:35
This study describes the development and use of bacteriophage cocktails to control Campylobacter in broiler chickens, in a commercial setting, in Queensland Australia, following the birds from farm to the processing plant. The components of the bacteriophage cocktails were selected to be effective against the maximum number of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates encountered on SE...
Wed, 04/22/2020 - 03:44
by Anniina Jaakkonen, Rauni Kivistö, Maria Aarnio, Jenni Kalekivi, Marjaana Hakkinen Campylobacter jejuni has caused several campylobacteriosis outbreaks via raw milk consumption. This study reports follow-up of a milk-borne campylobacteriosis outbreak that revealed persistent C. jejuni contamination of bulk tank milk for seven months or longer. Only the outbreak-causing strain, representing...
Sun, 04/19/2020 - 03:46
Campylobacter spp. have been recognized as major foodborne pathogens worldwide. An increasing frequency of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., have been identified to transmit from food products to humans and cause severe threats to public health. To better mitigate the antibiotic resistance crisis, rapid detection methods are required to provide timely antimicrobial...
Wed, 04/15/2020 - 03:25
Sequencing studies have shown that optimal vaginal microbiota (VMB) are lactobacilli-dominated and that anaerobes associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV-anaerobes) are commonly present. However, they overlooked a less prevalent but more pathogenic group of vaginal bacteria: the pathobionts that cause maternal and neonatal infections and pelvic inflammatory disease. We conducted an individual...
Tue, 04/14/2020 - 03:33
LWT
Author(s): Ye Ji Song, Hwan Hee Yu, Yeon Jin Kim, Na-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Dong Paik Papain is a cysteine protease isolated from Carica papaya that has been used for various purpose in the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of papain on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) biofilms. Papain did not affect the viability of cells, even at...
Sat, 04/11/2020 - 03:26
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common bacteria responsible for human gastroenteritis worldwide. The mode of human transmission is foodborne infections due to consumption of contaminated food,...
Fri, 04/10/2020 - 03:29
Campylobacter jejuni, a foodborne pathogen, is one of the most common bacterial causes of gastroenteritis in the world. Undercooked poultry, raw (unpasteurized) dairy products, untreated water, and contaminated produce are the most common sources associated with infection. C. jejuni establishes a niche in the gut by adhering to and invading epithelial cells, which results in diarrhea with blood...
Thu, 04/09/2020 - 03:30
Microbiological surveillance of the food chain plays a critical role in improving our understanding of the distribution and circulation of food-borne pathogens along the farm to fork continuum toward the development of interventions to reduce the burden of illness. The application of molecular subtyping to bacterial isolates collected through surveillance has led to the identification of strains...
Thu, 04/02/2020 - 03:33
In a structured survey of all major chicken-meat producers in Australia, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni (n = 108) and C. coli (n = 96) from cecal samples of chickens at slaughter (n = 200). The majority of the C. jejuni (63%) and C. coli (86.5%) samples were susceptible to all antimicrobials. Fluoroquinolone resistance was...
Fri, 03/27/2020 - 03:42
Campylobacter spp. are one of the most important food-borne pathogens, which are quite susceptible to environmental or technological stressors compared to other zoonotic bacteria. This might be due to the lack of many stress response mechanisms described in other bacteria. Nevertheless, Campylobacter is able to survive in the environment and food products. Although some aspects of the heat stress...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 04:04
by Anna Marta Banaś, Katarzyna Marta Bocian-Ostrzycka, Maciej Plichta, Stanisław Dunin-Horkawicz, Jan Ludwiczak, Jagoda Płaczkiewicz, Elżbieta Katarzyna Jagusztyn-Krynicka Posttranslational generation of disulfide bonds catalyzed by bacterial Dsb (disulfide bond) enzymes is essential for the oxidative folding of many proteins. Although we now have a good understanding of the Escherichia coli...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:43
FlhF is a key protein required for complete flagellar synthesis, and its deletion results in the complete absence of a flagella and thus motility in Campylobacter jejuni. However, the specific mechanism still remains unknown. In this study, RNA-Seq, EMSAs, ChIP-qPCR and β-Galactosidase assays were performed to elucidate the novel interactions between FlhF and genes involved in flagellar synthesis...
Sat, 03/21/2020 - 03:26
Many bacterial pathogens display glycosylated surface structures that contribute to virulence, and targeting these structures is a viable strategy for pathogen control. The foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni expresses a vast diversity of flagellar glycans, and flagellar glycosylation is essential for its virulence. Little is known about why C. jejuni encodes such a diverse set of flagellar...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:33
Campylobacteriosis is the leading foodborne bacterial diarrheal illness in many countries, with up to 80% of human cases attributed to the avian reservoir. The only control strategies currently available are stringent on-farm biosecurity and carcass treatments. Heritable differences in the resistance of chicken lines to Campylobacter colonization have been reported and resistance-associated...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 03:57
Author(s): S. Kumar, M. Singh, D.E. Cosby, N.A. Cox, H. Thippareddi Poultry processors use antimicrobials to reduce the risk of pathogens on poultry and poultry products. Efficacy of selective and nonselective plating media to enumerate injured Salmonella (selective media—brilliant green sulfa agar and Petrifilm Enterobacteriaceae Plate Count; nonselective media—tryptic soy agar and Petrifilm...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:25
Campylobacter jejuni is a major foodborne pathogen worldwide. As it forms biofilms, it can become a persistent contaminant in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, it was demonstrated that C. jejuni could make more biofilm in aerobic conditions than in microaerobic conditions, and only 13.9% C. jejuni entered coccus (a VBNC state) under microaerobic conditions; however, the rate...
Fri, 03/06/2020 - 03:46
Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread zoonotic pathogen and the leading bacterial cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in humans. Previous infection studies showed disruption of intercellular contacts, induction of epithelial apoptosis, and immune activation, all three contributing to intestinal barrier dysfunction leading to diarrhea. The present study aims to determine the impact of subepithelial...

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