Natural toxins

Sat, 09/10/2016 - 00:00
Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread throughout the world and are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. PAs require metabolic activation to form reactive dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro-PAs) that are capable of alkylating cellular DNA and proteins, form (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-DNA and...
Thu, 09/01/2016 - 00:00
This study was conducted to design a biosensor as a new, rapid, and sensitive tool for investigation of binding of zearalenone with double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) as a polycation and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) provide a positively charged surface with a high surface area for the immobilization of dsDNA as a polyanion on the...
Thu, 08/11/2016 - 03:20
Adam Perczak, Krzysztof Juś, Katarzyna Marchwińska, Daniela Gwiazdowska, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Piotr Goliński
Mon, 08/08/2016 - 00:00
Wine and fermenting musts are grape products widely consumed worldwide. Since the presence of mycotoxin-producing fungi may greatly compromise their quality characteristics and safety, there is an increasing need for relatively rapid “user friendly” quantitative assays to detect fungal contamination both in grapes delivered to wineries and in final products. Although other fungi are most...
Thu, 08/04/2016 - 23:02
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2016 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): Ricardo Assunção, Carla Martins, Didier Dupont, Paula Alvito Patulin (PAT) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are well known enteropathogenic mycotoxins that are present in several foodstuffs. Processed cereal-based foods are among the first solid foods eaten by children, a particularly vulnerable population...
Wed, 08/03/2016 - 23:02
Publication date: October 2016 Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 96 Author(s): Y.N. Gao, J.Q. Wang, S.L. Li, Y.D. Zhang, N. Zheng Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a class 2B human carcinogen, is the only mycotoxin with established maximum residue limits (MRLs) in milk. Toxicological data for other mycotoxins in baby food, containing cereals and milk, either in isolation or in combination...
Wed, 08/03/2016 - 04:11
Abstract Toxic dinoflagellates pose serious threats to human health and to fisheries. The genus Gambierdiscus is significant in this respect because its members produce ciguatoxin that accumulates in predominantly tropical marine food webs and leads to ciguatera fish poisoning. Understanding the biology of toxic dinoflagellates is crucial to developing control strategies. To this end, we...
Sun, 07/31/2016 - 07:18
Publication date: February 2017 , Volume 72, Part A Author(s): Fadwa Al-Taher, Jack Cappozzo, Jerry Zweigenbaum, Hyun Jung Lee, Lauren Jackson, Dojin Ryu The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, and HT-2 toxin in infant...
Sat, 07/30/2016 - 22:57
Publication date: October 2016 Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 96 Author(s): Elena Tatay, Guillermina Font, Maria-Jose Ruiz Zearalenone (ZEA) and its metabolites (α-zearalenol; α-ZOL, β-zearalenol; β-ZOL) are secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi that produce cell injury. The present study explores mycotoxin-induced cell damage and cellular protection mechanisms in CHO-K1 cells....
Wed, 07/27/2016 - 00:00
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are the most frequently encountered mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species in livestock diets. The effect of subclinical doses of mycotoxins in chickens is largely unknown, and in particular the susceptibility of birds to pathogenic challenge when fed these fungal metabolites. Therefore, the present study reports the effects of DON and FB on chickens...
Thu, 07/21/2016 - 00:10
Abstract BACKGROUNDImmunoassays are widely employed techniques to detect aflatoxins since they are rapid, selective and sensitive. One common disadvantage of them is using aflatoxins as standard substances, which may trigger exposure risks to operators and environment contamination without proper handling. Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids or Ab2s), also named as internal-image anti-Ids, are...
Wed, 07/20/2016 - 00:00
Evaluation of environmental risk factors in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is needed for a more complete understanding of disease etiology and best approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. A pilot experiment in 54 children (n = 25 ASD, n = 29 controls; aged 12.4 ± 3.9 years) screened for 87 urinary mycotoxins via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to...
Tue, 07/19/2016 - 10:02
Publication date: 17 October 2016 , Volume 235 Author(s): Najim Touhami, Katharina Buhl, Markus Schmidt-Heydt, Rolf Geisen It is well known that the type and the availability of nitrogen have a great influence on the biosynthesis of certain mycotoxins. Here it is shown that some amino acids have no influence, some others strongly support and a third group inhibits the biosynthesis of...
Mon, 07/18/2016 - 15:54
Publication date: January 2017 , Volume 71 Author(s): Hossein Rastegar, Shahram Shoeibi, Hassan Yazdanpanah, Maryam Amirahmadi, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Fernanda Bovo Campagnollo, Anderson S. Sant’Ana Nowadays, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) could be considered as one of the most hazardous mycotoxins for humans, and nuts comprise one of the major responsible food categories for human...
Mon, 07/18/2016 - 02:15
Abstract The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition, fungal and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contaminations in raw camel milk samples collected from seven dairy farms in Yazd province, Iran. Milk samples (10 samples from each of 7 farms) were collected in autumn and winter seasons. The mean contents of protein, fat and ash ranged from 2.14 to 3.28%, 1.52 to 2.01%, and 0.93 to 0.97...
Sun, 07/17/2016 - 20:42
Publication date: Available online 16 July 2016 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): Guoqing Qian, Lili Tang, Shuhan Lin, Kathy S. Xue, Nicol J. Mitchell, Jianjia Su, Wentzel C. Gelderblom, Ronald T. Riley, Timothy D. Phillips, Jia-Sheng Wang Dietary co-exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) and their interaction on hepatocellular carcinogenesis is of...
Thu, 07/14/2016 - 23:00
Publication date: January 2017 , Volume 71 Author(s): K. Raksha Rao, A.V. Vipin, P. Hariprasad, K.A. Anu Appaiah, G. Venkateswaran Aflatoxin B1 is the most harmful among the mycotoxins commonly present in food and feed, and it may lead to hepatocellular carcinoma in humans and animals. Therefore, limiting its exposure to humans and livestock is very much essential. The present study...
Wed, 07/13/2016 - 00:00
Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries) from aqueous solutions was explored. The biosorbent was used at 0.5% (w/v) in samples spiked with 100 ng/mL of B-...
Wed, 07/06/2016 - 22:07
Publication date: January 2017 , Volume 71 Author(s): Zahra Sarlak, Milad Rouhi, Reza Mohammadi, Ramin Khaksar, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Sara Sohrabvandi, Farhad Garavand Aflatoxin M1 is an important mycotoxin mostly found in milk and dairy products. The main objective of this work was to study the effects of probiotic strains, a probiotic inoculated population, the physiology...
Wed, 07/06/2016 - 22:07
Publication date: January 2017 , Volume 71 Author(s): M.C. Temba, P.B. Njobeh, E. Kayitesi Defatting of groundnut flour used for composite development can not only improve nutritional quality of its products but also the storage stability. Maize, groundnut and their composite (full fat and defatted) flours were prepared and stored at room temperature over a period of 3 months. Storage...
Wed, 07/06/2016 - 08:15
Abstract BACKGROUNDContamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has posed serious economic and health problem worldwide, developing biological methods for AFB1 degradation is highly required. RESULTSAmong three AFB1 degrading microorganisms isolated from moldy peanut, Fusarium sp. WCQ3361 could remove AFB1 extremely effective with a degradation ratio of 70.20% after 1 min and 95.38%...
Wed, 07/06/2016 - 00:00
Current regulation for marine toxins requires a monitoring method based on mass spectrometric analysis. This method is pre-targeted, hence after searching for pre-assigned masses, it identifies those compounds that were pre-defined with available calibrants. Therefore, the scope for detecting novel toxins which are not included in the monitoring protocol are very limited. In addition to this,...
Mon, 07/04/2016 - 20:35
Antifungal activities of four essential oils from mint, garlic, sage and wild oregano were evaluated against ochratoxigenic Penicillium verrucosum incubated at different times. The fungal mycelium growth was completely inhibited (fungicidal effect) at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25% of the garlic and wild oregano essential oils. However, concentrations of 0.125 and 0.065% of essential oils were...
Mon, 07/04/2016 - 00:00
Since ochratoxin A (OTA) was discovered, it has been ubiquitous as a natural contaminant of moldy food and feed. The multiple toxic effects of OTA are a real threat for human beings and animal health. For example, OTA can cause porcine nephropathy but can also damage poultries. Humans exposed to OTA can develop (notably by inhalation in the development of acute renal failure within 24 h) a range...
Sat, 07/02/2016 - 21:48
Publication date: January 2017 , Volume 71 Author(s): Soisuda Pornpukdeewattana, Soraya Kerdpiboon, Aphacha Jindaprasert, Patcharaporn Pandee, Montinee Teerarak, Warawut Krusong The efficacy of vapor-phase (VP) upland rice vinegar (URV) was investigated as a bio-fumigant for maize, to reduce consumer health risks associated with spore and toxin formation by Aspergillus flavus....
Fri, 07/01/2016 - 09:54
Publication date: September 2016 Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 95 Author(s): Stefanie C. Fleck, Mona I. Churchwell, Daniel R. Doerge, Justin G. Teeguarden Urine and serum biomonitoring was used to measure internal exposure to selected dietary estrogens in a cohort of 30 pregnant women. Exposure was measured over a period comprising one-half day in the field (6 h) and one day in...
Tue, 06/28/2016 - 03:57
Publication date: January 2017 , Volume 71 Author(s): Hamed K. Abbas, W. Thomas Shier, Javier Plasencia, Mark A. Weaver, Nacer Bellaloui, Jeremy K. Kotowicz, Alemah M. Butler, Cesare Accinelli, M. Eugenia de la Torre-Hernandez, Robert M. Zablotowicz Corn infected with Ustilago maydis, causal agent of common smut disease, produces galls that are used as food in certain...
Tue, 06/28/2016 - 00:00
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) traditionally have been analyzed by liquid chromatography with either pre- or post-column derivatization and always with a silica-based stationary phase. This technique resulted in different methods that need more than one run to analyze the toxins. Furthermore, tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently found in bivalves of northward locations in Europe due to climate...
Fri, 06/24/2016 - 03:45
Publication date: January 2017 , Volume 71 Author(s): N. Nidhina, M.L. Bhavya, N. Bhaskar, S.P. Muthukumar, Pushpa S. Murthy Cow milk in infant and human nutrition is very significant. However, contamination of milk with aflatoxins is considered as a potential risk for human health. Aflatoxin is one of the major etiological factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and...
Tue, 06/21/2016 - 05:40
ABSTRACT BACKGROUNDOchratoxin A (OTA) contamination is highly prevalent in a variety of agricultural products including the commercially important coffee bean. As such rapid and accurate detection methods are considered necessary for the identification of OTA in green coffee beans. The goal of this research was to apply FT-NIR spectroscopy to detect and classify OTA contamination in green coffee...
Mon, 06/20/2016 - 13:50
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) seasoning has been traditionally used to preserve groundnut oils expelled locally in rural Southern India. The phytoconstituents of ginger extract were identified by GC-MS and assessed for bioavailability, in silico interactions, total antioxidant content, antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic activities. The effects of ginger seasoning on the physicochemical,...
Thu, 06/16/2016 - 14:07
Publication date: July 2016 , Volume 85 Author(s): Arnau Vidal, Jordi Bendicho, Vicente Sanchis, Antonio J. Ramos, Sonia Marín The stability of deoxynivalenol (DON), deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-glucoside) and ochratoxin A (OTA) during spaghetti production and cooking was investigated. Initial mycotoxin concentration, boiling time and use of egg as ingredient were assayed as...
Thu, 06/16/2016 - 13:59
Publication date: 16 September 2016 , Volume 233 Author(s): Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo, Patrick Berka Njobeh, Sibusiso Sidu, Matsobane Godfrey Tlou, Vuyo Mavumengwana Aflatoxin contamination remains a daunting issue to address in food safety. In spite of the efforts geared towards prevention and elimination of this toxin, it still persists in agricultural commodities. This has...
Thu, 06/16/2016 - 13:59
Publication date: 16 August 2016 , Volume 231 Author(s): María Silvina Alaniz Zanon, Germán Gustavo Barros, Sofía Noemí Chulze Biological control is one of the most promising strategies for preventing aflatoxin contamination in peanuts at field stage. A population of 46 native Aspergillus flavus nonaflatoxin producers were analysed based on phenotypic, physiological and genetic...
Thu, 06/16/2016 - 10:46
Journal of Agricultural and Food ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02320
Wed, 06/15/2016 - 00:00
Abstract Pufferfish, Lagocephalus sceleratus, L. suezensis and L. spadiceus, are widely distributed Lessepsian species along the Turkish and other eastern Mediterranean coasts. L. sceleratus is considered one of the worst invasive species in the Mediterranean Sea and recently caused human intoxication by accidental consumption. Therefore, methods to assess pufferfish toxicity...
Tue, 06/14/2016 - 03:20
Muthulakshmi Sellamani, Naveen K. Kalagatur, Chandranayaka Siddaiah, Venkataramana Mudili, Kadirvelu Krishna, Gopalan Natarajan, Venkata L. Rao Putcha
Fri, 06/10/2016 - 11:07
Publication date: December 2016 , Volume 70 Author(s): Nur Nazurah Mohd Azaman, Nitty Hirawaty Kamarulzaman, Mad Nasir Shamsudin, Jinap Selamat The aims of this study were to identify the differences in terms of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of aflatoxins contamination amongst stakeholders of peanut-based products and to determine factors that mostly influence stakeholders’...
Wed, 06/08/2016 - 22:19
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): Mosaad A. Abdel-Wahhab, Asmaa S. Salman, Mohamed I.M. Ibrahim, Ahmed A. El-Kady, Sekena H. Abdel-Aziem, Nabila S. Hassan, Ahmed I. Waly The current study aimed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin nanoparticles loaded hydrogels (Cur-NPs-Hgs) against AFB1-induced genotoxicity in rat...
Tue, 06/07/2016 - 05:47
The effects of O3 concentration, exposure time and grain mass were evaluated on the levels of deoxynivalenol, aflatoxins and total fungal count (TFC) in wheat grains, using a full 23 factorial design. Grain samples were contaminated with fungal conidia and spiked with mycotoxins standards and then submitted to ozonation treatments. The most significant reductions obtained for deoxynivalenol and...
Tue, 06/07/2016 - 04:18
Publication date: December 2016 , Volume 70 Author(s): Özlem Çağındı, Okan Fatih Gürhayta In this study, 50 dried eggplant and 50 dried green bell pepper samples were analyzed in terms of their aflatoxin and ochratoxin A (OTA) content. Aflatoxins G2, G1, B2, and B1, and OTA contents were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography with a flame ionization detector (HPLC–FID)....
Tue, 06/07/2016 - 00:00
Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the...
Mon, 06/06/2016 - 04:18
Publication date: December 2016 , Volume 70 Author(s): Bui Thi Mai Huong, Le Danh Tuyen, Tran Thanh Do, Henry Madsen, Leon Brimer, Anders Dalsgaard Mycotoxins in food are increasingly a food safety hazard concern in particular in developing countries. This study was performed to determine the occurrence and determinants of aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in rice and maize...

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