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Natural toxins

Thu, 06/04/2015 - 01:33
Publication date: 1 January 2016 , Volume 190 Author(s): Seonghee Ahn , Suyoung Lee , Joonhee Lee , Byungjoo Kim Ochratoxin A (OTA), a naturally occurring mycotoxin, has been frequently detected in doenjang, a traditional fermented soybean paste, when it is fermented under improper conditions. Reliable screening of OTA in traditional fermented soybean paste (doenjang) is a special food-...
Wed, 06/03/2015 - 01:20
Several Fusarium species produce the polyketide mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA), a causative agent of hyperestrogenic syndrome in animals that is often found in F. graminearum-infected cereals in temperate regions. The ZEA biosynthetic cluster genes PKS4, PKS13, ZEB1, and ZEB2 encode a reducing polyketide synthase, a nonreducing polyketide synthase, an isoamyl alcohol oxidase, and a transcription...
Sat, 05/30/2015 - 06:20
The intestinal epithelium is the first barrier against food contaminants. Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that was identified as a common contaminant of cereal grains and food and feedstuffs. In the present study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of ZEN and some of its metabolites (α-ZOL, β-ZOL) in concentrations of 10–100 µM on a swine epithelial cell line: Intestinal...
Sat, 05/30/2015 - 06:20
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to examine effects of wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, DON 41 mg·kg−1) on growth performance and selected health indices of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. mossambicus; initial weight = 4.3 g/fish). Five experimental diets were formulated by replacement of clean wheat with naturally contaminated wheat resulting...
Thu, 05/28/2015 - 01:27
This study investigated the effects of necrotic enteritis challenge or a necrotic enteritis challenge with an additional challenge from dietary aflatoxin B1 compared to broilers that were unchallenged. Also tested were products designed to help alleviate those effects. Lesion scores were higher in broilers challenged to induce necrotic enteritis, but this did not increase with added aflatoxin....
Mon, 05/25/2015 - 06:20
Scope : In this study human exposure to the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and its thermal degradation product 2’R-ochratoxin A (2’R-OTA, previously named as 14R-Ochratoxin A [22]) through coffee consumption was assessed. LC-MS/MS and the dried blood spot (DBS) technique were used for the analysis of blood samples from coffee and non-coffee drinkers (n = 50), and food frequency questionnaires were...
Fri, 05/22/2015 - 03:20
A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-UV (HPLC-UV) method, based on the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) Official method 2000.02, was developed and validated for the high-throughput analysis of patulin in in vitro experiments on apple puree agar medium (APAM). The importance of repeating the ethyl acetate extraction step at liquid-liquid extraction (LLE...
Thu, 05/21/2015 - 06:20
During official shellfish control for the presence of marine biotoxins in Greece in year 2012, a series of unexplained positive mouse bioassays (MBA) for lipophilic toxins with nervous symptomatology prior to mice death was observed in mussels from Vistonikos Bay–Lagos, Rodopi. This atypical toxicity coincided with (a) absence or low levels of regulated and some non-regulated toxins in mussels...
Thu, 05/21/2015 - 01:21
Publication date: 17 August 2015 , Volume 207 Author(s): Sara H. Ahlberg , Vesa Joutsjoki , Hannu J. Korhonen Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous mycotoxins contaminating food and feed. Consumption of contaminated food and feed can cause a severe health risk to humans and animals. A novel biological method could reduce the health risks of aflatoxins through inhibiting mold growth and binding...
Thu, 05/21/2015 - 01:21
Publication date: 3 August 2015 , Volume 206 Author(s): Yuanyuan Zong , Boqiang Li , Shiping Tian Patulin, a potent mycotoxin which can cause serious health concerns, is mainly produced in foods by Penicillium expansum . Environmental factors play important roles in regulating biosynthesis of mycotoxins; however, information about the effects of environmental factors on patulin production...
Sat, 05/16/2015 - 01:26
Publication date: August 2015 , Volume 74 Author(s): M. Georgiadou , Chr. Gardeli , M. Komaitis , D.I. Tsitsigiannis , E.J. Paplomatas , K. Sotirakoglou , S. Yanniotis The volatile profile of four different groups of dried pistachios namely: H: healthy, NC: naturally contaminated with aflatoxin, AC: artificially contaminated with aflatoxigenic strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus...
Thu, 05/14/2015 - 03:20
A high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (LC-Orbitrap MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 20 Fusarium toxins (nivalenol, fusarenon-X, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, fumonisin B3, fumonisin A1, fumonisin A2, fumonisin A3,...
Sat, 05/09/2015 - 03:20
The study explores antifungal, anti-aflatoxigenic and antioxidant efficacy of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (ROEO) and its major compounds. In addition, the mode of action of ROEO and its practical efficacy as preservative have been assessed. GC-MS analysis of ROEO identified 16 compounds; α-pinene, 1,8-cineole and camphor being the major compounds. The minimum concentration for inhibition...
Wed, 05/06/2015 - 20:00
Abstract A candy was developed using natural ingredients without any addition of chemical compounds or preservatives to supplement iron, calcium and vitamin E in the diet. Moisture content, texture, carbohydrates, nitrogen content, protein content, calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamin E and aflatoxins were evaluated and 9-point hedonic test was used to analyze the overall...
Mon, 05/04/2015 - 03:20
Anke Stüken, Pilar Riobó, José Franco, Kjetill Sigurd Jakobsen, Laure Guillou and Rosa Isabel Figueroa
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 01:22
Scombrotoxin fish poisoning remains the primary cause of seafood poisoning outbreaks despite preventive guidelinesThe purpose of this study was to investigate the use of pH for the control of growth and histamine formation by histamine-producing bacteria in fish muscle. We examined pH effects on growth and histamine formation in tuna fish infusion broth and in inoculated tuna and mahi-mahi fish...
Wed, 04/29/2015 - 01:22
Publication date: 15 November 2015 , Volume 187 Author(s): Karim C. Piacentini , Geovana D. Savi , Maria E.V. Pereira , Vildes M. Scussel The industrial use of barley grain has experienced continuous growth, mainly due to its economic importance for malt production. From a technological perspective, fungal persistence can reduce product marketability and cause economic losses. In this...
Fri, 04/24/2015 - 03:20
Publication date: June 2015 , Volume 72 Author(s): Ana García-Moraleja , Guillermina Font , Jordi Mañes , Emilia Ferrer A new method for the simultaneous detection of 21 mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B 1 , aflatoxin B 2, aflatoxin G 1 , aflatoxin G 2 , sterigmatocystin, nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, HT-...
Thu, 04/23/2015 - 01:22
This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) binding capacity of a beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and the efficacy of BFR to ameliorate the toxic effects of AFB1 on performance, serum biochemistry, and histology of broilers. The BFR was collected from a microbrewery, and the yeast cells were counted, dried, and milled before it was used in the...
Tue, 04/14/2015 - 01:18
In chickens, the effect of mycotoxins, especially fumonisins (FB), in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is not well documented. Thus, this study in broiler chicks determined the effects of consuming diets prepared with Fusarium verticillioides culture material containing FB on intestinal gene expression and on the sphinganine (Sa)/sphingosine (So) ratio (Sa/So; a biomarker of FB effect due to...
Tue, 04/14/2015 - 01:18
Ochratoxins are a mycotoxin family frequently found in agricultural commodities worldwide and pose a potential health risk to humans and animals. To obtain large amounts of high-purity ochratoxins for food safety monitoring and toxicological research, a novel and effective method was established for simultaneous purification of ochratoxin A (OTA) and ochratoxin B (OTB) from a wheat culture...
Tue, 04/14/2015 - 01:18
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi contaminating foods and feeds in pre-, post-harvest and processing, and represent a great concern worldwide, both for the economic implications and for the health of the consumers. Many environmental conditions are involved in the regulation of mycotoxin biosynthesis. Among these, light represents one of the most important signals...
Fri, 04/10/2015 - 01:21
The more frequent occurrence of both marine and freshwater toxic algal blooms and recent problems with new toxic events have increased the risk for illness and negatively impacted sustainable public access to safe shellfish and recreational waters in Washington State. Marine toxins that affect safe shellfish harvest in the state are the saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP),...
Wed, 04/08/2015 - 03:20
The worldwide occurrence of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), genotoxic mycotoxins, in raw maize, rice, sorghum and wheat samples collected since the year 2000 was evaluated using published data and occurrence data from the GEMS/Food database (https://extranet.who.int/gemsfood). Dietary risk assessments were conducted using GEMS/Food total aflatoxin occurrence and food consumption data...
Wed, 04/08/2015 - 01:23
Publication date: October 2015 , Volume 56 Author(s): Jeremy R. Schwartzbord , Dan L. Brown The primary objective of this study was to monitor aflatoxin contamination in Haitian samples of raw peanuts (n = 21), peanut butters (n = 32), and maize (n = 30) obtained in Port-au-Prince and Cap Haitien, Haiti, during 2012 and 2013. Our secondary objective was to explore a process that uses a...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: February 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 76 Author(s): Yuan-Zhen Wu , Fu-Pu Lu , Hai-Lan Jian , Cui-Ping Tan , Dong-Sheng Yao , Chun-Fang Xie , Da-Ling Liu AFO (aflatoxin oxidase), an enzyme from Armillariella tabescens previously named aflatoxin detoxifizyme, exhibits oxidative detoxification activity toward aflatoxin B 1 and sterigmatocystin....
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: February 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 76 Author(s): Paola Costanzo , Antonello Santini , Luigi Fattore , Ettore Novellino , Alberto Ritieni This research describes an unexpected toxicity of the aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptors. Rickets is a childhood disease, and calcium deficiency is the aetiological cause in Africa, being primarily associated...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: February 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology, Volume 76 Author(s): Laura-Ana Corcuera , Ariane Vettorazzi , Leire Arbillaga , Noemí Pérez , Ana Gloria Gil , Amaya Azqueta , Elena González-Peñas , Jose Antonio García-Jalón , Adela López de Cerain Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are genotoxic mycotoxins that can contaminate a variety of foodstuffs, the liver...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: 15 June 2015 , Volume 177 Author(s): Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares , José F. Huertas-Pérez , Laura Gámiz-Gracia , Ana M. García-Campaña Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: March 2015 , Volume 69 Author(s): A. Garvín , R. Ibarz , A. Ibarz In this paper, the spectral radiant power absorbed by a solution of patulin was calculated as a function of the concentration of the light absorbing substance when it was irradiated with a UV multi-wavelength lamp. Two equations are presented. The first one contains a simplification and, consequently, is...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin found in the tissues of many taxonomically diverse organisms. Its origin has been the topic of much debate, with suggestions including endogenous production, acquisition through diet, and symbiotic bacterial synthesis. Bacterial production of TTX has been reported in isolates from marine biota, but at lower than expected concentrations. In this study, 102...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Mycotoxins are low molecular weight fungal metabolites that pose a threat as toxic contaminants of food products, thereby necessitating their effective monitoring and control. Microplate ELISA can be used for this purpose, but this method is characteristically time consuming, with a duration extending to several hours. This report proposes a variant of the ELISA method for the detection and...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Ochratoxin A (OTA), which is found in a variety of food products, is associated with the development of nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity in rats and has raised public health concerns. A previous study in our laboratory indicated that OTA exposure induced cytotoxicity by decreasing global DNA methylation in vitro. However, the relationship between OTA-induced nephrotoxicity and DNA methylation...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Since the discovery of aflatoxins in the 1960s, much research has focused on detecting the toxins in contaminated food and feedstuffs in the interest of public safety. Most traditional detection methods involved lengthy culturing and/or separation techniques or analytical instrumentation and complex, multistep procedures that required destruction of samples for accurate toxin determination. With...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
Foreword: aflatoxins in maize and other crops Content Type Journal ArticleCategory ForewordPages 135-136DOI 10.3920/WMJ2015.x002Authors Robert L. Brown, USDA-ARS, New Orleans, LA, USADeepak Bhatnagar, Food and Feed Safety, USDA-ARS, New Orleans, LA, USA Journal World Mycotoxin JournalOnline ISSN 1875-0796Print ISSN 1875-0710 Journal Volume Volume 8 Journal Issue Volume 8, Number...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 01:18
This review highlights developments in the determination of mycotoxins over a period between mid-2013 and mid-2014. It continues in the format of the previous articles of this series, emphasising on analytical methods to determine aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, trichothecenes and zearalenone. The importance of proper sampling and sample...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 00:08
January Online CoverMaize kernels, with inset of hyperspectral image showing regions of interest, from “Feasibility of Detecting Aflatoxin B1 on Inoculated Maize Kernels Surface using Vis/NIR Hyperspectral Imaging” by Wei Wang, Gerald W. Heitschmidt, William R. Windham, Peggy Feldner, Xinzhi Ni, and Xuan Chu; p. M117.
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 00:08
Chitosan beads were prepared by the method of inverse suspension cross-linking characterized and applied to remove patulin from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the optimum adsorption conditions and reusability. The results showed that chitosan beads were effective in removing patulin from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacity of chitosan beads...
Fri, 01/30/2015 - 00:08
The feasibility of using a visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system with a wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm to detect and differentiate different levels of aflatoxin B1AFB1) artificially titrated on maize kernel surface was examined. To reduce the color effects of maize kernels, image analysis was limited to a subset of original spectra (600 to 1000 nm). Residual staining from...

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