An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 105

  1. Methyl Eugenol Binds Recombinant Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor-Associated Protein from the Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    • Sun, 04/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a major pest insect in agriculture. However, few insecticides are effective for their control. The recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein (rGABARAP) was examined as a potential target of the monoterpenoids responsible for their insecticidal activities. The insecticidal activity of anethole, linalool, and methyl eugenol (ME) was evaluated in the laboratory.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  2. Pesticidal Activity and Mode of Action of Monoterpenes

    • Thu, 04/07/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Synthetic pesticides are often associated with issues such as pest resistance, persistent residue, nontarget toxicity, and environmental issues. Therefore, the research and development of novel, safe, and effective pesticides has become a focus in pesticide discovery. Monoterpenes are secondary plant metabolites that commonly have multiple action targets and have been used in aromatherapy, alternative medicine, and food industries. Some are highly potent and stereoselective.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
      • Pesticide residues
  3. Selective Inhibition toward Dual Enzyme-like Activities of Iridium Nanozymes for a Specific Colorimetric Assay of Malathion without Enzymes

    • Sat, 03/12/2022 - 12:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • A colorimetric assay based on an enzyme-inhibition strategy is promising for the on-site detection of pesticide residues. Due to the high cost and low stability of enzymes, nanozymes (nanomaterials with enzyme-like activities) are widely developed as substitutes of enzymes. However, the inhibition of pesticides toward enzymes and nanozymes generally lacks selectivity. It is of great significance and challenge to design a specific pesticide assay based on an activity-inhibition strategy.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  4. Degradation of Sulfoxaflor in Water and Soil: Kinetics, Degradation Pathways, Transformation Product Identification, and Toxicity

    • Sat, 03/12/2022 - 12:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Hydrolysis, photolysis, and soil degradation are important degradation pathways of pesticides and might generate toxic chemicals and pose threats to the environment. Sulfoxaflor is a widely used neonicotinoid pesticide, but few studies have been conducted to research its environmental behaviors and residues. Herein, the hydrolysis and photolysis of sulfoxaflor in water and degradation in four typical Chinese soils were systematically studied.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  5. Glutathione S‑Transferase Genes are Involved in Lambda-Cyhalothrin Resistance in Cydia pomonella via Sequestration

    • Wed, 02/16/2022 - 06:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Pest management is mostly accomplished by the use of insecticides. However, the overuse of insecticides has led to the development of resistance. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are vital detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance in insects. In this study, we report the involvement of GSTs in insecticide resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Cydia pomonella, a globally quarantined fruit pest.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  6. The Potential Binding Interaction and Hydrolytic Mechanism of Carbaryl with the Novel Esterase PchA in Pseudomonas sp. PS21

    • Sat, 02/12/2022 - 12:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Microbial bioremediation is a very potent and eco-friendly approach to alleviate pesticide pollution in agricultural ecosystems, and hydrolase is an effective element for contaminant degradation. In the present study, a novel Mn2+-dependent esterase, PchA, that efficiently hydrolyzes carbamate pesticides with aromatic structures was identified from Pseudomonas sp. PS21. The hydrolytic activity was confirmed to be related closely to the core catalytic domain, which consists of six residues.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  7. Electrospun Nanofibers: Current Progress and Applications in Food Systems

    • Thu, 02/03/2022 - 12:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Electrospinning has the advantages of simple manufacturing equipment, a low spinning cost, wide range of spinnable materials, and a controllable mild process, which can continuously fabricate submicron or nanoscale ultrafine polymer fibers without high temperature or high pressure. The obtained nanofibrous films may have a large specific surface area, unique pore structure, and easy-to-modify surface characteristics.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
      • Pesticide residues
  8. Determination of Pesticides in Bee Pollen: Validation of a Multiresidue High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry Method and Testing Pollen Samples of Selected Botanical Origin

    • Sat, 01/29/2022 - 12:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Pollen is a source of nutrients for honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and suitable for human consumption as well. In our research, a multiresidue method for pesticide determination was developed and validated for the bee pollen matrix. 247 components met the validation criteria for limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, and interday repeatability. Average recoveries varied between 70 and 120% except for 14 analytes, which were corrected during on-going validation.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  9. Ionic Liquid Modified Porous Polymer as a Dispersive Filter Extraction Adsorbent for Simple, Sensitive, and Efficient Determination of Chlorotriazine Herbicides in Irrigation Water

    • Sat, 01/22/2022 - 12:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Triazine herbicides (TRZHs) are widely used in agricultural production, but their improper use can threaten the environment and organisms. Herein, rapid extraction of four chlorotriazine herbicides (Cl-TRZHs) in irrigation water was achieved using an ionic liquid modified porous m-aminophenol formaldehyde resin (IL-MAPFR) as a dispersive filter extraction (DFE) adsorbent.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  10. Advances in Chicken IgY-Based Immunoassays for the Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards in Food Samples

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • As antibodies are the main biological binder for hazards in food samples, their performance directly determines the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the developed immunoassay. The overwhelmingly used mammalian-derived antibodies usually suffer from complicated preparation, high cost, frequent bleeding of animals, and sometimes low titer and affinity.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  11. Advances in Chicken IgY-Based Immunoassays for the Detection of Chemical and Biological Hazards in Food Samples

    • Sat, 01/08/2022 - 04:01
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • As antibodies are the main biological binder for hazards in food samples, their performance directly determines the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the developed immunoassay. The overwhelmingly used mammalian-derived antibodies usually suffer from complicated preparation, high cost, frequent bleeding of animals, and sometimes low titer and affinity.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  12. Recent Progress on Single-Molecule Detection Technologies for Food Safety

    • Fri, 01/07/2022 - 04:01
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Rapid and sensitive detection technologies for food contaminants play vital roles in food safety. Due to the complexity of the food matrix and the trace amount distribution, traditional methods often suffer from unsatisfying accuracy, sensitivity, or specificity. In past decades, single-molecule detection (SMD) has emerged as a way to realize the rapid and ultrasensitive measurement with low sample consumption, showing a great potential in food contaminants detection.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  13. Minimized Atrazine Risks to Crop Security and Its Residue in the Environment by a Rice Methyltransferase as a Regulation Factor

    • Fri, 12/24/2021 - 04:01
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Atrazine (ATZ) is an agricultural pesticide for controlling field weeds. ATZ accumulates in many crops, posing high risks to crop production and food safety. Characterizing one of the novel rice MT genes named Oryza sativa atrazine-responsive methyltransferase (OsARM) showed that the expression of OsARM was associated with DNA demethylation (hypomethylation) in its promoter region.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Produce Safety
      • Pre Harvest
  14. Development of Novel (+)-Nootkatone Thioethers Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole/Thiadiazole Moieties as Insecticide Candidates against Three Species of Insect Pests

    • Mon, 12/20/2021 - 04:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • To improve the insecticidal activity of (+)-nootkatone, a series of 42 (+)-nootkatone thioethers containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole moieties were prepared to evaluate their insecticidal activities against Mythimna separata Walker, Myzus persicae Sulzer, and Plutella xylostella Linnaeus.

      • Heavy Metals
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  15. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Novel 1,2,4-Triazole Thioether and Thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazole Derivatives Bearing the 6-Fluoroquinazolinyl Moiety

    • Tue, 12/14/2021 - 04:00
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • A total of 52 novel 1,2,4-triazole thioether and thiazolo[3,2-b]-1,2,4-triazole derivatives bearing the 6-fluoroquinazolinyl moiety were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as antimicrobial agents in agriculture based on the molecular hybridization strategy. Among them, molecular structures of compounds 5g and 6m were further confirmed via the single-crystal X-ray diffraction method.

      • Heavy Metals
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  16. Enantioselective Bioactivity, Toxicity, and Degradation in Vegetables and Soil of Chiral Fungicide Mandipropamid

    • Wed, 11/17/2021 - 04:01
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Mandipropamid (MDP) is a widely used chiral fungicide to control oomycete pathogens with two enantiomers. In this study, the enantioselective bioactivity, toxicity, and degradation of MDP were investigated for the first time. The bioactivity of S-MDP was 118–592 times higher than that of R-MDP and 1.14–1.67 times higher than that of Rac-MDP against six phytopathogens.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  17. Preparation and Anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Activities of Crocetin Diesters

    • Fri, 11/12/2021 - 04:01
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • The development of antiviral agents with an original structure and noticeable effect is always in great need. Natural products are important lead compounds in the development of new pesticides. Crocin-1 and crocin-2 were effectively isolated from Gardeniae fructus and found to have higher anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activity levels than ribavirin.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
      • Pesticide residues
  18. Multilaboratory Collaborative Study of a Nontarget Data Acquisition for Target Analysis (nDATA) Workflow Using Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Accurate Mass Spectrometry for Pesticide Screening in Fruits and Vegetables

    • Sat, 10/30/2021 - 04:01
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Nontarget data acquisition for target analysis (nDATA) workflows using liquid chromatography-high-resolution accurate mass (LC-HRAM) spectrometry, spectral screening software, and a compound database have generated interest because of their potential for screening of pesticides in foods. However, these procedures and particularly the instrument processing software need to be thoroughly evaluated before implementation in routine analysis.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  19. Co-occurrence of Conazole Fungicide Residues in Raw Agricultural Commodities Sampled by the United States Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program

    • Tue, 10/12/2021 - 04:01
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • In this study, the residue data for conazole fungicides were collated and analyzed in all crop samples reported by the United States Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program over the period of 2009–2019. Considering all individual samples, the overall detection frequencies (DFs) of conazoles are less than 13%. Among the 18 conazoles, imazalil had the highest overall DF of 6%, followed by tebuconazole and myclobutanil, with 4% each.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  20. Design, Synthesis, and Study of the Insecticidal Activity of Novel Steroidal 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles

    • Sat, 09/25/2021 - 04:02
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • A series of novel steroidal derivatives with a substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole structure was designed and synthesized, and the target compounds were evaluated for their insecticidal activity against five aphid species. Most of the tested compounds exhibited potent insecticidal activity against Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), Myzus persicae, and Aphis citricola. Compounds 20g and 24g displayed the highest activity against E. lanigerum, showing LC50 values of 27.6 and 30.4 μg/mL, respectively.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  21. Multifunctional Surface, Subsurface, and Systemic Therapeutic (MS3T) Formulation for the Control of Citrus Canker

    • Mon, 09/13/2021 - 04:02
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • A multifunctional surface, subsurface and systemic therapeutic (MS3T) formulation comprised of two bactericides, both didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and a zinc (Zn)-chelate, was developed as an alternative to copper pesticides for crop protection. Agricultural grade chemicals were used to prepare MS3T formulations. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be tested in vitro against Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (herein called Xa), Escherichia coli (E.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Chemical contaminants
  22. Enhanced Bio-Barcode Immunoassay Using Droplet Digital PCR for Multiplex Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides

    • Sat, 09/11/2021 - 04:02
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • A bio-barcode immunoassay based on droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was developed to simultaneously quantify triazophos, parathion, and chlorpyrifos in apple, cucumber, cabbage, and pear. Three gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probes and magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) probes were prepared, binding through their antibodies with the three pesticides in the same tube. Three groups of primers, probes, templates, and three antibodies were designed to ensure the specificity of the method.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  23. Carbon Nanofibers-Based Nanoconfined Liquid Phase Filtration for the Rapid Removal of Chlorinated Pesticides from Ginseng Extracts

    • Sat, 08/14/2021 - 04:02
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • A rapid nanoconfined liquid phase filtration system (NLPF) based on solvent-confined carbon nanofibers/carbon fiber materials (CNFs/CFs) was proposed to effectively remove chlorinated pesticides from ginsenosides-containing ginseng extracts.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  24. Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Novel Isothiazole-Purines as a Pyruvate Kinase-Based Fungicidal Lead Compound

    • Sat, 08/07/2021 - 04:03
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • Target identification is one of the most important bases for novel pesticide development; pyruvate kinase (PK) was discovered as a potent fungicide target in our previous studies. To continue the PK-based fungicide development, novel isothiazole-purine derivatives were rationally designed and synthesized.

      • Heavy Metals
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  25. Fate and Behavior of Field-Applied Pesticides during Malting and Mashing Processes

    • Fri, 07/30/2021 - 04:04
    • Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
    • The present work aimed to study the fate of field-applied pesticides during malting and mashing processes. Twenty-four field-collected barley samples were subject to micromalting followed by lab-scale mashing to investigate the carryover of residual pesticides from barley to malt and then from malt to sweet wort.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants