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Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 2015

  1. Hepatitis E virus in Cuba: A cross‐sectional serological and virological study in pigs and people occupationally exposed to pigs

    • Sun, 09/18/2022 - 04:00
    • Zoonoses and Public Health
    • Zoonoses and Public Health, EarlyView. Surveillance of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in risk groups is an important strategy to monitor its circulation pattern and to timely detect changes thereof. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to estimate the prevalence of HEV infections in pigs and humans from different regions of the country, to identify risk factors for increasing anti-HEV IgG prevalence and to characterize HEV strains.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis indicates a substantial burden of human noroviruses in shellfish worldwide, with GII.4 and GII.2 being the predominant genotypes

    • Mon, 09/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Microbiology
    • Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) have been found as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in all age groups and are significantly correlated with the consumption of shellfish. In this study, the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish was estimated through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies on the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library from January 2000 to August 2021.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  3. Recent Developments in Norovirus Interactions with Bacteria

    • Sun, 09/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Current Opinion in Food Science
    • Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Among many of the challenges related to understanding and controlling noroviruses, the influence of host microbiota on viral pathogenesis has continued to remain the subject of increased focus. Foundational work previously suggested that some bacteria may directly interact with noroviruses and promote infection.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  4. Monitoring of hepatitis E virus in zoo animals from Spain, 2007–2021

    • Sat, 09/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Accepted Article. Hepatitis E virus (HEV, family Hepeviridae) is an important emerging and zoonotic pathogen. In recent decades, the number of human cases of zoonotic hepatitis E has increased considerably in industrialized countries and HEV has been detected in an expanding range of mammal species.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  5. Soluble extracellular polymeric substance (SEPS) of histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacterium Sphingobacterium sp. SC015 influences the survival and persistence of norovirus on lettuce

    • Sat, 09/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Microbiology
    • Foodborne norovirus (NoV) outbreaks linked to leafy greens are common due to a lack of efficient strategies to prevent NoV spread from contaminated surfaces. We previously found that Sphingobacterium sp. SC015 in lettuce phyllosphere expresses histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances in soluble extracellular polymeric substances (SEPS) that contribute to NoV adherence on lettuce.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  6. Current treatment of chronic hepatitis B: Clinical aspects and future directions

    • Thu, 09/08/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health threat worldwide, and there is no direct treatment yet available. In the event of infection, patients may present liver cirrhosis and cancer, which threaten the patients’ health globally, especially in the Asia-Pacific region and China. In 2019, Chinese hepatopathologists updated the 2015 Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B as the clinical reference.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  7. Rapid and direct detection of hepatitis E virus in raw pork livers by recombinase polymerase amplification assays

    • Mon, 09/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen that causes global hepatitis E. Outbreaks of hepatitis E are directly linked to the consumption of pork liver products. Herein reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assays targeting the ORF2 gene were developed for the rapid detection of HEV by integrating the fluorescence detection platform (qRT-RPA) and the visible lateral flow biosensor by naked eyes (LFB RT-RPA).

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  8. Examining the Effect of Organic Acids on Inactivation of Hepatitis E Virus

    • Fri, 09/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Food Protection
    • Infection with hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) is an emerging cause of illness in developed countries. In North America and Europe, HEV-3 has been increasingly detected in swine, and exposure to pigs and pork products is considered the primary source of infection. We have previously demonstrated the prevalence of the HEV-3 genome in commercial pork products in Canada.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  9. Quantification of hepatitis E virus in raw pork livers using droplet digital RT-PCR

    • Thu, 09/01/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Microbiology
    • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E. Some of the rise in hepatitis E infection in China may be linked to undercooked pork. In this study, we established a reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) method to detect HEV in raw pork livers. The detection limit of the assay for HEV RNA was as low as 1.81 copies/μL.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  10. Global public health implications of human exposure to viral contaminated water

    • Tue, 08/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Enteric viruses are common waterborne pathogens found in environmental water bodies contaminated with either raw or partially treated sewage discharge. Examples of these viruses include adenovirus, rotavirus, noroviruses, and other caliciviruses and enteroviruses like coxsackievirus and polioviruses.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  11. Interactions Between Infectious Foodborne Viruses and Bacterial Biofilms Formed on Different Food Contact Surfaces

    • Mon, 08/29/2022 - 04:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Bacterial biofilms contribute to contamination, spoilage, persistence, and hygiene failure in the food industry, but relatively little is known about the behavior of foodborne viruses evolving in the complex communities that make up biofilm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteric viruses and biofilms on food contact surfaces.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  12. Detection of hepatitis E virus in milk: current evidence for viral excretion in a wide range of mammalian hosts

    • Mon, 08/29/2022 - 04:00
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Accepted Article. Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) is common in both developing and industrialized nations. Genotypes 3 and 4 are increasingly being reported, particularly in high-income countries where the precise extent of HEV transmission via food is currently unclear. Recently HEV has been found to be excreted in milk however data on the potential milk-borne transmission is still lacking or conflicting and warrants further research on the topic.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  13. Hepatitis E Virus in Water Environments: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    • Mon, 08/29/2022 - 04:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for acute hepatitis in humans, through foodborne, zoonotic, and waterborne transmission routes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of HEV in water matrices. Six categories were defined: untreated and treated wastewater, surface water (river, lake, and seawater), drinking water, groundwater, and other water environments (irrigation water, grey water, reservoir water, flood water, and effluent of pig slaughterhouse).

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  14. The Efficacy of Commercial Surface Sanitizers against Norovirus on Formica Surfaces with and without Inclusion of a Wiping Step

    • Fri, 08/26/2022 - 04:00
    • Applied and Environmental Microbiology
    • Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Commonly used surface sanitizers often lack activity against human noroviruses (hNoVs). The impact of inactivation versus removal when these products are applied via wiping is poorly characterized.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of ethanol, peracetic acid, and quaternary ammonium compounds against murine norovirus using carrier and suspension tests

    • Thu, 08/25/2022 - 11:11
    • Food Control
    • Virucidal suspension testing is commonly used as an authorized test for disinfectants. However, this method could not precisely evaluate the effect of disinfectants on food-contact surfaces. To solve this problem, a carrier testing method needs to be established in the food-processing industries by following a standard guideline.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  16. Crystal digital RT-PCR for the detection and quantification of norovirus and hepatitis A virus RNA in frozen raspberries

    • Tue, 08/23/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Berries are important vehicles for norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) foodborne outbreaks. Sensitive and quantitative detection of these viruses in food samples currently relies on RT-qPCR, but remains challenging due to their low concentration and the presence of RT-qPCR inhibitors. Moreover, quantification requires a standard curve.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  17. Norovirus Attribution Study: Detection of norovirus from the commercial food preparation environment in outbreak and non‐outbreak premises

    • Sat, 08/06/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Applied Microbiology
    • Journal of Applied Microbiology, Accepted Article. Aims Norovirus remains the most significant virological risk that is transmitted via food and the environment to cause acute gastroenteritis.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  18. Research Note: The prevalence and vertical transmission of avian hepatitis E virus novel genotypes in Tai'an city, China

    • Wed, 08/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • To investigate the prevalence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens and gather evidence of viral vertical transmission, we collected 288 cloacal swabs and 288 yolks samples from 12 farms with clinically healthy chickens in 4 different areas in Tai'an City, Shandong Province, China (i.e., Daiyue District, Xintai City, Feicheng City, and Ningyang County).

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  19. Intrahepatic transcriptomics reveals gene signatures in chronic hepatitis B patients responded to interferon therapy

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Emerging Microbes & Infections
    • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a substantial public health burden worldwide. Alpha-interferon (IFNα) is one of the two currently approved therapies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), to explore the mechanisms underlying IFNα treatment response, we investigated baseline and 24-week on-treatment intrahepatic gene expression profiles in 21 CHB patients by mRNA-seq. The data analyses demonstrated that PegIFNα treatment significantly induced antiviral responses.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  20. Constrained evolution of overlapping genes in viral host adaptation: Acquisition of glycosylation motifs in hepadnaviral precore/core genes

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • PLOS Pathogens
    • by Xupeng Hong, Stephan Menne, Jianming Hu Hepadnaviruses use extensively overlapping genes to expand their coding capacity, especially the precore/core genes encode the precore and core proteins with mostly identical sequences but distinct functions. The precore protein of the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is N-glycosylated, in contrast to the precore of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) that lacks N-glycosylation.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  21. A 2019 Outbreak Investigation of Hepatitis A Virus Infections in the United States Linked to Imported Fresh Blackberries

    • Sun, 07/24/2022 - 04:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Globally, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common agents of acute viral hepatitis and causes approximately 1.4 million cases and 90,000 deaths annually despite the existence of an effective vaccine. In 2019, federal, state, and local partners investigated a multi-state outbreak of HAV infections linked to fresh blackberries sourced from multiple suppliers in Michoacán, Mexico.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  22. Targeting Emerging RNA Viruses by Engineered Human Superantibody to Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    • Sat, 07/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a unique and highly conserved enzyme across all members of the RNA virus superfamilies. Besides, humans do not have a homolog of this protein. Therefore, the RdRp is an attractive target for a broadly effective therapeutic agent against RNA viruses.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  23. Microbiological Contaminants in Drinking Water: Current Status and Challenges

    • Fri, 07/22/2022 - 04:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Water is a vital resource to every living thing on the earth. Once the water is contaminated (physically, chemically, biologically, or radiologically), it brought negative impacts to the living thing. This paper provides a brief review of the characterization of biological pollutants in drinking water and their effects on human health.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
      • Vibrio
      • Parasites
      • Cyclospora cayetanensis
      • Giardia lamblia
      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  24. Norovirus GI and GII and hepatitis a virus in berries and pomegranate arils in Canada

    • Wed, 07/20/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Between 2016 and 2021, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) collected 4218 samples of fresh and frozen berries (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries and mixed berries) and pomegranate arils at retail across 11 major cities in Canada and tested these samples for the presence of norovirus GI, norovirus GII and hepatitis A virus RNA.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  25. Evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamic of GIII norovirus: From emergence to classification in four genotypes

    • Wed, 07/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Volume 69, Issue 4, Page 1872-1879, July 2022. Noroviruses belong to a genetically diverse group of viruses infecting a wide range of mammalian host species, and those detected in cattle and sheep are classified within genogroup III (GIII).

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus