An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 2002

  1. Hepatitis of unknown etiology in children: What we know and what we can do?

    • Mon, 08/08/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Recently, acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in children has gained great concern since March 2022. The disease was first reported by Public Health Scotland. Cases increased rapidly and are now reported in 33 countries worldwide. All cases are predominantly aged under 5 years old. Most patients presented with jaundice, and remarkably, some cases progress to acute liver failure. Until now, the etiology is not fully elucidated, and the investigations are ongoing.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  2. Norovirus Attribution Study: Detection of norovirus from the commercial food preparation environment in outbreak and non‐outbreak premises

    • Sat, 08/06/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Applied Microbiology
    • Journal of Applied Microbiology, Accepted Article.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  3. Hepatitis E virus infection in the United States: Seroprevalence, risk factors and the influence of immunological assays

    • Sat, 08/06/2022 - 04:00
    • PLOS ONE
    • by María Belén Pisano, Christopher Campbell, Chimaobi Anugwom, Viviana Elizabeth Ré, José D. Debes

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  4. Hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children – epidemiological overview of cases reported in Europe, 1 January to 16 June 2022

    • Fri, 08/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Eurosurveillance
    • Following the report of an excess in paediatric cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology by the United Kingdom (UK) on 5 April 2022, 427 cases were reported from 20 countries in the World Health Organization European Region to the European Surveillance System TESSy from 1 January 2022 to 16 June 2022. Here, we analysed demographic, epidemiological, clinical and microbiological data available in TESSy.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  5. Research Note: The prevalence and vertical transmission of avian hepatitis E virus novel genotypes in Tai'an city, China

    • Wed, 08/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • To investigate the prevalence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens and gather evidence of viral vertical transmission, we collected 288 cloacal swabs and 288 yolks samples from 12 farms with clinically healthy chickens in 4 different areas in Tai'an City, Shandong Province, China (i.e., Daiyue District, Xintai City, Feicheng City, and Ningyang County).

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  6. Constrained evolution of overlapping genes in viral host adaptation: Acquisition of glycosylation motifs in hepadnaviral precore/core genes

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • PLOS Pathogens
    • by Xupeng Hong, Stephan Menne, Jianming Hu Hepadnaviruses use extensively overlapping genes to expand their coding capacity, especially the precore/core genes encode the precore and core proteins with mostly identical sequences but distinct functions. The precore protein of the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is N-glycosylated, in contrast to the precore of the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) that lacks N-glycosylation.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  7. Intrahepatic transcriptomics reveals gene signatures in chronic hepatitis B patients responded to interferon therapy

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Emerging Microbes & Infections
    • Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a substantial public health burden worldwide. Alpha-interferon (IFNα) is one of the two currently approved therapies for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), to explore the mechanisms underlying IFNα treatment response, we investigated baseline and 24-week on-treatment intrahepatic gene expression profiles in 21 CHB patients by mRNA-seq. The data analyses demonstrated that PegIFNα treatment significantly induced antiviral responses.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  8. A 2019 Outbreak Investigation of Hepatitis A Virus Infections in the United States Linked to Imported Fresh Blackberries

    • Sun, 07/24/2022 - 04:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Globally, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common agents of acute viral hepatitis and causes approximately 1.4 million cases and 90,000 deaths annually despite the existence of an effective vaccine. In 2019, federal, state, and local partners investigated a multi-state outbreak of HAV infections linked to fresh blackberries sourced from multiple suppliers in Michoacán, Mexico.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  9. Targeting Emerging RNA Viruses by Engineered Human Superantibody to Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    • Sat, 07/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a unique and highly conserved enzyme across all members of the RNA virus superfamilies. Besides, humans do not have a homolog of this protein. Therefore, the RdRp is an attractive target for a broadly effective therapeutic agent against RNA viruses.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  10. Microbiological Contaminants in Drinking Water: Current Status and Challenges

    • Fri, 07/22/2022 - 04:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Water is a vital resource to every living thing on the earth. Once the water is contaminated (physically, chemically, biologically, or radiologically), it brought negative impacts to the living thing. This paper provides a brief review of the characterization of biological pollutants in drinking water and their effects on human health.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
      • Vibrio
      • Parasites
      • Cyclospora cayetanensis
      • Giardia lamblia
      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  11. Evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamic of GIII norovirus: From emergence to classification in four genotypes

    • Wed, 07/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Volume 69, Issue 4, Page 1872-1879, July 2022. Noroviruses belong to a genetically diverse group of viruses infecting a wide range of mammalian host species, and those detected in cattle and sheep are classified within genogroup III (GIII).

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  12. Norovirus GI and GII and hepatitis a virus in berries and pomegranate arils in Canada

    • Wed, 07/20/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Between 2016 and 2021, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) collected 4218 samples of fresh and frozen berries (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries and mixed berries) and pomegranate arils at retail across 11 major cities in Canada and tested these samples for the presence of norovirus GI, norovirus GII and hepatitis A virus RNA.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  13. Molecular epidemiology and genotype-specific disease severity of hepatitis E virus infections in Germany, 2010–2019

    • Tue, 07/19/2022 - 04:00
    • Emerging Microbes & Infections
    • Zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in Europe. Genotype 3 (HEV-3) is predominant but information on subtype distribution, trends and clinical implications in Germany is scarce. We analysed 936 HEV RNA positive samples of human origin and corresponding national surveillance data from 2010 to 2019. Samples were referred to the National Consultant Laboratory and sequenced in at least one of four genomic regions.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  14. Fucosyltransferase 2: A Genetic Risk Factor for Intestinal Diseases

    • Mon, 07/18/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • The fucosyltransferase 2 gene (FUT2) mediates the synthesis of histoblood group antigens (HBGA) that occur in vivo from multiple organs, particularly on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells and body fluids. To date, many studies have demonstrated that the interaction of HBGA with the host microbiota is the cause of pathogenesis of intestinal diseases, making FUT2 non-secretor a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to the lack of HBGA.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  15. High prevalence of acute hepatitis E virus infection in pigs in Dutch slaughterhouses

    • Mon, 07/18/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Hepatitis E is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), one of the causes of acute viral hepatitis. Domestic pigs are considered as the main reservoir of HEV-3. The recently reported high prevalence of HEV in liver- and meat products on the Dutch market warranted a cross-sectional prevalence study on HEV infection among 5–6 months old pigs slaughtered in the Netherlands (n = 250).

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  16. Genetic diversity of collaborative cross mice enables identification of novel rift valley fever virus encephalitis model

    • Fri, 07/15/2022 - 04:00
    • PLOS Pathogens
    • by Haley N. Cartwright, Dominique J. Barbeau, Joshua D. Doyle, Ed Klein, Mark T. Heise, Martin T. Ferris, Anita K. McElroy Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arboviral disease of humans and livestock responsible for severe economic and human health impacts. In humans, RVF spans a variety of clinical manifestations, ranging from an acute flu-like illness to severe forms of disease, including late-onset encephalitis.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  17. A proposed disease classification system for duck viral hepatitis

    • Sun, 07/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • The nomenclature of duck viral hepatitis (DVH) was historically not a problem. However, fourteen hepatotropic viruses among ten different genera are associated with the same disease name, DVH. Therefore, the disease name increasingly lacks clarity and may no longer fit the scientific description of the disease. Because one disease should not be attributed to ten genera of viruses, this almost certainly causes misunderstanding regarding the disease-virus relationship.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  18. Dispersion of synonymous codon usage patterns in hepatitis E virus genomes derived from various hosts

    • Sun, 07/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Basic Microbiology
    • Journal of Basic Microbiology, EarlyView. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important zoonotic pathogen infecting a wide range of host species. It has a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome encoding three open reading frames (ORFs). Synonymous codon usages of viruses essentially determine their survival and adaptation to susceptible hosts.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  19. The role of serum Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein in the assessment of fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis C

    • Sat, 07/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Scientific Reports
    • At present, noninvasive fibrosis markers are not available for the assessment of liver fibrosis in children with chronic hepatitis C. Sixty-three children with chronic hepatitis C were included. Changes in Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein (M2BPGi) levels were evaluated in l3 of 27 treatment-naive patients during the natural course of disease (median 4, range 3–6 years).

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  20. Quantitative modeling of school cafeteria share tables predicts reduced food waste and manageable norovirus-related food safety risk.

    • Sat, 07/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Microbial Risk Analysis
    • Share tables (ST) allow students to share unwanted food items with other students in school cafeterias, making them a possible method to reduce food waste and insecurity. This study assesses potential food safety risks and food security benefits of a ST system, to assess if future work on STs is warranted. But food safety concerns from stakeholders hinder ST implementation.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  21. Genetic characterization of hepatitis E virus from wild boar in China

    • Thu, 06/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Accepted Article. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E (HE), is classified into four major genotypes (1–4), with wild boar being the main natural reservoir for genotypes 3 and 4. However, little is known about the prevalence of HEV infection in wild boars in China.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  22. Global Prevalence of Domestic Cat Hepadnavirus: An Emerging Threat to Cats’ Health?

    • Fri, 06/24/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Hepatitis B is an infectious hepatocellular disease of global concern caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV), which belongs to Hepadnaviridae. Recently, a novel HBV-like virus, domestic cat hepadnavirus (DCH), was detected from an immunocompromised cat with a hepatic disease in Australia.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  23. Saccharomyces Boulardii Ameliorates Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice Induced by a Methionine-Choline-Deficient Diet Through Gut-Liver Axis

    • Thu, 06/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is affecting people worldwide. Changes in the intestinal microbiome are crucial to NASH. A previous study showed that eradicating intestinal fungi ameliorates NASH; however, the role of intestinal fungi in the development of NASH remains unclear. Saccharomyces boulardii (SB), a dietary supplement yeast, has been reported to restore the integrity of the intestine. Here, we tested the effect of SB in the treatment of NASH.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  24. Antiviral Activity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Tetrapods Against the Hepatitis E and Hepatitis C Viruses

    • Thu, 06/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an acute, self-limiting hepatitis. The disease takes a severe form in pregnant women, leading to around 30% mortality. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that plays a crucial role in multiple cellular processes. Our earlier findings demonstrated the antiviral activity of zinc salts against HEV infection. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and its nanostructures have attracted marked interest due to their unique characteristics.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  25. Serum Pregenomic RNA Combined With Hepatitis B Core-Related Antigen Helps Predict the Risk of Virological Relapse After Discontinuation of Nucleos(t)ide Analogs in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

    • Wed, 06/22/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Background and Aim

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis