An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Investigation of 3-APA in Food and its Relationship with Acrylamide. Phase 1: Literature Review


<p>The initial review will address the following:</p>

<li>the occurrence of 3-APA in foods and foods at risk</li>
<li>the mechanism(s) of formation of 3-APA in foods and its relationship to acrylamide</li>
<li>the toxicological potential of 3-APA with particular reference to acrylamide</li>
<li>the likely impacts on consumer exposure to AA</li>
<li>methods of analysis for 3-APA</li>
<li>knowledge gaps and recommendations for further work</li>

<p>It is anticipated that this review will provide the justification for a ‘Phase 2’ project concerning analytical investigations of key foods and the effects of processing on 3-APA / acrylamide.</p>

More information

<p>Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that 3-APA is a transient intermediate in acrylamide (AA) formation from thermally induced Asparagine / carbohydrate systems. Furthermore, it may also be formed during the storage of foods by an enzymatic decarboxylation of Asparagine, and this mechanism may account for its occurrence in ware potatoes. The occurrence of 3-APA in foods is of concern because laboratory studies have shown that it can generate high levels AA (compared to Asn) when heated. Therefore, foods that contain 3-APA and are subjected to additional thermal processing might be considered as an additional source of AA.</p>

Premier Analytical Services
Start date
End date
Funding Source
Project number