<OL> <LI>To compare the nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of value-added goat-meat products (sausage, meatballs, and meat patties) to similar beef products. <LI> To assess the microbiological quality of goat meat and value added goat-meat-products. <LI> To assess consumer acceptability of value-added goat-meat products <LI> To increase the goat producer's and consumer's knowledge about nutritional values and safety of value added goat meat products.
<P>Non-Technical Summary: Dietary habits are major factor in development of obesity and cardiovascular heart diseases. Foods from animal source have been a part of human diets for years. The primary red meats consumed by Americans are beef and pork, with veal and lamb consumed mainly by ethnic consumers. Even though the percentage of fat in meat has decreased in recent years, the polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S ratio) in meat is usually less than 0.2 when fat content is above 2%. Blood cholesterol level depends less on intake of cholesterol from foods and more on the amount of saturated fats consumed, especially the ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fats. Lean goat meat is low in fat and saturated fatty acids, but high in unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acids, which are proven to possess hypocholesteremic properties Having similar protein content, goat meat cuts have 50 -65%, 42 -59%, 42-59% and 0-25% lower fat contents than similarly prepared beef, lamb and veal, respectively. In addition, the percentage of saturated fat in goat meat is lower than the percentage in chicken, beef, pork and lamb. Goat meat also contains higher levels of iron, potassium, thiamine, and lower levels of sodium than beef. Considering its high nutritional value and its greater unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio, goat meat has the potential to improve health of susceptible population without taking meat products out of their daily diet by replacing traditionally consumed meats (pork, beef). Goat meat is lean and healthier than other meats and can play a major role in the diet of health-conscious individuals. Goat meat is a hot trend that is just beginning to be identified as available at the fine dining level Thus, goat production is an opportunity for small farm producers in the U.S. to target ethnic and designer food markets and diversify their farm products. The goal of this study is to develop value-added goat meat products (meatballs, sausage and meat patties) that are wholesome, nutritious and safe for farmers and the consumers. The specific objectives are, to compare the nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of value-added goat-meat products to similar beef products, to conduct microbiological analysis from slaughter up to processing of the new products by determining prevalence of E. coli and L. monocytogenes on goat carcasses and resulting goat-meat-products, to study the consumer acceptability of new products, and to develop educational materials such as a cook book to incorporate healthier goat meat products in the diets of African American population, which is more susceptible to develop obesity and related diseases. </P>
<P> Approach: Prior to commencement of these studies, the requisite approvals will be obtained from the Southern University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, and the Institutional Review Board for Protection of Human Subjects. Goats will be raised at the SUAREC's goat farm using standard animal husbandry practices until harvesting and preparation of products. All meat obtained will be prepared in the state inspected Southern University Meat Processing Laboratory. In a 3x5x3 factorial arrangement the goat meat patties, sausage and meat balls will be developed using rice bran as a functional ingredient (binder), commercial lean ground beef (80:20) and seasoning (0.70%). 1. To compare the nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of value-added goat-meat products to similar beef products, samples will be analyzed using American Official of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) approved methods (AOAC, 1995). Vitamin E and total cholesterol will be measured simultaneously using HPLC. Antioxidant activity will be measured using the DPPH method. 2. To assess the microbiological quality of goat meat and value added goat-meat-products, the method of Smith et al. (2001) will be used for E. coli detection. For enumeration and detection of L. monocytogenes from Carcass sponge samples will be carried out as described in the USDA-FSIS On-Line Laboratory Guidebook (2008). 3. To assess consumer acceptability of value-added goat-meat-products, the study will utilize at least 30 panelists (student, staff, and faculty at Southern University). Sensory evaluations will be done according to a modified procedure of Dawkins et al., (2001). 4. To increase the goat producer's knowledge about nutritional values and safety of value added goat meat products, educational materials such as a cookbook, brochures, and handouts will be developed and used at the field days, workshops etc.. Using the most favorable formulation resulting from the taste test, new products such as goat/beef tacos, goat/beef meat balls and spaghetti, goat/beef dirty rice, jambalaya, chili, boudin etc. that are tasty, wholesome, nutritious and cost effective will be developed. These recipes and the recipes collected from the farmers will be compiled into a cookbook for consumer's use. Also it is anticipated that at least three articles will be published in refereed journals. The educational materials will be accessible through SUAREC's website, media, publications, seminars, workshops, and community outreach. </P>
<P>PROGRESS: 2013/01 TO 2013/09
Target Audience: Farmers, goat consumers, faculty, students and staff at Southern University and the public have the target audience. A number of presentations have been conducted and information also has been shared at scientific meetings and conferences nationally. Changes/Problems: The food microbiologist one of the Co-PI left Southern University Agricultural Research and Extension Center, therefore the micobiological testing was not completed. The microbiological testing was not conducted on the products. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? The student assistants who have been helping on this project are gaining knowledge, hands on experience and expertise. They are going to present their learning in the form of a power point presentation to faculty and staff at SUAREC. One of the students is co-authoring one of the posters and also she is planning to present the poster at the Minorities in Agriculture and Natural Resources and Related Sciences (MANRRS) Conference, Birmingham, Alabama in 2014. The research associate on this project has had opportunity to attend two trainings to enhance her knowlege and experience in setting up the method of analysis of vitamin E and cholesterol. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? Dissemination Activities: Fact sheet: Rice bran fact sheet Poster presentation: 1. Antioxidant Activity of Rice Bran Added Goat Meat Sausages. Fatemeh Malekian and Margarita Khachaturyan, Southern University Agricultural Research & Extension Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70813. Association of Research Directors Annual Conference, April 2011 Atlanta GA 2. Antioxidant Activity and Simultaneous Determination of Vitamin E and Cholesterol in Rice Bran added Goat Meat Products. Fatemeh Malekian, Margarita Khachaturyan and Shaina Craige, Southern University Agricultural Research & Extension Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70813. Association of Research Directors Annual Conference, April 2013 Jacksonville, FL Oral presentation: 1. Antioxidant activity of rice bran added goat meat Sausages. Fatemeh Malekian and Margarita Khachaturyan, Southern University Agricultural Research & Extension Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70813. 10th International Functional Food Conference, March 13-15, 2012. Santa Barbara CA. 2. Goat meat and rice bran sausage and meatball. Fatemeh Malekian. Goat field day, April 2013. Baton Rouge LA Goat farmers, rice farmers and other interested parties such as faculty, students and staff at southern University, Ethnic groups etc have been benefiting from materials shared. Also the information is on Southern University Agricultural Research and Extension Center web site. www.suagcenter.com What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? One of the students is co-authoring one of the posters and she is planning to present it at the MANRRS conference in 2014. We are going to assist her and make sure she is fully ready. We have not finished the product development. There is at least one more product (Boudin) that needs to be developed, modified, optimized to the consumer acceptance and nutritionally analyzed. We anticipate to finish developing and publishing the cook book. We are still collecting recipes for the cook book. The recipes are going to be analyzed with nutrient data base for nutritional information, then categorized and bounded. The food microbiologist working on this project is not working at Southern University Ag Center any more. Therefore a new food microbiologist will be hired and the meat samples analyzed. This is a long term project and assessment of goals and objectives will need more time than previously determined. As a multi-disciplinary project, implementation and coordination of the project also takes more time. Also we are anticipating to publish at least two journal articles. </P>
<P>IMPACT: 2013/01 TO 2013/09
What was accomplished under these goals? The supplies for analysis have been purchased and a student assistant has been working on this project. All meat obtained was prepared in the state inspected Southern University Meat Processing Laboratory. Rice bran was obtained from Planters Rice Mill in Abbeville, Louisiana and was stabilized according to the method by Malekian et al, 2000. The rice bran was sieved with a 20 MESH in order to get rid of broken rice and husk and have a uniform particle size. The goat meat/rice bran sausage and meatball samples were prepared in the Meat Processing Laboratory and were served in the Metabolic Kitchen and sensory lab for consumer acceptability. Stabilized rice bran, commercial lean ground beef (90:10) and chili seasoning (0.70%) were added to the goat meat /beef combination sausages and meat balls. Sausages and meatballs were cooked at optimized time and temperature to the point that the internal temperature reached 158ÂºF for at least 15 seconds. Each product was formulated as 100% goat meat, 75% goat meat/25% beef, 50% goat/50% beef meat, with 3% rice bran or without rice bran. The consumer acceptability for both products was conducted. For chemical analysis, approximately one pound of samples was homogenized in a Robot Coup R2 food processor for 2 minutes. Three aliquots were made. Samples were analyzed using American Official of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) approved methods (AOAC, 1995). For total lipids AOAC # 983.23, Protein AOAC # 992.15, ash AOAC # 920.153, and for moisture AOAC # 985.14. Carbohydrate was calculated using equation: 100 â€“ (% protein + % fat + % ash + % moisture).The fatty acid profile was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the fatty acid methyl esters according to a modification of an AOCS method (Firestone, 1993). The fatty acid profile was determined by a Varian Saturn 2100 GC/MS using a fused silica column (30 x 0.25 mm). Antioxidant activity was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging method. Free radical scavenging activity of antioxidants in food was determinate with 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Absorption at 515 nm was measured on UV-Vis Beckman Coulter spectrophotometer and result was expressed in terms of micromole equivalents of Trolox (TE) per 100 grams of sample (Oufnac et al., 2007). Sodium concentration for the samples was determined using ICP. Vitamin E and Cholesterol determination method with HPLC has been developed and validated. The 100% goat meat sausages with and without rice bran were chosen by the panel after consumer acceptability test. The Microbiological sampling and analysis was conducted earlier by the food microbiologist. Samples were analyzed for E-Coli and Salmonella at the slaughter. There was no evidence of these two bacteria. We are in the process of developing a Cook book. Recipes have been collected and sorted according to the menu group. They are being analyzed using Nutritionist 3 database. Two students have been working in the food analysis laboratory and metabolic kitchen assisting with all aspects of this project. These students did excellent on their chemistry tests (in class) and they said it is because â€œthey are learning so much in the food analysis laboratory". The student assistants who have been helping on this project are gaining hands-on knowledge, experience and expertise in conducting research. Two posters and two oral presentations on this project have been made at professional conferences. There is at least one more (besides sausage and meatballs) product (Boudin) that needs to be developed, modified, optimized to the consumer acceptance and nutritionally analyzed. The increased antioxidant activity in goat meat/rice bran products has brought international attention to this project. After presenting at the 10th International Functional Food Conference the project director was invited to present at another Functional Food Conference in China. </P>