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Alternatives Literature Searching

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"APHIS continues to recommend a database search as the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/distressful procedures." (USDA, APHIS, Animal Care Policy #12: Consideration of Alternatives to Painful/Distressful Procedures)

USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center.

Databases containing information on biomedical research, biological science, animal science, veterinary medicine, fish and wildlife research, toxicology and specialized alternative (3R) methods.

Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Provides detailed instructions on how to conduct a 3Rs information search, including questions to assess if your 3Rs search is complete.