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Sun, 06/16/2019 - 01:12
Available online 14 June 2019 Author(s): Takashi Yarita, Shinsuke Inagaki, Ayano Miyamoto, Taichi Yamazaki, Migaku Kawaguchi, Hajime Uchida, Akiko Takatsu, Toshiyuki SuzukiAbstractA scallop midgut gland certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7520-a, was developed for validation and quality assurance during the inspection of shellfish for diarrhetic shellfish toxins. The candidate material was...
Wed, 06/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Author(s): Chunlei Gao, Shuya Lin, Meng Chen, Jiajun Hong, Chenlin LiuAbstractTo gain an understanding of phycotoxin contamination in shellfish in the sub-Arctic and Arctic area, scanning for the presence of 13 hydrophilic and 13 lipophilic toxin components was carried out in shellfish samples collected from the Northern Bering Sea and Chukchi...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 293: Discovery of a Potential Human Serum Biomarker for Chronic Seafood Toxin Exposure Using an SPR Biosensor Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050293 Authors: Kathi A. Lefebvre Betsy Jean Yakes Elizabeth Frame Preston Kendrick Sara Shum Nina Isoherranen Bridget E. Ferriss Alison Robertson Alicia Hendrix David J. Marcinek Lynn Grattan Domoic acid (DA)-...
Wed, 05/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 274: Label-Free Direct Detection of Saxitoxin Based on a Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Aptasensor Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050274 Authors: Su-Ji Ha Jin-Ho Park Bobin Lee Min-Gon Kim Seafood is an emerging health food, and interest in improving the quality of seafood is increasing. Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin produced by marine dinoflagellates that...
Sun, 05/12/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: 1 October 2019 , Volume 294Author(s): Fei Xu, Feng Liu, Chaozhan Wang, Yinmao WeiAbstractMagnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE), using a new reversed-phase/weak anion exchange mix-mode mesoporous magnetic SiO2 adsorbent, was assessed as an approach for reducing matrix effects in the analysis of six lipophilic marine biotoxins in shellfish using ultrahigh-performance liquid...
Sat, 04/27/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sumei Ling, Xiulan Li, Danping Zhang, Ke Wang, Wenwen Zhao, Qiang Zhao, Rongzhi Wang, Jun Yuan, Sijie Xin, Shihua WangAbstractTetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin mainly responsible for severe neurological illness, and okadaic acid (OA) is another important lipophilic toxin to humans. In this study, we developed a gold strip for...
Mon, 04/08/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 211: 15N Stable Isotope Labeling PSTs in Alexandrium minutum for Application of PSTs as Biomarker Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040211 Authors: Xie Li Song Zhang Hu Liang Yang The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum) which can produce paralyticshellfish toxins (PSTs) is often used as a model to study the migration, biotransformation,...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Author(s): Carolina Valenzuela, Cristian Torres, Vanina Muñoz, Juan Carlos Simbaina, Andrella Sánchez, Tamara Bustamante, Joaquín M. Sepúlveda, Robin Piron, Miguel Del Campo, Néstor LagosAbstractObjetiveTo evaluate Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) as a local anesthetic drug, for pain control during and after piglet castration.Study designProspective,...
Fri, 03/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 189: Dinophysis Species and Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins: 20 Years of Monitoring Program in Andalusia, South of Spain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040189 Authors: Fernández Mamán Jaén Fernández Fuentes Ocaña Gordillo In Andalusia, the official monitoring program for toxic phytoplankton and marine biotoxins was launched in 1994 to comply with European...
Fri, 03/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 188: Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Surf Clams Mesodesma donacium during a Large Bloom of Alexandrium catenella Dinoflagellates Associated to an Intense Shellfish Mass Mortality Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040188 Authors: Gonzalo Álvarez Patricio A. Díaz Marcos Godoy Michael Araya Iranzu Ganuza Roberto Pino Francisco Álvarez José Rengel Cristina Hernández...
Wed, 02/06/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 97: RNA-Seq Transcriptome Profiling of the Queen Scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) Digestive Gland after Exposure to Domoic Acid-Producing Pseudo-nitzschia Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020097 Authors: Pablo Ventoso Antonio J. Pazos M. Luz Pérez-Parallé Juan Blanco Juan C. Triviño José L. Sánchez Some species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia produce the toxin...
Fri, 02/01/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 74: A Long-Term Time Series of Dinophysis acuminata Blooms and Associated Shellfish Toxin Contamination in Port Underwood, Marlborough Sounds, New Zealand Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020074 Authors: Lincoln A. Mackenzie Blooms of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata occur every year in an important mussel cultivation area in Port Underwood, Marlborough Sounds,...
Fri, 02/01/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 83: Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Column Purification and Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Domoic Acid in Shellfish Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020083 Authors: Si Chen Xiaojun Zhang Zhongyong Yan Yangyang Hu Yibo Lu Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin associated with amnesic shellfish...
Tue, 01/22/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 61: Review of DSP Toxicity in Ireland: Long-Term Trend Impacts, Biodiversity and Toxin Profiles from a Monitoring Perspective Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020061 Authors: Rafael Salas Dave Clarke The purpose of this work is to review all the historical monitoring data gathered by the Marine Institute, the national reference laboratory for marine biotoxins in...
Mon, 01/21/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 58: The Incidence of Marine Toxins and the Associated Seafood Poisoning Episodes in the African Countries of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010058 Authors: Isidro José Tamele Marisa Silva Vitor Vasconcelos The occurrence of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and bacteria can be one of the great threats to public health due to their ability...
Mon, 01/21/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 57: Prey Lysate Enhances Growth and Toxin Production in an Isolate of Dinophysis acuminata Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010057 Authors: Han Gao Mengmeng Tong Xinlong An Juliette L. Smith The physiological and toxicological characteristics of Dinophysis acuminata have been increasingly studied in an attempt to better understand and predict diarrhetic shellfish...
Tue, 01/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 44: Spatial and Temporal Variation in Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Production by Benthic Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei in a Freshwater New York Lake Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010044 Authors: Zacharias J. Smith Robbie M. Martin Bofan Wei Steven W. Wilhelm Gregory L. Boyer Butterfield Lake is a mesotrophic lake in New York State where residents and pets have...
Mon, 01/14/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 37: Mesoscale Dynamics and Niche Segregation of Two Dinophysis Species in Galician-Portuguese Coastal Waters Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11010037 Authors: Patricio A. Díaz Beatriz Reguera Teresa Moita Isabel Bravo Manuel Ruiz-Villarreal Santiago Fraga Blooms of Dinophysis acuminata occur every year in Galicia (northwest Spain), between spring and autumn....
Sat, 12/08/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 526: Combined Cytotoxicity of the Phycotoxin Okadaic Acid and Mycotoxins on Intestinal and Neuroblastoma Human Cell Models Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10120526 Authors: Aiko Hayashi Juan José Dorantes-Aranda John P. Bowman Gustaaf Hallegraeff Mycotoxins are emerging toxins in the marine environment, which can co-occur with algal toxins to exert synergistic or...
Sat, 11/24/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Author(s): Paul M. D'Agostino, Michael J. Boundy, Tim D. Harwood, Wayne W. Carmichael, Brett A. Neilan, Susanna A. WoodAbstractTo date Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) variants in cyanobacteria have primarily been characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this study we re-evaluated...
Fri, 11/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 490: First Report of Okadaic Acid and Pectenotoxins in Individual Cells of Dinophysis and in Scallops Argopecten purpuratus from Perú Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10120490 Authors: Alex Alcántara-Rubira Víctor Bárcena-Martínez Maribel Reyes-Paulino Katherine Medina-Acaro Lilibeth Valiente-Terrones Angélica Rodríguez-Velásquez Rolando Estrada-Jiménez Omar...
Sat, 11/17/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Author(s): Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, José Ricardo Paula, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Rui Rosa, Pedro Reis CostaAbstractDomoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin naturally produced by Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms that may be transferred through the marine food web and cause mass mortality events at higher trophic levels. Yet, the effects of the dissolved...
Tue, 10/30/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 446: Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin Monitoring in Commercial Wild Harvest Bivalve Shellfish in New South Wales, Australia Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110446 Authors: Hazel Farrell Penelope Ajani Shauna Murray Phil Baker Grant Webster Steve Brett Anthony Zammit An end-product market survey on biotoxins in commercial wild harvest shellfish (Plebidonax...
Tue, 10/30/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 443: Impact of Dinophysis acuminata Feeding Mesodinium rubrum on Nutrient Dynamics and Bacterial Composition in a Microcosm Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110443 Authors: Han Gao Chenfeng Hua Mengmeng Tong The development of Dinophysis populations, producers of diarrhetic shellfish toxins, has been attributed to both abiotic (e.g., water column stratification) and...
Fri, 10/26/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 428: Accumulation and Elimination Dynamics of the Hydroxybenzoate Saxitoxin Analogues in Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Exposed to the Toxic Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110428 Authors: Pedro Reis Costa Ana Catarina Braga Andrew D. Turner Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a severe food-borne illness, caused by...
Tue, 10/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 423: The Acute Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin and Tetrodotoxin–Saxitoxin Mixtures to Mice by Various Routes of Administration Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110423 Authors: Sarah C. Finch Michael J. Boundy D. Tim Harwood Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin associated with human poisonings through the consumption of pufferfish. More recently, TTX has been identified...
Tue, 10/16/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 417: RNA-Seq Analysis for Assessing the Early Response to DSP Toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis Digestive Gland and Gill Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100417 Authors: María Verónica Prego-Faraldo Luisa Martínez Josefina Méndez The harmful effects of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins on mammalian cell lines have been widely assessed. Studies in bivalves...
Fri, 09/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 399: Dinophysis acuta in Scottish Coastal Waters and Its Influence on Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin Profiles Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100399 Authors: Sarah C. Swan Andrew D. Turner Eileen Bresnan Callum Whyte Ruth F. Paterson Sharon McNeill Elaine Mitchell Keith Davidson Diarrhetic shellfish toxins produced by the dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis are a...
Thu, 09/27/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 395: Anatomical Distribution of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DSTs) in the Japanese Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis and Individual Variability in Scallops and Mytilus edulis Mussels: Statistical Considerations Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100395 Authors: Ryoji Matsushima Hajime Uchida Ryuichi Watanabe Hiroshi Oikawa Izumi Oogida Yuki Kosaka Makoto Kanamori...
Mon, 09/17/2018 - 11:00
Prorocentrum donghaiense blooms occur frequently in the Yangtze River estuary and the adjacent East China Sea. These blooms have damaged marine ecosystems and caused enormous economic losses over the past 2 decades. Thus, highly efficient, low-cost, ecofriendly approaches must be developed to control P. donghaiense blooms. In this study, a bacterial strain (strain Y42) was identified as...
Fri, 09/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 375: Extended Targeted and Non-Targeted Strategies for the Analysis of Marine Toxins in Mussels and Oysters by (LC-HRMS) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090375 Authors: Inès Dom Ronel Biré Vincent Hort Gwenaëlle Lavison-Bompard Marina Nicolas Thierry Guérin When considering the geographical expansion of marine toxins, the emergence of new toxins and the...
Thu, 09/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 362: Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Invertebrate Vectors from North Atlantic Waters (Azores, Madeira, and Morocco) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090362 Authors: Marisa Silva Verónica Rey Aldo Barreiro Manfred Kaufmann Ana Isabel Neto Meryem Hassouani Brahim Sabour Ana Botana Luis M. Botana Vitor Vasconcelos Paralytic...
Thu, 08/30/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Author(s): Yoko Kato-Unoki, Yuki Takai, Masato Kinoshita, Toshitaka Mochizuki, Ryohei Tatsuno, Yohei Shimasaki, Yuji OshimaAbstractThe pufferfish saxitoxin- and tetrodotoxin-binding protein 2 (PSTBP2), which is involved in toxin accumulation, was knocked out in Takifugu rubripes embryos by using clustered regularly interspaced short...
Thu, 08/09/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 324: Human Poisoning from Marine Toxins: Unknowns for Optimal Consumer Protection Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080324 Authors: Natalia Vilariño M. Carmen Louzao Paula Abal Eva Cagide Cristina Carrera Mercedes R. Vieytes Luis M. Botana Marine biotoxins are produced by aquatic microorganisms and accumulate in shellfish or finfish following the food web....
Sat, 08/04/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 314: Accumulation and Biotransformation of Dinophysis Toxins by the Surf Clam Mesodesma donacium Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080314 Authors: Juan Blanco Gonzalo Álvarez José Rengel Rosario Díaz Carmen Mariño Helena Martín Eduardo Uribe Surf clams, Mesodesma donacium, were shown to accumulate toxins from Dinophysis acuminata blooms. Only pectenotoxin 2 (...
Sat, 07/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 308: Detoxification- and Immune-Related Transcriptomic Analysis of Gills from Bay Scallops (Argopecten irradians) in Response to Algal Toxin Okadaic Acid Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080308 Authors: Cheng Chi Sib Sankar Giri Jin Woo Jun Sang Wha Kim Hyoun Joong Kim Jeong Woo Kang Se Chang Park To reveal the molecular mechanisms triggered by okadaic acid (...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 273: Effect of Suspended Particulate Matter on the Accumulation of Dissolved Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins by Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) under Laboratory Conditions Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070273 Authors: Aifeng Li Meihui Li Jiangbing Qiu Jialiang Song Ying Ji Yang Hu Shuqin Wang Yijia Che In recent years, detection of trace amounts of...
Wed, 06/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 232: Diel Variations in Cell Abundance and Trophic Transfer of Diarrheic Toxins during a Massive Dinophysis Bloom in Southern Brazil Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060232 Authors: Thiago Pereira Alves Luiz Laureno Mafra Dinophysis spp. are a major source of diarrheic toxins to marine food webs, especially during blooms. This study documented the occurrence, in late...
Sat, 05/26/2018 - 15:35
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Lucía Soliño, Pedro Reis Costa Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are fish metabolism products and a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced, in the first instance, by benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins that selectively open voltage gated sodium channels in excitable...
Tue, 05/01/2018 - 13:04
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:, Volume 148 Author(s): Andrew D. Turner, Maggie Broadwater, Frances Van Dolah A receptor binding assay (RBA) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity is formally validated through collaborative study and approved for regulatory monitoring use in the US for mussels and clams. However, to date, the method has not been tested on...
Mon, 04/30/2018 - 12:54
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:, Volume 148 Author(s): Mete Yilmaz, Amanda J. Foss, Andrew I. Selwood, Mihriban Özen, Michael Boundy Aphanizomenon gracile is one of the most widespread Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) producing cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been shown to produce various PST congeners, including saxitoxin (STX),...
Fri, 04/13/2018 - 20:23
Publication date: June 2018 , Volume 108 Author(s): Choonshik Shin, Hyejin Jo, Sheen-Hee Kim, Gil-Jin Kang Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by saxitoxin and its analogues. The paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced by marine dinoflagellates and can be accumulated in filter feeding shellfish, such as mussel, clam, oyster and ark shell. The worldwide regulatory limits for...
Wed, 03/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 141: Dose-Response Modelling of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Humans Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040141 Authors: Nathalie Arnich Anne Thébault Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological...
Thu, 12/28/2017 - 11:14
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source: Author(s): Émilien Pousse, Jonathan Flye-Sainte-Marie, Marianne Alunno-Bruscia, Hélène Hégaret, Fred Jean This study was designed to assess the contribution of feeding behavior to inter-individual variability of paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) accumulation in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. For this purpose 42 oysters...
Thu, 12/21/2017 - 06:12
Summary Proton-pumping rhodopsins provide an alternative pathway to photosynthesis by which solar energy can enter the marine food web. Rhodopsin genes are widely found in marine bacteria, also in the Arctic, and were recently reported from several eukaryotic lineages. So far, little is known about rhodopsin expression in Arctic eukaryotes. In this study, we used metatranscriptomics and 18S rDNA...

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