Shellfish toxins

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Thu, 05/28/2020 - 03:54
ABSTRACT Syndiniales are a ubiquitous group of protist parasites that infect and kill a wide range of hosts, including harmful bloom-forming dinoflagellates. Despite the importance of parasitism as an agent of plankton mortality, parasite-host dynamics remain poorly understood, especially over time, hindering the inclusion of parasitism in food web and ecosystem models. For a full year in the...
Sat, 05/23/2020 - 03:45
Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of toxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning through blockage of voltage-gated sodium channels. PSTs are produced by prokaryotic freshwater cyanobacteria and eukaryotic marine dinoflagellates. Proliferation of toxic algae species can lead to harmful algal blooms, during which seafood accumulate high levels of PSTs, posing a health threat to...
Mon, 05/18/2020 - 03:45
Author(s): Wancui Xie, Min Li, Lin Song, Xiaoqun Hu, Xihong Yang This study evaluated the performance of an easy-cultivation device for the mass culture of Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum), a dinoflagellate that produces paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs). Five culture conditions including three different sizes of containers (250 mL conical flask, 500 mL beaker, and 20 L jar) in two different...
Thu, 05/14/2020 - 03:35
Ciguatera poisoning is a foodborne illness caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates from the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. The suitability of Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) technology for the monitoring of dissolved CTXs in the marine environment has recently been demonstrated. To refine the use of this passive...
Sun, 05/10/2020 - 03:35
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent natural toxin causative of human food intoxications that shares its mechanism of action with the paralytic shellfish toxin saxitoxin (STX). Both toxins act as potent blockers of voltage-gated sodium channels. Although human intoxications by TTX were initially described in Japan, nowadays increasing concern about the regulation of this toxin in Europe has emerged due...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:40
Over the last decade, knowledge has significantly increased on the taxonomic identity and distribution of dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Additionally, a number of hitherto unknown bioactive metabolites have been described, while the role of these compounds in ciguatera poisoning (CP) remains to be clarified. Ciguatoxins and maitotoxins are very toxic compounds produced...
Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:46
Author(s): Ana G. Cabado, Jorge Lago, Virginia González, Lucía Blanco, Beatriz Paz, Jorge Diogène, Laura Ferreres, Maria Rambla-Alegre Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) episodes cause important economic impacts due to closure of shellfish production areas in order to protect human health. These closures, if are frequent and persistent, can seriously affect shellfish producers and the seafood...
Tue, 04/28/2020 - 03:35
The neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) is widely used for the detection of marine biotoxins in seafood products, yet a consensus protocol is still lacking. In this study, six key parameters of CBA-N2a were revisited: cell seeding densities, cell layer viability after 26 h growth, MTT incubation time, Ouabain and Veratridine treatment and solvent and matrix effects. A step-by-step protocol...
Thu, 04/16/2020 - 03:36
by Frances M. Van Dolah, Jeanine S. Morey, Shard Milne, André Ung, Paul E. Anderson, Mireille Chinain Marine dinoflagellates produce a diversity of polyketide toxins that are accumulated in marine food webs and are responsible for a variety of seafood poisonings. Reef-associated dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus produce toxins responsible for ciguatera poisoning (CP), which causes over...
Thu, 04/02/2020 - 03:24
Eutrophication has played a major role in the worldwide increase of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Higher input of key nutrients, such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), can stimulate the growth of harmful algal species in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal marine ecosystems. Some HAB-forming taxa, particularly several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species, are harmful through the production of...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:28
Saxitoxin, which is one of the most typical paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, ranks the highest intoxication rate of marine biological poisoning cases globally. Efficient clean‐up and extraction of saxitoxin from complex biological matrices are imperative for the analysis and concentration monitoring of the toxin when correlative poisoning cases happen. Herein, L‐cysteine modified magnetic...
Fri, 03/20/2020 - 03:26
An aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated as Z1-4T, was isolated from the phycosphere microbiota of marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum that produces paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the new isolate belongs to the genus Mesorhizobium, and it was closely related to Mesorhizobium...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:25
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) is a syndrome caused by the intake of shellfish contaminated with a group of lipophilic and thermostable toxins, which consists of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2). These toxins are potent protein Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitors, mainly type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) and type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A). Different...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:34
by Pernille Nielsen, Bernd Krock, Per Juel Hansen, Bent Vismann Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning toxins (DST) are a severe health risk to shellfish consumers and can be a major problem for the shellfish industry. Bivalve molluscs can accumulate DST via ingestion of toxic dinoflagellates like Dinophysis spp., which are the most prominent producers of DST. The effects of DST-containing dinoflagellate...
Sat, 03/07/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): Mauro Corriere, Miguel Baptista, José R. Paula, Tiago Repolho, Rui Rosa, Pedro Reis Costa, Lucía Soliño Fish are frequently exposed to harmful algal blooms (HAB) and to related toxins. However, the biological effects of okadaic acid (OA), the most abundant and frequent HAB-toxin in Europe, South America and Asia, have been poorly investigated. In this study, fish swimming performance...
Sun, 02/23/2020 - 03:35
Author(s): Alison R. Turnbull, D. Tim Harwood, Michael J. Boundy, Patrick T. Holland, Gustaaf Hallegraeff, Navreet Malhi, Michael A. Quilliam
Wed, 02/19/2020 - 03:31
Dolichospermum circinale is a filamentous bloom-forming cyanobacterium responsible for biosynthesis of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), including saxitoxin. PSTs are neurotoxins and in their purified form ar...
Wed, 01/29/2020 - 03:43
Pinnatoxin G (PnTx-G) is a marine cyclic imine toxin produced by the dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum, frequently detected in edible shellfish from Ingril Lagoon (France). As other pinnatoxins, to date, no human poisonings ascribed to consumption of PnTx-G contaminated seafood have been reported, despite its potent antagonism at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and its high and fast-acting...
Fri, 01/24/2020 - 03:24
A number of new C-11 hydroxyl metabolites (so-called M-toxins) of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been discovered in contaminated shellfish, and trace amounts have also been detected in some strains of PST-producing microalgae. To investigate the chemical conversion and stability of M-toxins, mussel extracts were purified with solid-phase extraction cartridges (Oasis HLB) and Biogel P-2...
Thu, 12/26/2019 - 03:30
Author(s): Anna Maria Bazzoni, Monica Cangini, Alessandro G. Mudadu, Giuseppa Lorenzoni, Igor Arras, Giovanna Sanna, Fiorella Pino, Anna Milandri, Sebastiano VirgilioAbstractParalytic shellfish poisoning is a human intoxication syndrome associated with the consumption of seafood that has been contaminated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), a group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids produced by...
Wed, 12/18/2019 - 03:43
Ciguatera poisoning (CP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. The toxin production and toxin profiles were explored in four clones of G. polynesiensis originating from different islands in French Polynesia with contrasted CP risk: RIK7 (Mangareva, Gambier), NHA4 (Nuku...
Wed, 12/11/2019 - 03:50
In Cuba, ciguatera poisoning associated with fish consumption is the most commonly occurring non-bacterial seafood-borne illness. Risk management through fish market regulation has existed in Cuba for decades and consists of bans on selected species above a certain weight; however, the actual occurrence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in seafood has never been verified. From this food safety risk...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Hong-Nan Huang, Jia-Li Lu, Shou-Er Lin, Ren-Jin Zheng, Jie LinAbstractIn this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was originally developed for simultaneously quantitative analysis of twelve paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins, referring to STX, NEO, dcSTX, GTX1, GTX2, GTX3, GTX4, GTX5, C1, C2, dcGTX2, and dcGTX3 in bivalve...
Sat, 11/30/2019 - 03:26
Microbial communities in the coastal Arctic Ocean experience extreme variability in organic matter and inorganic nutrients driven by seasonal shifts in sea ice extent and freshwater inputs. Lagoons border more than half of the Beaufort Sea coast and provide important habitats for migratory fish and seabirds; yet, little is known about the planktonic food webs supporting these higher trophic...
Fri, 11/29/2019 - 03:21
Modern threats of bioterrorism force the need for multiple detection of biothreat agents to determine the presence or absence of such agents in suspicious samples. Here, we present a rapid electrochemical fiveplex biochip screening assay for detection of the bioterrorism relevant low molecular weight toxins saxitoxin, microcystin-LR, T-2 toxin, roridin A and aflatoxin B1 relying on anti-idiotypic...
Thu, 11/28/2019 - 04:14
by Seinen Chow, Nobuharu Inaba, Satoshi Nagai, Hiroaki Kurogi, Yoji Nakamura, Takashi Yanagimoto, Hideki Tanaka, Daisuke Hasegawa, Taiga Asakura, Jun Kikuchi, Tsutomu Tomoda, Taketoshi Kodama Natural diets of leptocephalus larvae have been enigmatic. In this study, we collected DNA samples from the gut contents and body surface of leptocephali belonging to the five Anguilliform families (...
Tue, 11/19/2019 - 03:26
Alexandrium minutum is a typical marine toxic dinoflagellate responsible for producing paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins. Until now, we know little about the genomic information of A. minutum, so a transcriptome study was conducted to clarify the physiological adaptations related to nutritional deficiency. Here, we performed RNA-Seq analysis to assess the gene expression patterns of A....
Thu, 10/31/2019 - 03:25
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is precipitated by a family of toxins produced by harmful algae, which are consumed by filter-feeding and commercially popular shellfish. The toxins, including saxitoxin, neosaxitoxin, and gonyautoxins, accumulate in shellfish and cause intoxication when consumed by humans and animals. Symptoms can range from minor neurological dysfunction to respiratory...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:35
An analytical procedure is proposed for determining three cyanotoxins (microcystin RR, microcystin LR, and nodularin) and two phycotoxins (domoic and okadaic acids) in seawater and algae-based food supplements. The toxins were first isolated by a salting out liquid extraction procedure. Since the concentration expected in the samples was very low, a dispersive liquid&ndash;liquid...
Wed, 10/23/2019 - 03:35
Galicia is an area with a strong mussel aquaculture industry in addition to other important bivalve mollusc fisheries. Between 2014 and 2017, 18,862 samples were analyzed for EU regulated marine lipophilic toxins. Okadaic acid (OA) was the most prevalent toxin and the only single toxin that produced harvesting closures. Toxin concentrations in raft mussels were generally higher than those...
Thu, 10/10/2019 - 03:29
Ciguatera is the term for poisoning resulting from eating fish from tropical or subtropical regions. The causative toxins collectively named ciguatoxins (CTXs) widely differ in structures depending on their geographic origins, which range from the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by the ingestion of bivalve shellfish...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Brevetoxins are produced by dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis in warm-water red tides and cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. They bind to voltage-gated sodium channels at neurotoxin receptor 5, making the channels more active by shifting the voltage-dependence of activation to more negative potentials and by slowing the inactivation process. Previous work using photoaffinity labeling...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:30
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues produced by toxic dinoflagellates accumulate in bivalves, and routine monitoring of bivalves is important to prevent cases of human poisoning. In this study, we describe a rapid detection method for the analysis of STXs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with post-column fluorescent detection and to investigate water depths and sampling points optimal...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:10
Approximately 70 species of Prorocentrum are known, of which around 30 species are associated with benthic habitats. Some produce okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin (DTX) and their derivatives, which are involved in diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. In this study, we isolated and characterized Prorocentrum concavum and P. malayense from Broome in north Western Australia using light and scanning...
Fri, 09/27/2019 - 03:18
ABSTRACT The sea anemone Entacmaea medusivora (Actiniaria, Anthozoa) commonly feeds on the golden jellyfish Mastigias papua (Rhizostomeae, Scyphozoa) which harbours an endosymbiotic dinoflagellate of the genus Cladocopium (Symbiodiniaceae). In this study, we monitored the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbiotic microalgae while their host jellyfish were ingested and digested by starved...
Fri, 09/13/2019 - 03:30
This study investigates the effect of metals (cadmium, lead, mercury, and tellurium) and organic pollutants (benzene, diesel, lindane, and xylene) on a dinoflagellate—Prorocentrum sigmoides Böhm—and its associated culturable bacteria. Two bacterial cultures (Bacillus subtilis strain PD005 and B. xiamensis strain PD006) were isolated from P. sigmoides and characterized by scanning electron...
Thu, 09/12/2019 - 03:34
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin is widely contained in seafood and its product. It brings great harm to human health when people eat it. During the past two decades, shellfish toxin quantitative analysis methods develop fast, such as mouse bioassay (MBA), chemical analysis method, immunoassay and cell-based assay (CBA). However, there are some disadvantages in these analytical methods...
Wed, 09/11/2019 - 03:30
Author(s): Xiao Lu, LiangDi Sun, YaXin Zhang, Wei LiAbstractKoelreuteria paniculata Laxm. has long been cultivated as a traditional ornamental tree in the world, and is developed as a source of natural green food. In this work, five new barrigenol-type triterpenoids, compounds 1–5, were isolated from the seeds of Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. and elucidated by right of several spectroscopic...
Tue, 09/03/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 513: Molecular Determinants of Brevetoxin Binding to Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11090513 Authors: Keiichi Konoki Daniel G. Baden Todd Scheuer William A. Catterall Brevetoxins are produced by dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis in warm-water red tides and cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning. They bind to voltage-gated sodium...
Thu, 08/15/2019 - 08:38
Summary In marine ecosystems, dinoflagellates can become highly abundant and even dominant at times, despite their comparatively slow growth. Their ecological success may be related to their production of complex toxic polyketide compounds. Ostreopsis species produce potent palytoxin‐like compounds (PLTX), which are associated with human skin and eye irritations, and illnesses through the...
Sat, 08/10/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 470: Contrasting Toxin Selectivity between the Marine Pufferfish Takifugu pardalis and the Freshwater Pufferfish Pao suvattii Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080470 Authors: Wei Gao Yoko Kanahara Misako Yamada Ryohei Tatsuno Hiroyuki Yoshikawa Hiroyuki Doi Tomohiro Takatani Osamu Arakawa To clarify the differences in toxin selectivity between marine and...
Fri, 08/09/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 468: Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Uptake, Assimilation, Depuration, and Transformation in the Southeast Asian Green-Lipped Mussel (Perna viridis) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080468 Authors: John Kristoffer Andres Aletta T. Yñiguez Jennifer Mary Maister Andrew D. Turner Dave Eldon B. Olano Jenelyn Mendoza Lilibeth Salvador-Reyes Rhodora V. Azanza Bivalve...
Fri, 07/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 423: Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in a Subtropical Region of North Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands): Morphological Characterization and Biogeography Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070423 Authors: Isabel Bravo Francisco Rodriguez Isabel Ramilo Pilar Rial Santiago Fraga Dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Gambierdiscus...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 413: Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070413 Authors: Beatriz Reguera Juan Blanco Several planktonic dinoflagellate species of the genus Dinophysis produce one or two groups of lipophilic toxins: (i) okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives, the dinophysistoxins (DTXs), and (ii) pectenotoxins (PTXs) [...]
Sat, 07/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 408: Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Ocean Warming: Bioaccumulation and Ecotoxicological Responses in Juvenile Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070408 Authors: Vera Barbosa Marta Santos Patrícia Anacleto Ana Luísa Maulvault Pedro Pousão-Ferreira Pedro Reis Costa António Marques Warmer seawater temperatures are expected to...
Sat, 07/06/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 395: Simple Diffusion as the Mechanism of Okadaic Acid Uptake by the Mussel Digestive Gland Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070395 Authors: Juan Blanco Helena Martín Carmen Mariño Araceli E. Rossignoli Okadaic acid (OA) and other toxins of the diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) group are accumulated and transformed mainly in many bivalves, inside the digestive...
Fri, 07/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 394: LC–MS/MS Analysis of the Emerging Toxin Pinnatoxin-G and High Levels of Esterified OA Group Toxins in Galician Commercial Mussels Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070394 Authors: Paz Otero Natalia Miguéns Inés Rodríguez Luis M. Botana The occurrence of marine harmful algae is increasing worldwide and, therefore, the accumulation of lipophilic marine toxins...
Thu, 06/27/2019 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 25 June 2019Source: Author(s): Jingyuan Yao, Wei Jin, Dongmei Li, Daoyan Xu, Shiyong Wen, Renyan Liu, Yubo Liang, Songhui LuAbstractParalytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a group of the most harmful neurotoxins distributed worldwide. Marine organism samples, including mollusks, crustaceans and fish, collected from 11 sites around the coastal water of the South...
Sun, 06/16/2019 - 01:12
Available online 14 June 2019 Author(s): Takashi Yarita, Shinsuke Inagaki, Ayano Miyamoto, Taichi Yamazaki, Migaku Kawaguchi, Hajime Uchida, Akiko Takatsu, Toshiyuki SuzukiAbstractA scallop midgut gland certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7520-a, was developed for validation and quality assurance during the inspection of shellfish for diarrhetic shellfish toxins. The candidate material was...
Wed, 06/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 4 June 2019Source: Author(s): Chunlei Gao, Shuya Lin, Meng Chen, Jiajun Hong, Chenlin LiuAbstractTo gain an understanding of phycotoxin contamination in shellfish in the sub-Arctic and Arctic area, scanning for the presence of 13 hydrophilic and 13 lipophilic toxin components was carried out in shellfish samples collected from the Northern Bering Sea and Chukchi...

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