The Food Safety Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (FSIS-USDA)
defines non-intact beef products as ground beef; beef injected with solution; beef that has been
mechanically tenderized by needling, cubing, frenching or pounding devices, and beef that has
been reconstructed into formed entrees (FSIS-USDA, 1999). The use of techniques such as
needle or blade tenderization, and enhancement by injecting subprimals with a brine or marinade
solution, has become a common means of improving quality attributes of beef products.
Whole muscle cuts (e.g. chucks, ribs, tenderloins, strip loins, top sirloin butts, rounds) may be
treated with these technologies to increase tenderness or to add ingredients for quality purposes.
The treatments often occur before fabrication into steaks and may include solid needle or hollowneedle tenderizing, in which a solution is pumped into the whole muscle. In the latter case, the
solution typically is recirculated, refrigerated and may be treated to ensure quality. <P>
Non-intact products are considered by FSIS to be high-risk due to the potential internalization of
pathogens via the mechanical tenderization process. Consumers perceive non-intact beef
products to be whole muscle cuts, and subsequently may not cook them to a sufficient internal
temperature to destroy harmful bacteria. In 1999, the Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS)
published a notice stating its intention to include non-intact beef products in the Escherichia coli
O157:H7 testing program. As the use of tenderization techniques becomes more common as a
means of improving beef quality, it is important to understand the implications for beef safety. <P>
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and indicator
microorganisms on the surface of beef subprimals prior to mechanical tenderization or moisture
These results indicate that the incidence of E. coli O157:H7 contamination on the surface of beef sub-primal cuts intended for mechanical tenderization (enhancement) was very low (i.e., <0.17%) with no E. coli O157:H7 being detected in any of the 599 sub-primal samples collected from August through November of 2004. A previous study (NCBA Project Report, March 25, 2004) likewise found none of 600 samples of the same beef sub-primal cuts positive for E. coli O157:H7 during January and February of 2004. Thus no E. coli O157:H7 was detected on any of the 1,199 sub-primal samples tested in both phases of this project and the resulting overall incidence of E. coli O157:H7 contamination beef sub-primal cuts intended for enhancement was less than 0.083%.
<P> A previous study (NCBA Project Report, 2003) demonstrated an extremely low internalization rate of surface contaminating E. coli O157:H7 into subprimals by blade tenderization. These results along with those of the previous prevalence study and the internalization study indicate that internal contamination of beef sub-primal cuts with E. coli O157:H7 via mechanical tenderization (enhancement) is a very improbable event.
<P> For complete projects details, view the <a href="http://www.beefresearch.org/CMDocs/BeefResearch/Survey%20of%20the%20Pre…; target="_blank">Project Summary. </a>