NIH. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences(NCATS).  

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), along with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Food and Drug Administration develop of 3-D engineered tissue platforms, called tissue chips or organs-on-chips that mimic tissues and organ systems 

National Center for the Replacement, Refinement, & Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). 

This roadmap, vision and strategy for non-animal technologies in the UK has been drawn up by Innovate UK, the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, intended to guide the efforts of all those working in this area.

The Wyss Institute.  

Microchips lined by human cells that could revolutionize drug testing and development.  


Complex models that provide researchers with a tool to understand mechanisms of disease and predict physiological responses to therapeutic intervention. 

Cambridge Healthtech Institute, Insight Pharma Reports.  

A complimentary market research study on drug development and the use of computer based mathematical models and virtual animal models.