You are here

Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide

AWIC Resource Series No. 32 2006 (Updated July 2015) Updates Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide, AWIC Resource Series No. 5 - March 1999

Table of Contents             


Web Site Information

About this Document

This publication updates AWIC's Environmental Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide, June 2006. It covers literature published from 1999 to July 2015. This document includes links to the draft policy published in the Federal Register on July 15, 1999 by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Care and the Final Report on Environment Enhancement to Promote the Psychological Well-being of Nonhuman Primates that was drafted by a committee of experts from areas of research, teaching, regulation, and exhibition and led to the draft policy. Relevant sections of United States Animal Welfare Act and regulations are also included as well as parts of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (NRC, 1996 and 2011).

The bibliographic chapters are divided into subject areas that cover the concept of environmental enrichment, enrichment for nonhuman primates overall, abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates, great apes and gibbons, macaques, old world monkeys other than macaques, marmosets and tamarins, other new world monkeys, lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers, animal training as an enrichment strategy, and books and proceedings from conferences focused on environmental enrichment or nonhuman primate management.

Citations included in these chapters were selected from multiple sources.  In each chapter, the citations are arranged alphabetically according to the last name of the primary author.

Each citation in the bibliography contains descriptor terms, an abstract when available, and the NAL call number if the particular source is available at the National Agricultural Library (NAL). Information on how to request materials that are included in the collection of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) may be found on the Request Library Materials page. Please read carefully as there are certain restrictions on media and document types. All patrons are encouraged to explore local library resources first before contacting the National Agricultural Library.

The Web site resources are divided into 6 sections:

  • resources on environmental enrichment, for all species and nonhuman primates,
  • organizations and professional societies whose members may be involved in nonhuman primate management or research,
  • United States National Primate Research Centers (NPRCs),
  • additional university primate centers and animal colonies located in the United States and associated territories,
  • environmental enrichment products and supplier information, and
  • discussion groups on nonhuman primates and enrichment.

Readers are cautioned as to the dynamic nature of the internet and the fact that web addresses and content are subject to change. All sites are current as of July 2015.


The editor would like to thank Dr. Jodie Kulpa-Eddy of USDA, APHIS, Animal Care for her comments and editing of the introductory material for this document.  Thank you to Jean Larson of the USDA Animal Welfare Information Center for her guidance on document lay-out and thorough editing of the entire document. Finally, special thanks to Sandra Ball of the Animal Welfare Information Center for the Web publishing of this document.  

Compiled by:
Kristina M. Adams, M.S.
USDA. NAL. Animal Welfare Information Center