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What are possible hindrances to alternatives in veterinary medicine education?

Hindrances could include the following: some teachers are resistant to change, alternatives require the investment of time and money, information is not widely disseminated, and the quality of available material varies.  Also, when integrating new models into an existing curriculum, dealing with students who feel cheated at losing contact with animals can become an issue as well.

Can the 3Rs applied in laboratory research be applied in veterinary medical education?

In the past it was believed that, because the 3Rs originated in the use of laboratory animals for research and testing and not in knowledge and skills acquisition, that they were not appropriate for veterinary medical education. However, over time the 3Rs—Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement—have been widely accepted in many different areas and have proven applicable to include veterinary medicine as well.

How do alternatives in veterinary medicine education correlate to animal welfare?

Alternatives in education help better promote the welfare of animals by substituting animals with non-animal methods that can provide identical learning experiences. Such examples include models, mannequins, and stimulators as well as neutral and/or beneficial animal work instead of procedures that are harmful to animals. These alternatives ensure consideration for all aspects of animal wellbeing.  

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The Food and Nutrition Information Center (FNIC) is a leader in online global nutrition information. Located at the National Agricultural Library (NAL) of the United States Department of Agriculture, the FNIC website contains over 2500 links to current and reliable nutrition information.

The Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 (Farm Bill) established the Food and Nutrition Information and Education Resources Center (later known as the Food and Nutrition Information Center, or FNIC) as a permanent entity within NAL. (see p.26 of PDF).

FNIC strives to serve the professional community (including educators, health professionals and researchers) by providing access to a wide range of trustworthy food and nutrition resources from both government and non-government sources. The FNIC website provides information about food and human nutrition. The materials found on this website are not intended to be used for the diagnosis or treatment of a health problem or as a substitute for consulting a licensed health professional.

To learn more about FNIC's content and linking policy, please review the webmaster section of the Frequently Asked Questions.  

The use of trade, firm, or corporation names in this website (or in website pages) is for the information and convenience of the reader. Such use does not constitute an official endorsement or approval by USDA or the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of any product or service to the exclusion of others that may be suitable. Likewise, some databases available on the FNIC website include resources from "non-government entities." Inclusion of these materials in a database does not constitute endorsement or recommendation by FNIC or the U.S. Government.

If you have a question related to food and nutrition please use the Ask a Question form. For questions about the FNIC website email: FNIC@ars.usda.gov

In person: FNIC Specialists can assist you Monday-Friday, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. EST at the National Agricultural Library (NAL) in Beltsville, Maryland.

By phone: Call (301) 504-5414 to talk to an Information Specialist

By mail:

Food and Nutrition Information Center

USDA ARS National Agricultural Library

10301 Baltimore Avenue,

Beltsville, MD 20705-2351

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