Browse Items: 172

Potatoes for Livestock Feed

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Since enactment of the Steagall Amendment of July 1, 1941 into law, the price-support program for potatoes has brought to public attention problems that have confronted potato growers for many years. During large crop years before the inauguration of the price- support program, growers either failed to harvest a part of their crops or they dumped a…

Feed Consumption by Livestock, 1910-41: Relations Between Feed, Livestock, and Food at the National Level

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Feed for livestock suddenly becomes of crucial importance in meeting the crucial needs of the United Nations for food. For 10 years the emphasis of agricultural leaders has been on holding down the over- abundant supplies of feed and keeping the fertility in the soil against a time of need. That time is here and now. Milk, meat, eggs, must be…

Rice and Its By-Products for Feeding Livestock

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The annual production of rice in the United States has increased in the last 30 years from about 100,000 tons of milled rice to more than 500,000 tons. Approximately 40,000 tons of rice bran, 15,000 tons of rice polish, and at least 10,000 tons of brewers' rice are available annually for livestock feeding.

In parts of the coastal plain of the…

Apple By-Products as Stock Foods

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Shortly after the close of the World War American manufacturers became greatly interested in the possibilities of utilizing dried apple pomace and similar dried residues as stock foods. Information, founded on scientific research, concerning the feeding value of dried apple by-products and their effect on the production of milk when fed to cows was…

The Maintenance Rations of Farm Animals

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Feed is supplied to farm animals in order that they may either yield products useful to man as materials for human food and clothing or serve him by the performance of mechanical work. But as a factory must first be supplied with enough power to keep in motion the shafting, belting, and other machinery before any product can be turned out, so the…

Demonstration Work in Cooperation with Southern Farmers

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The Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Work conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture through the Bureau of Plant Industry was inaugurated under authority of Congress in January, 1904, primarily because of the depredations of the Mexican cotton boll weevil in the State of Texas. By the rapid spread of this pest east and north it had…

Building Up a Run-Down Cotton Plantation

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This bulletin is an account of the progress made in three years in changing a run-down cotton plantation into a profitable stock and hay farm. The results obtained from the use of cowpeas and other leguminous crops in restoring the fertility of the land have exceeded the expectations of those in charge of the work. Not only have the crops yielded…

Peanut and Peanut Butter Recipes

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When every food penny has to count, it pays to explore new ways of using such plentiful foods as peanuts and peanut butter in low-cost, nourishing dishes.Peanuts belong to the pea-and-bean family: the legumes — they aren't really nuts at all. But like nuts, they're always popular in salads and sandwiches, cookies, and desserts — as well as just…

Sweet Potato Recipes

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The following are sweet potato recipes tested in the laboratories of the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, They are for six servings:


Wash and dry sweet potatoes of uniform size. Bake in a hot oven (42.5° F.) 40 to 60 minutes or until tender. If you want the skin to be soft, rub a little fat on…

Sweet Potatoes

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The delicate flavor of a sweet potato is lost if it is not cooked properly. Steaming develops and preserves the flavor better than boiling, and baking better than steaming.

A sweet potato cooked quickly is not well cooked. Time is an essential element. Twenty minutes may serve to bake a sweet potato so that a hungry…

Dry Beans, Peas, Lentils: Modern Cookery

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Most cooks are old friends with some particular kind of dry bean or pea, or with the lentil. They like to cook and season it some favorite way.

But in markets today you may find wide variety to choose from: Kidney beans . . . limas . . . Great Northerns . . . pintos . . . pea beans . . . split and whole peas . . . lentils . . . others perhaps.…

The School Garden

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Those who are charged with the direct presentation of school garden work to children will recognize that the point of view for city children must be different from that for country children. As a rule, children in rural districts are familiar with the fundamental operations of the garden — preparation of the soil, planting the seed, and the…

Cultivation and Utilization of Barley

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BARLEY should be more widely grown in the Northern and Western States. It is a protection to our grain supply, as it produces a good, nonglutinous flour and can be milled by wheat mills with little change of machinery.

It is an excellent grain feed for stock, being almost the equal of corn. It, however, competes with corn in few places, as it is…

The Identification of Varieties of Barley

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This bulletin has been prepared primarily to meet a widespread demand for a publication on the forms of barley. Although advantage has been taken of the opportunity to call attention to a number of new forms, the main object has been to satisfy the demand from experiment-station workers and advanced students in agronomy for an outline of the…

Barley: Culture, Uses, and Varieties

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BARLEY should be more widely grown in the Northern and Western States. It is an excellent grain feed for stock, being almost the equal of corn. It, however, competes with corn in few places, as it is mostly grown outside the limits of profitable corn culture. It produces more pounds to the acre than oats or wheat. If necessary, it can be seeded…

Insect Enemies and Diseases of the Tomato

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CLUB MEMBERS need and have asked for simple, reliable instructions for controlling the insect pests and diseases which come to the plants in their club gardens. These instructions are written to aid the club girls of the Southern States in preventing or controlling the damage done by these enemies of their gardens.Since the different types of…

Pruning and Training Tomatoes in the South

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In many parts of the United States tomatoes are pruned and trained. The amount of pruning and the methods of training vary, but the commonest practice is to prune the plant to a single stem and tie it to a stake. There seems to be no general agreement as to the value of the practice.

Arguments for and…

Two Plant Diseases in Hawaii

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Two plant diseases present in these Island, one infesting sugar-cane, the other coffee, are widely distributed wherever these plants are grown and deserve attention in the cultivation of these crops. Their presence need cause no alarm to the producers of either sugar or coffee since both diseases have been well worked out and respond to active…

Preserving Eggs

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EACH BOY OR GIRL who is a member of a poultry club, or in any way interested in poultry keeping, should learn how to candle and preserve eggs. During the late spring and early summer (April, May, and June) eggs usually are abundant and reasonable in price, and that is the time to preserve them for use during the winter, when they are generally…

Painting on the Farm

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THIS BULLETIN describes various kinds of paint and tells how to select the right kind for any purpose. It gives directions for mixing paint on the job, for preparing surfaces, and for applying the paint. Full directions for making and applying several kinds of whitewash are included.This bulletin supersedes Farmers' Bulletin 474, Use of Paint on…

The Dasheen: A Southern Root Crop for Home Use and Market

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Only two distinctly starchy vegetables, the potato and the sweet potato, are commonly grown in the United States. A fall-maturing crop of the same character— the dasheen— was introduced a number of years ago for cultivation in the Southern States, primarily to supplement the small supply of home-grown potatoes. Most of the potatoes used in the far…

Marketing Southern-Grown Sweet Potatoes

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Eleven Southern States produce sugary, moist-fleshed sweet potatoes so unlike the dry, mealy varieties shipped from the northeastern section of the producing area that they are recognized as a distinct class or type on the principal markets of the United States. For many years the sweet potato has been the most important vegetable crop in the…

Marketing Live Stock in the South: Suggestions for Improvement

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THE outlet for southern farmers' live stock lies chiefly with local butchers and shippers, and therefore is limited and often unsatisfactory. Not un- commonly farmers slaughter their animals without previously arranging for the sale of the dressed carcasses and, because of the perishable nature of their product, are forced to sacrifice it on an…

Exercises With Plants and Animals for Southern Rural Schools

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The purpose of this bulletin is to set forth simple exercises with plants and animals arranged after a monthly sequence plan for the first five grades in southern rural schools. The monthly sequence plan is followed so that plants and animals may be studied at a time when they are most interesting. The monthly exercises provide work for each of the…

Is Increased Efficiency in Farming Always a Good Thing?

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The impact of the machine age on farms and cities has been the subject of much discussion. Where do you stand on the following questions?

1. What new machines have been introduced on the farms and in the households of your neighborhood in recent years? What has been their effect?

2. What changes, other than the use of machinery have made…

Farm Practices That Increase Crop Yields in Kentucky and Tennessee

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IN THE LIMESTONE and mountain districts south of the Ohio River there is much land that has been run down by continual cropping without rotation. In some places run-down land is left to grow up in weeds, wild grasses, and brush, a practice known as "resting" the land.

Where this sort of farm management is followed farm manure is largely wasted,…

Farm Household Accounts

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HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES on the farm are very intimately associated with the business of the farm itself. The farm normally supplies much material which otherwise would become a household expense. The household, in turn, very often furnishes board for farm labor, which would otherwise be a farm expense. Merely from the standpoint of keeping track of…

Farm Budgeting

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THE FARMING INDUSTRY of the United States loses many hundred millions of dollars each year because production is overexpanded along some lines and underexpanded along others. These ups and downs in agricultural production are partly the result of changes made by farmers in acreages of crops and numbers of livestock. Changes of this kind are…

Practical Farm Economics

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IN HIS EFFORTS to make his farm pay, the farmer must decide what to produce and how to produce it and what to sell and how to sell it. His success depends on his making the right decisions on these questions. These questions come up nearly every day in the year and decisions must be based on a knowledge of principles and facts and not on some…

Legume Hays for Milk Production

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AN ABUNDANCE of home-grown legume hay establishes a basis for an economical dairy ration.

Legumes are superior to other hays in palatability, in quantity and quality of the proteins furnished, and in content of lime. As a class they yield more nutrients per acre than do nonlegumes, and protein is obtained at a lower cost.

In spite of these…

Feeding Cattle for Beef

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THE FEEDING of cattle for beef production affords one of the most practical ways of disposing of grain and roughages produced on the farm.

This industry favors diversification in agriculture and makes possible a well-balanced distribution of labor throughout the year.

Approximately 75 per cent of the fertilizing constituents of feeds fed to…

Feeding Wheat to Livestock

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IN a general way, and for all-purpose feeding, a pound of cracked wheat or a pound of cracked barley, or a pound of both in any proportion, is equal in feeding value to a pound of corn.

Farmers whose corn crops are short can now save money by substituting wheat and barley, pound for pound, for corn, and in feeding those grains in the same way…

Feeding Chickens

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EFFICIENT FEEDING PRACTICES are necessary to make poultry raising most profitable and to produce the best quality of products.

The feed is the most important cost factor in raising poultry. Therefore the selection of feeds and the method of feeding are very important matters.

In feeding all classes of poultry a proper balance of the various…

A Handbook for Better Feeding of Livestock

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Great numbers of farmers have expressed to the United States Department of Agriculture their interest in problems of better feeding, growth, and development of livestock.

This handbook has been prepared by department feeding specialists for distribution to farmers who desire a handy-sized set of simple rules and reference tables to be followed…

Feeding Cottonseed Products to Livestock

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THE FOLLOWING POINTS have been determined from experiments and practical feeding operations. They should be kept in mind and carefully followed in feeding cottonseed products to live stock:

(1) Do not feed cottonseed meal to young calves.

(2) Horses and pigs should be fed cottonseed products only in small quantities and then with great…

Feeding Grain Sorghums to Livestock

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GRAIN SORGHUMS are the chief cultivated crops produced in the semiarid sections of the southwestern United States.

On account of the dryness of the climate, the lack of transportation facilities, and the distance from markets most of this region can be used only as range for cattle and sheep.

Most of the cattle and sheep in this area must be…

Pork on the Farm: Killing, Curing, and Canning

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EVERY FARM should produce the pork and pork products which are consumed on that farm. Selling hogs and buying pork involves profits, but not for the farmer engaged in the practice.

Home curing of pork is an old practice. It nearly went out of style, but the style is rapidly becoming popular again.

Home-cured pork, fresh-canned pork, sausage,…

Beef on the Farm: Slaughtering, Cutting, Curing

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SLAUGHTERING BEEF on the farm or ranch is the only means of obtaining fresh beef in many localities.

Home dressing of beef often makes it possible to procure meat at a considerable saving.

Blocky, healthy animals, in good condition, yield the most desirable beef.

Simple equipment and methods, described and illustrated in this bulletin,…

What is Farm Management?

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Farm management treats of the business of farming from the following standpoints:

(1) Relative desirability of farming and other lines of business.

(2) Selection of the farm.

(3) Organization and equipment of the farm.

(4) Farm operation.

In the brief consideration that can be given the subject here no attempt will be made to treat…

Farm Practices That Increase Crop Yields: The Gulf Coast Region

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GULF COAST REGION upland soils are ordinarily deficient in nitrogen and need to be supplied with liberal quantities of organic matter if profitable crop yields are to be produced. This condition is most easily and cheaply remedied by growing such legumes as velvet beans, cowpeas, soy beans, bur clover, crimson clover, hairy vetch, and beggar weed,…

Toward Farm Security

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THE CLOSER IN POINT OF TIME one is to a period, the less certain he is that any summary judgment is the correct one. And of course, when one attempts to characterize a period that is just beginning he is, to no small degree, engaging in prophecy. He is so close to events that he often cannot correctly see the "shape of things to come." When time…

A Study of Farming in Southwestern Kentucky

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To be successful as a business, a farm should earn a fair rate of interest on the investment and return to the operator fair wages for labor and management after paying all expenses, including depreciation. In the locality under consideration in this bulletin 5 per cent is assumed to be a fair rate of interest on invested capital. It is just about…

Community Food Preservation Centers

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Community food preservation-families getting together in a neighborly way to can, brine, preserve or store an oversupply for a coming need-is as old as America and as new as all-out defense.

In normal, peaceful years, it is one of this country’s thrifty means of securing an all-the-year supply of good food. It has been proved a good way of…

Preservation of Vegetables by Fermentation and Salting

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AMONG the practical methods of conserving surplus food, especially worthy of consideration at this time, are those based on preservation by fermentation and salting or brining.

Owing to the enormous development of canning in this country during the last generation and the ease with which fresh vegetables may be obtained from some part of the…

Farm Slaughtering and Use of Lamb and Mutton

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THE PRODUCTION of sheep for wool alone is rapidly on the wane in the United States. More and more emphasis is being placed on the production of lamb and mutton for the table. The future success of this industry will depend upon a strong, steady market, based upon an increasing consumption.

Less than 4 per cent of the meat consumed by the average…

Killing Hogs and Curing Pork

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CHOICE HAM AND BREAKFAST BACON can be produced by the farmer for much less than the cost of purchased meat.

The cheapest meat a farmer can use is the product of his own farm.

This is also true of the suburban or town farmer who fattens one or two hogs on kitchen and truck-garden wastes.

Many farmers, for the first time, this year will…

Gardening Instructions for Club Members

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The growing of a tenth-acre garden is a part of the regular four-year program of work of enrolled members of Girls' Gardening and Canning Clubs of the Southern States, and 87,705 such gardens were grown in 1918. In addition, 26,249 twentieth-acre garden plots were grown by junior club members and 221,925 home gardens by women and girls. Since many…

Home Gardening in the South

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A WELL-KEPT vegetable garden is a source not only of profit to the gardener but of pleasure to the entire family. For many vegetables which deteriorate rapidly in quality after being gathered, the only practicable means of securing the best is to grow them at home. This is especially true of garden peas, sweet corn, string beans, green Lima beans,…

The Home Fruit Garden in the Southeastern and Central Southern States

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Well-ripened, sound fruits increase the healthfulness, variety, attractiveness, and palatability of meals. Despite the relatively large available supplies of fruit, many families, especially on farms, do not have adequate quantities in the diet. In almost every part of this region certain fruits and nuts that usually need little or no spraying can…

Winter Gardens

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Need for Winter Garden. Every southern garden should have a supply of lettuce, spinach and radishes throughout the fall and winter and spring, as they can be easily grown and form valuable additions to the usual dry, winter diet. With more of such food products in the diet, there would be less use for spring tonics and other medicines. In addition…

Use of Vegetables from Winter Garden

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Instructions have already gone out for the winter garden and this letter simply follows up that one that you may know the many ways of using the vegetables suggested to be planted in the winter garden. Also the methods for taking care of any surplus you may have.

The Home Garden in the South

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In regions where cotton is the principal crop a well-kept garden is the exception, and even in localities where commercial vegetable production is the main industry there is a scarcity of fresh vegetables during a large part of the year. In fact, no feature of southern agriculture is more neglected than the production of vegetables for home use.…

Utilization of Dried Fruits and Vegetables

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Owing to the present high price of sugar and containers, the drying of fruits and vegetables should be stressed. If properly dried and carefully stored these products may to a large extent take the place of fresh or canned fruits and vegetables They should not be kept indefinitely however, since they deteriorate during long storage. Hence it would…

Lessons on Potatoes for Elementary Rural Schools

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The importance of the potato crop as briefly indicated above and the fact that it can be grown successfully in every State in the Union, should give it a place in courses in general agriculture and farm crops in nearly every school where such subjects are taught. At least one aim in the teaching of agriculture should be the training of farmers for…

Lessons on Dairying for Rural Schools

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There are few branches of agriculture that take as little fertility from the soil and at the same time returns a profit to the farmer as dairy farming. While teaching dairy farming is not the purpose of this bulletin, yet it is the basis of the lessons presented. These lessons present the subject from the standpoint of clean milk production, milk…

Lessons on Cotton for Elementary Schools

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These outlines of lessons on cotton are intended as aids in teaching the subject in the seventh or eighth grades of elementary schools. They should be especially helpful to teachers in rural consolidated schools, where facilities for handling the subject are generally better than in the ordinary one-room country school. However, the teachers in…

Lessons on Corn for Rural Elementary Schools

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For a considerable number of years more attention has been given by farmers to the production and improvement of corn than to any other grain or general farm crop, yet for no 10-year period has the average corn yield of the United States exceeded 28 bushels per acre. No State has averaged for any year over 54 bushels per acre, yet in practically…

Lessons in Elementary Agriculture for Alabama Schools

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The fact that many States now require the teaching of agriculture in the elementary grades makes it important that much attention be given to the subject matter. This bulletin presents lessons in agriculture adapted to the conditions in Alabama. The purpose is to suggest a plan by which the States may adapt instruction in agriculture to local…

School Gardens

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During the past few years there has been a growing interest in school garden work in this country. While the movement here is comparatively new, it has for a long time been a feature of the educational work in continental Europe. It is obvious that no set rules can be laid down for the management of a school garden. In the heart of a city the work…

The Teaching of Agriculture in the Rural Common Schools

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In accordance with the apparent wishes of the association as expressed in an informal discussion of the report of this committee, at the meeting in Washington last November, this ninth report of the committee on methods of teaching agriculture is devoted to a discussion on the feasibility of teaching agriculture in the rural common schools, and…

Legumes in Soil Conservation Practices

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Maintenance of soil productivity is to a large extent bound up with the maintenance of organic matter, which serves to decrease the danger from erosion. Legumes take a prominent place in maintaining soil productivity. Winter legumes are most commonly depended on in the South; red clover and sweetclover in the North. Turning these crops under,…

Soil Productivity as Affected by Crop Rotation

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A STUDY of the long-continued soil-fertility experiments of this country and of England, made by the Department of Agriculture. 1 has brought out the following important facts about crop rotation in its relation to soil productivity, as determined by the soil conditions under which these experiments are conducted:

(1) In general, crop rotation…

A Study of the Value of Crop Rotation in Relation to Soil Productivity

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Two methods have been employed in evaluating the effectiveness of rotation in crop production, and in determining the additive effects of rotation and the use of fertilizers when these two farm practices are conjoined. Although in one method the evaluations are based on the increases over the yields obtained on check plots in continuous culture and…

Soil Conservation

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How to restore and maintain the productivity of the soil is the most important phase of the conservation problem. We are no longer a new nation. We have deluded ourselves with the idea that we have unbounded resources in land, in forests, in mineral wealth. We have been prodigal in the utilization of these, resources. We must now pay the penalty of…

A Study of Crop Yields and Soil Composition in Relation to Soil Productivity

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A careful study of the data which have been presented appears to justify two conclusions.

First. That the productivity of the newer agricultural soils of the United States and of the older agricultural soils of Europe, taken as a whole and for a nation, are not declining, as is popularly supposed. Individual farms deteriorate and soils wear out…

Renovation of Worn-Out Soils

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We may sum up the matter briefly thus: To build up and maintain fertility in the soil, feed a large part of the crops and return the manure to the land. If manure is not available, plow under crops grown for the purpose. Plow deep (but do not subsoil). Grow leguminous crops for the nitrogen they add to the soil.

Commercial fertilizers and lime…

New Landmarks of Soil Conservation

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The wealth of this Nation is rooted in the soil. Thirty million people earn their living directly from farms and ranches. The remaining 100 million Americans depend upon the soil for most of their food, much of their clothing, and many other necessities.

Today the soil of this Nation is being wasted away. Erosion is steadily washing good soil…

The Cotton-and-Tobacco South

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Some of the Nation's richest land, and some of its poorest, lies in the 13 cotton - and - tobacco States: 28 percent of the country's area, a region rich in natural resources, advantages of climate, population, and potentialities.

Industry is growing in the South, but the region still is predominantly agricultural. In addition to cotton,…

Soil Defense in the South

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This bulletin describes farming practices that conserve soil and how such practices may he applied to farms in a large part of the South. Its scope is limited to that part of the Cotton Belt extending west from the Georgia Alabama line to central Texas and southern Oklahoma. Its subject matter is based largely on the soil conservation practices…

Farm Practice in the Use of Commercial Fertilizers in the South Atlantic States

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(1) Commercial fertilizers are expensive. Accurate information is needed for their economic use.

(2) With a good rotation, deep and thorough tillage, and the use of green manures, legumes, and winter cover crops, the quantity of commercial fertilizers required for a given crop yield can be considerably reduced.

(3) The character of…

Soils of the Prairie Regions of Alabama and Mississippi and Their Use for Alfalfa

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Throughout the prairie belts of central Alabama and northwestern and central Mississippi occur extensive areas of a dark-colored upland calcareous clay soil which, in addition to being admirably suited to the production of cotton, corn, and grass, is highly adapted to alfalfa.

This upland type of "black prairie land" has been classified by the…

Dietary Studies With Reference to the Food of the Negro in Alabama in 1895 and 1896

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The purpose of this bulletin is to give an account of studies of the food and nutrition of negroes in the neighborhood of Tuskegee, Ala. The investigation was made during the spring of 1895 and the winter of 1895-96, with the cooperation of the Normal and Agricultural Institute at Tuskegee and of the Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College at…

Favorite Southern Recipes

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Two cups of milk, two tablespoonsful of flour, two tablespoonsful of butter. Scald milk, melt the butter, stir the flour in the melted butter ; do not cook. Gradually add part of hot milk, stirring well ; add remainder of milk, cook over hot water. This sauce may be used as the foundation of soups. — Mrs. A. Johnson, Lyons,…

Attractive Ways of Using Tomatoes

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The following have been selected from the many possible recipes for using tomatoes as adapted particularly to the utilization of the tomato pulp left after extracting the seed. It is intended to accompany circular letter XS-36, on "Method of Saving Wilt Resistant Tomato Seed".

Experiments With Fall-Sown Oats in the South

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It is recognized that fall-sown oats succeed better than spring-sown oats in most districts of the South. The one disadvantage which has retarded the growing of the crop more than any other has been occasional loss by winterkilling. The development of hardier and otherwise more satisfactory varieties and the determination of better cultural…

Winter Oats for the South

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Only a small portion of the area of the Southern States is devoted to the production of oats. The average production for the past ten years of 16 States was about 870,000,000 bushels, or 8.5 per cent of the crop of the United States. The average acre yield was 21.8 bushels and the average acre value $10.09.

Winter oats are a valuable crop for…

Barley Culture in the Southern States

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Barley, although it ranks fourth among the cereals in the United States, is but little cultivated in the South for grain.

As a true awnless barley has been developed the word "hooded" is proposed for the beardless barleys now grown.

The Tennessee Winter variety is the most profitable barley to grow in the South.

Winter hooded and spring…

Wheat Growing in the Southeastern States

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THE FARMERS in the six Southeastern States- Tennessee, North Carolina, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina are encouraged to increase their wheat acreage on land suitable for the crop, as it leads to crop diversification and provides home-grown bread.

The sandy loam, silt loam, loam, and many of the clay soils when well drained…

Corn Culture in the Southeastern States

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The recommendations and suggestions made in this bulletin apply firstly to the cotton-growing sections of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama.

Drainage and coarse stable manure should be used to prevent the irregular patches in the field in which little or no corn grows.

More of the rainfall is retained when the land…

Growing Corn in the Southeastern States

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In the southeastern states larger yields of corn will be produced at less cost by giving greater attention to the following factors:

(1) Drainage and humus.

(2) Deep preparation of the land.

(3) Judicious use of commercial fertilizers.

(4) Special corn machinery.

(5) Adjustment of the cultural method to meet the special requirements…

The Corn Root-Worms

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The second species is the Southern corn root-worm (Diabrotica 12 punctata 01). It occurs generally throughout nearly the whole of the United States, but fortunately its injurious range is somewhat closely restricted to the southern States, though in recent years it is showing a disposition to extend depredations into more northern regions.


Corn Culture in the South

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The South has special advantages for the raising of corn, in the long season during which it may be grown and in the ready sale for the crop at remunerative prices. Planting may be done as early as February in the Gulf States, or it may be deferred until after a crop of oats or clover has been gathered from the land in June. Killing frosts rarely…

Commercial Varieties of Alfalfa

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The commercial alfalfas of this country may be divided into five somewhat distinct groups, each containing strains or varieties that vary considerably within themselves. These groups may be described briefly as follows:

The common group includes the ordinary purple-flowered, smooth alfalfa, of which there are numerous regional strains generally…

How to Grow Alfalfa

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ALFALFA is a perennial legume belonging to the same family as peas, beans, and clover. The leading commercial varieties of alfalfa in the United States are the Common, Grimm, Turkestan, and Peruvian. Grimm alfalfa is superior to the Common in the North, and Peruvian is preferable for the Southwest.

Alfalfa succeeds best in a dry climate where…

Growing Alfalfa

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ALFALFA is a perennial legume belonging to the same family as peas, beans, and clover.

The leading commercial varieties of alfalfa in the United States are the Common, Grimm, and Peruvian. Grimm alfalfa is superior to the Common in the North, and less hardy varieties are preferable for the South.

Alfalfa succeeds best in a dry climate where…

Alfalfa Varieties in the United States

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THE COMMERCIAL ALFALFAS of the United States may be divided into four somewhat distinct groups, each containing strains or varieties that vary considerably within themselves: (1) The common alfalfa group, (2) the Turkistan group, (3) the variegated group, and (4) the nonhardy group.In many parts of the United States tests have been going on for…


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The history of alfalfa in the Eastern States runs back for at least two centuries, as the colonists made repeated attempts to establish it.

Under the name of "lucern" it had been introduced into England about 1650. The attempts on the part of the American colonists to establish it were unsuccessful. The limestone region of central New York…

Utilization of Alfalfa

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HEREIN the uses of alfalfa are set forth, particularly its use as a forage crop, and suggestions are offered that may be helpful in making its utilization more efficient and more generally satisfactory.

Recent experiments indicate that larger yields of hay result and stands are maintained in better condition when the cutting is delayed until the…

Facts About Cotton

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COTTON is the great crop of the South. It is grown on about 2 million farms in the southern part of our country. The average size of the crop is about 13 million bales of cotton lint, each weighing about 500 pounds, and about 6 million tons of cottonseed.

Large quantities of cotton are grown in other countries, too — chiefly India, China, Egypt,…

Common Errors in Cotton Production

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IMPROVEMENT of cotton production in the United States depends largely upon getting rid of numerous errors in production practice which are widely current and commonly overlooked, even among well-informed people.

General disregard of quality in cotton buying, effects of mixing and changing seed, of planting inferior varieties, and of carelessness…

Cotton Production

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Pests and Diseases of Cotton

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Lessons on Cotton for the Rural Common Schools

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In the cotton States the importance of elementary agriculture as a school subject is very generally recognized, and it is now being taught to a greater or less extent in a large proportion of the rural schools. More and more it is becoming a part of the daily program of the schools.

It is hoped that these lessons, exercises, and references on…

Peanut Growing

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PEANUTS are an important farm crop throughout the greater part of the Southeastern States. The peanut is a native of the Tropics and was introduced into North America during the early colonization period, but its use has increased very greatly during recent years. Peanuts should be grown in a definite rotation, including at least two…

Peanut Growing for Profit

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PEANUTS have become one of the best money crops for use in rotation with cotton and other farm crops in the fight against the boll weevil. Until recently peanuts were grown in the greater part of the Gulf coast region primarily for stock feeding, but now they are of commercial importance in no less than 12 Southern States.

Good seed, proper…

Use Peanut Flour to Save Wheat

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EVERY AVAILABLE SUBSTITUTE for wheat flour must be used in cooking to help win the war. The Southern States have long been familiar with the use of crushed or ground peanuts in breads, muffins, and biscuits. This has always meant a saving of wheat and should continue wherever the flour made by grinding the press-cake is not available. The advantage…

By-Products From Crushing Peanuts

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The popular idea seems to be that the peanut is marketed chiefly in the roasted form. As a matter of fact, however, these nuts are used principally in making salted peanuts, peanut butter, and confectioners' and bakers' goods, and in the manufacture of oil and meal. The peanut industry was of little commercial prominence until 1870, when it began…

Peanut Oil

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A large increase in the acreage of peanuts in the South, especially in the territory infested with the cotton boll weevil, has led owners of oil mills, farmers, merchants, and bankers to look for a new outlet for a part, at least, of the peanut crop. As a result there has arisen during recent years considerable interest in the experimental…

Peanut Butter

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The growing popularity of peanut butter as a food has led to many inquiries regarding the methods employed in its manufacture. Peanut butter is in reality a very simple preparation, consisting merely of fresh-roasted peanuts ground finely and salted to suit the taste. Several large factories and a large number of smaller ones are now devoted to the…

The Peanut

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It is not definitely known when and where the peanut was first cultivated. Several allied species of plants are natives of Brazil, and there is every indication that the common peanut originally came from tropical America. Peanuts were introduced into the United States during the earlier days of colonization, but did not become of commercial…